A common breakpoint on 11q23 in carriers of the constitutional t(11;22) translocation.
ABSTRACT: Structural chromosomal rearrangements occur commonly in the general population. Individuals that carry a balanced translocation are at risk of having unbalanced offspring; therefore, the frequency of translocations in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions is higher than that in the general population. The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the most common recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans and may serve as a model to determine the mechanism that causes recurrent meiotic translocations. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat, termed "LCR22." To define the breakpoint on 11q23 and to ascertain whether this region shares homology with LCR22 sequences, we performed haplotype analysis on patients with der(22) syndrome. We found that the breakpoint on 11q23 occurred between two genetic markers, D11S1340 and APOC3-tetra, both being present within a single bacterial-artificial-chromosome clone. To determine whether the breakpoint occurred within the same region among a larger set of carriers, we performed FISH mapping studies. The breakpoints were all within the same clone, suggesting that this region may harbor sequences that are prone to breakage. We narrowed the breakpoint interval, in both derivative chromosomes from two unrelated carriers, to a 190-bp, AT-rich repeat, which indicates that this repeat may mediate recombination events on chromosome 11. Interestingly, the LCR22s harbor AT-rich repeats, suggesting that this sequence motif may mediate recombination events in nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Project description:The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the only known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. Offspring are susceptible to der(22) syndrome, a severe congenital anomaly disorder caused by 3&rcolon;1 meiotic nondisjunction events. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat termed "LCR22" and within an AT-rich repeat on 11q23. The LCR22s are implicated in mediating different rearrangements on 22q11, leading to velocardiofacial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome and cat-eye syndrome by homologous recombination mechanisms. The LCR22s contain AT-rich repetitive sequences, suggesting that such repeats may mediate the t(11;22) translocation. To determine the molecular basis of the translocation, we cloned and sequenced the t(11;22) breakpoint in the derivative 11 and 22 chromosomes in 13 unrelated carriers, including two de novo cases and der(22) syndrome offspring. We found that, in all cases examined, the reciprocal exchange occurred between similar AT-rich repeats on both chromosomes 11q23 and 22q11. To understand the mechanism, we examined the sequence of the breakpoint intervals in the derivative chromosomes and compared this with the deduced normal chromosomal sequence. A palindromic AT-rich sequence with a near-perfect hairpin could form, by intrastrand base-pairing, on the parental chromosomes. The sequence of the breakpoint junction in both derivatives indicates that the exchange events occurred at the center of symmetry of the palindromes, and this resulted in small, overlapping staggered deletions in this region among the different carriers. On the basis of previous studies performed in diverse organisms, we hypothesize that double-strand breaks may occur in the center of the palindrome, the tip of the putative hairpin, leading to illegitimate recombination events between similar AT-rich sequences on chromosomes 11 and 22, resulting in deletions and loss of the palindrome, which then could stabilize the DNA structure.
Project description:The t(11;22) is the only known recurrent, non-Robertsonian constitutional translocation. We have analyzed t(11;22) balanced-translocation carriers from multiple unrelated families by FISH, to localize the t(11;22) breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In 23 unrelated balanced-translocation carriers, the breakpoint was localized within a 400-kb interval between D22S788 (N41) and ZNF74, on 22q11. Also, 13 of these 23 carriers were tested with probes from chromosome 11, and, in each, the breakpoint was localized between D11S1340 and APOA1, on 11q23, to a region </=185 kb. Thus, the breakpoints on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22 are clustered in multiple unrelated families. Supernumerary-der(22)t(11;22) syndrome can occur in the progeny of balanced-t(11;22) carriers, because of malsegregation of the der(22). There has been speculation regarding the mechanism by which the malsegregation occurs. To elucidate this mechanism, we have analyzed 16 of the t(11;22) families, using short tandem-repeat-polymorphism markers on both chromosome 11 and chromosome 22. In all informative cases the proband received two of three alleles, for markers above the breakpoint on chromosome 22 and below the breakpoint on chromosome 11, from the t(11;22)-carrier parent. These data strongly suggest that 3:1 meiosis I malsegregation in the t(11;22) balanced-translocation-carrier parent is the mechanism in all 16 families. Taken together, these results establish that the majority of t(11;22) translocations occur within the same genomic intervals and that the majority of supernumerary-der(22) offspring result from a 3:1 meiosis I malsegregation in the balanced-translocation carrier.
Project description:Two known recurrent constitutional translocations, t(11;22) and t(17;22), as well as a non-recurrent t(4;22), display derivative chromosomes that have joined to a common site within the low copy repeat B (LCR-B) region of 22q11.2. This breakpoint is located between two AT-rich inverted repeats that form a nearly perfect palindrome. Breakpoints within the 11q23, 17q11 and 4q35 partner chromosomes also fall near the center of palindromic sequences. In the present work the breakpoints of a fourth translocation involving LCR-B, a balanced ependymoma-associated t(1;22), were characterized not only to localize this junction relative to known genes, but also to further understand the mechanism underlying these rearrangements. FISH mapping was used to localize the 22q11.2 breakpoint to LCR-B and the 1p21 breakpoint to single BAC clones. STS mapping narrowed the 1p21.2 breakpoint to a 1990 bp AT-rich region, and junction fragments were amplified by nested PCR. Junction fragment-derived sequence indicates that the 1p21.2 breakpoint splits a 278 nt palindrome capable of forming stem-loop secondary structure. In contrast, the 1p21.2 reference genomic sequence from clones in the database does not exhibit this configuration, suggesting a predisposition for regional genomic instability perhaps etiologic for this rearrangement. Given its similarity to known chromosomal fragile site (FRA) sequences, this polymorphic 1p21.2 sequence may represent one of the FRA1 loci. Comparative analysis of the secondary structure of sequences surrounding translocation breakpoints that involve LCR-B with those not involving this region indicate a unique ability of the former to form stem-loop structures. The relative likelihood of forming these configurations appears to be related to the rate of translocation occurrence. Further analysis suggests that constitutional translocations in general occur between sequences of similar melting temperature and propensity for secondary structure.
Project description:We have demonstrated that the breakpoints of the constitutional t(11;22) are located at palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) on 11q23 and 22q11. As a mechanism for this recurrent translocation, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that induces the genomic instability leading to the rearrangement. A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) had previously been found to have a constitutional t(17;22) disrupting the NF1 gene on 17q11. We have localized the breakpoint on 22q11 within the 22q11-specific low-copy repeat where the breakpoints of the constitutional t(11;22)s reside, implying a similar palindrome-mediated mechanism for generation of the t(17;22). The NF1 gene contains a 195-bp PATRR within intron 31. We have isolated the junction fragments from both the der(17) and the der(22). The breakpoint on 17q11 is close to the center of the PATRR. A published breakpoint of an additional NF1-afflicted patient with a constitutional t(17;22) is also located close to the center of the same PATRR. Our data lend additional support to the hypothesis that PATRR-mediated genomic instability can lead to a variety of translocations.
Project description:Recently, it has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability contributes to a diverse group of genomic rearrangements including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. One of the best studied examples is the recurrent t(11;22) constitutional translocation in humans that has been well documented to be mediated by palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) on chromosomes 11q23 and 22q11. De novo examples of the translocation are detected at a high frequency in sperm samples from normal healthy males, but not in lymphoblasts or fibroblasts. Cloned breakpoint sequences preferentially form a cruciform configuration in vitro. Analysis of the junction fragments implicates frequent double-strand-breaks (DSBs) at the center of both palindromic regions, followed by repair through the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. We propose that the PATRR adopts a cruciform structure in male meiotic cells, creating genomic instability that leads to the recurrent translocation.
Project description:Translocation is one of the most frequently occurring human chromosomal aberrations. The constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11), which is the only known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation, represents a good model for studying translocations in humans. Here we demonstrate polymorphisms of the palindromic sequence at the t(11;22) breakpoint that affect the frequency of de novo translocations in sperm from normal males. A typical allele consists of a perfect palindrome, producing ~10-5 de novo t(11;22) translocations. Alleles with an asymmetric center do not form the t(11;22). Our data show the importance of genome sequence on chromosomal rearrangements, a class of human mutation that is thought to be random.
Project description:The constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) is a well-known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans. Although translocations generally occur in a random fashion, the break points of t(11;22)s are concentrated within several hundred base pairs on 11q23 and 22q11. These regions are characterized by palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs), which appear to be responsible for the genomic instability. Translocation-specific PCR detects de novo t(11;22)s in sperm from healthy males at a frequency of 1/10(4)-10(5), but never in lymphoblasts, fibroblasts or other human somatic cell lines. This suggests that the generation of t(11;22) rearrangement is linked to gametogenesis, although female germ cells have not been tested. Here, we have studied eight cases of de novo t(11;22) to determine the parental origin of the translocation using the polymorphisms on the relevant PATRRs. All of the eight translocations were found to be of paternal origin. This result implicates a possible novel mechanism of sperm-specific generation of palindrome-mediated chromosomal translocations.
Project description:Constitutional translocations at the same 22q11.21 low copy repeat B (LCR-B) breakpoint involved in the recurrent t(11;22) are relatively abundant. A novel 46,XY,t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) rearrangement was investigated to determine whether the recurrent LCR-B breakpoint is involved. Investigations demonstrated an inversion of the 3Mb region typically deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The 22q11.21 inversion appears to be mediated by low copy repeats, and is presumed to have taken place prior to translocation with 8q24.13. Despite predictions based on inversions observed in other chromosomes harboring low copy repeats, this 22q11.2 inversion has not been observed previously. The current studies utilize novel laser microdissection and MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) approaches, as adjuncts to FISH, to map the breakpoints of the complex rearrangements of 22q11.21 and 8q24.21. The t(8;22) occurs between the recurrent site on 22q11.21 and an AT-rich site at 8q24.13, making it the fifth different chromosomal locus characterized at the nucleotide level engaged in a translocation with the unstable recurrent breakpoint at 22q11.21. Like the others, this breakpoint occurs at the center of a palindromic sequence. This sequence appears capable of forming a perfect 145 bp stem-loop. Remarkably, this site appears to have been involved in a previously reported t(3;8) occurring between 8q24.13 and FRA3B on 3p14.2. Further, the fragile site-like nature of all of the breakpoint sites involved in translocations with the recurrent site on 22q11.21, suggests a mechanism based on delay of DNA replication in the initiation of these chromosomal rearrangements.
Project description:It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.
Project description:Although balanced translocations are among the most common human chromosomal aberrations, the constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11) is the only known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation. Evidence indicates that de novo formation of the t(11;22) occurs during meiosis. To test the hypothesis that spatial proximity of chromosomes 11 and 22 in meiotic prophase oocytes and spermatocytes plays a role in the rearrangement, the positions of the 11q23 and 22q11 translocation breakpoints were examined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with use of DNA probes for these sites demonstrates that 11q23 is closer to 22q11 in meiosis than to a control at 6q26. Although chromosome 21p11, another control, often lies as close to 11q23 as does 22q11 during meiosis, chromosome 21 rarely rearranges with 11q23, and the DNA sequence of chromosome 21 appears to be less susceptible than 22q11 to double-strand breaks (DSBs). It has been suggested that the rearrangement recurs as a result of the palindromic AT-rich repeats at both 11q23 and 22q11, which extrude hairpin structures that are susceptible to DSBs. To determine whether the DSBs at these sites coincide with normal hotspots of meiotic recombination, immunocytochemical mapping of MLH1, a protein involved in crossing over, was employed. The results indicate that the translocation breakpoints do not coincide with recombination hotspots and therefore are unlikely to be the result of meiotic programmed DSBs, although MRE11 is likely to be involved. Previous analysis indicated that the DSBs appear to be repaired by a mechanism similar to nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), although NHEJ is normally suppressed during meiosis. Taken together, these studies support the hypothesis that physical proximity between 11q23 and 22q11--but not typical meiotic recombinational activity in meiotic prophase--plays an important role in the generation of the constitutional t(11;22) rearrangement.