Clustered 11q23 and 22q11 breakpoints and 3:1 meiotic malsegregation in multiple unrelated t(11;22) families.
ABSTRACT: The t(11;22) is the only known recurrent, non-Robertsonian constitutional translocation. We have analyzed t(11;22) balanced-translocation carriers from multiple unrelated families by FISH, to localize the t(11;22) breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In 23 unrelated balanced-translocation carriers, the breakpoint was localized within a 400-kb interval between D22S788 (N41) and ZNF74, on 22q11. Also, 13 of these 23 carriers were tested with probes from chromosome 11, and, in each, the breakpoint was localized between D11S1340 and APOA1, on 11q23, to a region
Project description:Derivative 22 (der) syndrome is a rare disorder associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including profound mental retardation, preauricular skin tags or pits, and conotruncal heart defects. It can occur in offspring of carriers of the constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) translocation, owing to a 3:1 meiotic malsegregation event resulting in partial trisomy of chromosomes 11 and 22. The trisomic region on chromosome 22 overlaps the region hemizygously deleted in another congenital anomaly disorder, velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS). Most patients with VCFS/DGS have a similar 3-Mb deletion, whereas some have a nested distal deletion endpoint resulting in a 1.5-Mb deletion, and a few rare patients have unique deletions. To define the interval on 22q11 containing the t(11;22) breakpoint, haplotype analysis and FISH mapping were performed for five patients with der(22) syndrome. Analysis of all the patients was consistent with 3:1 meiotic malsegregation in the t(11;22) carrier parent. FISH-mapping studies showed that the t(11;22) breakpoint occurred in the same interval as the 1.5-Mb distal deletion breakpoint for VCFS. The deletion breakpoint of one VCFS patient with an unbalanced t(18;22) translocation also occurred in the same region. Hamster-human somatic hybrid cell lines from a patient with der(22) syndrome and a patient with VCFS showed that the breakpoints occurred in an interval containing low-copy repeats, distal to RANBP1 and proximal to ZNF74. The presence of low-copy repetitive sequences may confer susceptibility to chromosome rearrangements. A 1.5-Mb region of overlap on 22q11 in both syndromes suggests the presence of dosage-dependent genes in this interval.
Project description:Emanuel syndrome (ES) is a rare chromosomal disorder that is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and developmental disabilities. Affected children are usually identified in the newborn period as the offspring of balanced (11;22) translocation carriers. Carriers of this balanced translocation usually have no clinical symptoms and are often identified after the birth of offspring with an unbalanced form of the translocation, the supernumerary der(22) t(11;22) syndrome. We report a 3-year-old boy with the t(11;22)(q23;q11) chromosome, transmitted in an unbalanced fashion from his mother. He has several developmental delays; he is not independently ambulatory and language is significantly impaired. Using his peripheral blood, karyotyping was performed to define his multiple congenital anomalies, revealing the following chromosomal abnormality: 47, XY, +der(22)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.2). To ascertain the origin and trait of this supernumerary marker chromosome [der(22)t(11;22)(q23.3;q11.2)], karyotyping of his parents was performed. The mother was found to be a balanced carrier: 46, XX, t(11;22) (q23.3; q11.2).
Project description:Structural chromosomal rearrangements occur commonly in the general population. Individuals that carry a balanced translocation are at risk of having unbalanced offspring; therefore, the frequency of translocations in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions is higher than that in the general population. The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the most common recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans and may serve as a model to determine the mechanism that causes recurrent meiotic translocations. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat, termed "LCR22." To define the breakpoint on 11q23 and to ascertain whether this region shares homology with LCR22 sequences, we performed haplotype analysis on patients with der(22) syndrome. We found that the breakpoint on 11q23 occurred between two genetic markers, D11S1340 and APOC3-tetra, both being present within a single bacterial-artificial-chromosome clone. To determine whether the breakpoint occurred within the same region among a larger set of carriers, we performed FISH mapping studies. The breakpoints were all within the same clone, suggesting that this region may harbor sequences that are prone to breakage. We narrowed the breakpoint interval, in both derivative chromosomes from two unrelated carriers, to a 190-bp, AT-rich repeat, which indicates that this repeat may mediate recombination events on chromosome 11. Interestingly, the LCR22s harbor AT-rich repeats, suggesting that this sequence motif may mediate recombination events in nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Project description:The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the only known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. Offspring are susceptible to der(22) syndrome, a severe congenital anomaly disorder caused by 3&rcolon;1 meiotic nondisjunction events. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat termed "LCR22" and within an AT-rich repeat on 11q23. The LCR22s are implicated in mediating different rearrangements on 22q11, leading to velocardiofacial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome and cat-eye syndrome by homologous recombination mechanisms. The LCR22s contain AT-rich repetitive sequences, suggesting that such repeats may mediate the t(11;22) translocation. To determine the molecular basis of the translocation, we cloned and sequenced the t(11;22) breakpoint in the derivative 11 and 22 chromosomes in 13 unrelated carriers, including two de novo cases and der(22) syndrome offspring. We found that, in all cases examined, the reciprocal exchange occurred between similar AT-rich repeats on both chromosomes 11q23 and 22q11. To understand the mechanism, we examined the sequence of the breakpoint intervals in the derivative chromosomes and compared this with the deduced normal chromosomal sequence. A palindromic AT-rich sequence with a near-perfect hairpin could form, by intrastrand base-pairing, on the parental chromosomes. The sequence of the breakpoint junction in both derivatives indicates that the exchange events occurred at the center of symmetry of the palindromes, and this resulted in small, overlapping staggered deletions in this region among the different carriers. On the basis of previous studies performed in diverse organisms, we hypothesize that double-strand breaks may occur in the center of the palindrome, the tip of the putative hairpin, leading to illegitimate recombination events between similar AT-rich sequences on chromosomes 11 and 22, resulting in deletions and loss of the palindrome, which then could stabilize the DNA structure.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of chromosome segregation patterns in cleavage stage embryos obtained from male carriers of Robertsonian (ROB) and reciprocal (REC) translocations undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) at our reproductive center. We used FISH to analyze chromosome segregation in 308 day 3 cleavage stage embryos obtained from 26 patients. The percentage of embryos consistent with normal or balanced segregation (55.1% vs. 27.1%) and clinical pregnancy (62.5% vs. 19.2%) rates were higher in ROB than the REC translocation carriers. Involvement of non-acrocentric chromosome(s) or terminal breakpoint(s) in reciprocal translocations was associated with an increase in the percent of embryos consistent with adjacent 1 but with a decrease in 3?1 segregation. Similar results were obtained in the analysis of nontransferred embryos donated for research. 3?1 segregation was the most frequent segregation type in both day 3 (31%) and spare (35%) embryos obtained from carriers of t(11;22)(q23;q11), the only non-random REC with the same breakpoint reported in a large number of unrelated families mainly identified by the birth of a child with derivative chromosome 22. These results suggest that chromosome segregation patterns in day 3 and nontransferred embryos obtained from male translocation carriers vary with the type of translocation and involvement of acrocentric chromosome(s) or terminal breakpoint(s). These results should be helpful in estimating reproductive success in translocation carriers undergoing PGD.
Project description:To study the effect of balanced chromosomal rearrangements on gene expression, we compared the transcriptomes of cell lines from control and t(11;22)(q23;q11) individuals. This translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 is the only recurrent constitutional non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. The number of differentially expressed transcripts between the translocated and control cohort is significantly higher than that observed between control samples alone, suggesting that balanced rearrangements have a greater effect on gene expression than normal variation. Altered expression is not limited to genes close to the translocation breakpoint suggesting that a long-range effect is operating. Indeed we show that the nuclear position of the derivative chromosome is altered compared to the normal chromosomes. Our results are consistent with recent studies that indicate a functional role for nuclear position in regulating the expression of some genes in mammalian cells. They may also have implications on reproductive separation, as we show that reciprocal translocations not only provide partial isolation for speciation but also significant changes in transcriptional regulation through alteration of nuclear chromosomes territories. Keywords: Genetic modification Overall design: Comparison of the transcriptomes of cell lines from control, t(11;22)(q23;q11) and Emanuel syndrome individuals.
Project description:We have demonstrated that the breakpoints of the constitutional t(11;22) are located at palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) on 11q23 and 22q11. As a mechanism for this recurrent translocation, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that induces the genomic instability leading to the rearrangement. A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) had previously been found to have a constitutional t(17;22) disrupting the NF1 gene on 17q11. We have localized the breakpoint on 22q11 within the 22q11-specific low-copy repeat where the breakpoints of the constitutional t(11;22)s reside, implying a similar palindrome-mediated mechanism for generation of the t(17;22). The NF1 gene contains a 195-bp PATRR within intron 31. We have isolated the junction fragments from both the der(17) and the der(22). The breakpoint on 17q11 is close to the center of the PATRR. A published breakpoint of an additional NF1-afflicted patient with a constitutional t(17;22) is also located close to the center of the same PATRR. Our data lend additional support to the hypothesis that PATRR-mediated genomic instability can lead to a variety of translocations.
Project description:The 22q11 region is involved in chromosomal rearrangements that lead to altered gene dosage, resulting in genomic disorders that are characterized by mental retardation and/or congenital malformations. Three such disorders-cat-eye syndrome (CES), der(22) syndrome, and velocardiofacial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS)-are associated with four, three, and one dose, respectively, of parts of 22q11. The critical region for CES lies centromeric to the deletion region of VCFS/DGS, although, in some cases, the extra material in CES extends across the VCFS/DGS region. The der(22) syndrome region overlaps both the CES region and the VCFS/DGS region. Molecular approaches have revealed a set of common chromosome breakpoints that are shared between the three disorders, implicating specific mechanisms that cause these rearrangements. Most VCFS/DGS and CES rearrangements are likely to occur by homologous recombination events between blocks of low-copy repeats (e.g., LCR22), whereas nonhomologous recombination mechanisms lead to the constitutional t(11;22) translocation. Meiotic nondisjunction events in carriers of the t(11;22) translocation can then lead to offspring with der(22) syndrome. The molecular basis of the clinical phenotype of these genomic disorders has also begun to be addressed. Analysis of both the genomic sequence for the 22q11 interval and the orthologous regions in the mouse has identified >24 genes that are shared between VCFS/DGS and der(22) syndrome and has identified 14 putative genes that are shared between CES and der(22) syndrome. The ability to manipulate the mouse genome aids in the identification of candidate genes in these three syndromes. Research on genomic disorders on 22q11 will continue to expand our knowledge of the mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements and the molecular basis of their phenotypic consequences.
Project description:It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:The t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.2) has been identified as one of several recurrent constitutional translocations mediated by palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs). Although the breakage on 22q11 utilizes the same PATRR as that of the more prevalent constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11.2), the breakpoint region on 8q24 has not been elucidated in detail since the analysis of palindromic sequence is technically challenging. RESULTS:In this study, the entire 8q24 breakpoint region has been resolved by next generation sequencing. Eight polymorphic alleles were identified and compared with the junction sequences of previous and two recently identified t(8;22) cases . All of the breakpoints were found to be within the PATRRs on chromosomes 8 and 22 (PATRR8 and PATRR22), but the locations were different among cases at the level of nucleotide resolution. The translocations were always found to arise on symmetric PATRR8 alleles with breakpoints at the center of symmetry. The translocation junction is often accompanied by symmetric deletions at the center of both PATRRs. Rejoining occurs with minimal homology between the translocation partners. Remarkably, comparison of der (8) to der(22) sequences shows identical breakpoint junctions between them, which likely represent products of two independent events on the basis of a classical model. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest the hypothesis that interactions between the two PATRRs prior to the translocation event might trigger illegitimate recombination resulting in the recurrent palindrome-mediated translocation.