Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define different late endocytic fusion events.
ABSTRACT: Both heterotypic and homotypic fusion events are required to deliver endocytosed macromolecules to lysosomes and remodel late endocytic organelles. A trans-SNARE complex consisting of Q-SNAREs syntaxin 7, Vti1b and syntaxin 8 and the R-SNARE VAMP8 has been shown by others to be responsible for homotypic fusion of late endosomes. Using antibody inhibition experiments in rat liver cell-free systems, we confirmed this result, but found that the same Q-SNAREs can combine with an alternative R-SNARE, namely VAMP7, for heterotypic fusion between late endosomes and lysosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated separate syntaxin 7 complexes with either VAMP7 or VAMP8 in solubilized rat liver membranes. Additionally, overexpression of the N-terminal domain of VAMP7, in cultured fibroblastic cells, inhibited the mixing of a preloaded lysosomal content marker with a marker delivered to late endosomes. These data show that combinatorial interactions of SNAREs determine whether late endosomes undergo homotypic or heterotypic fusion events.
Project description:The macropinocytic pathway in Dictyostelium discoideum is organized linearly. After actin-driven internalization, fluid material passes sequentially from endosomes to lysosomes, where molecules are degraded and absorbed. Residual material is exocytosed via post-lysosomal compartments. Syntaxin 7 is a SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) protein that is present and active in D. discoideum endosomes [Bogdanovic, Bruckert, Morio and Satre (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36691-36697]. Here we report the identification of its main SNARE partners by co-immunoprecipitation and MS peptide sequencing. The syntaxin 7 complex contains two co-t-SNAREs [Vti1 (Vps10p tail interactor 1) and syntaxin 8] and a v-SNARE [VAMP7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 7)] (where t-SNAREs are SNAREs of the target compartment and v-SNAREs are SNAREs present in donor vesicles). In endosomes and in vitro, syntaxin 7, Vti1 and syntaxin 8 form a complex that is able to bind VAMP7. Antibodies to syntaxin 8 and a soluble recombinant VAMP7 fragment both inhibit in vitro reconstituted D. discoideum endosome fusion. The lysosomal content of syntaxin 7, Vti1, syntaxin 8 and VAMP7 is low compared with that in endosomes, implying a highly active recycling or retention mechanism. A likely model is that VAMP7 is a v-SNARE present on vesicles carrying lysosomal enzymes, and that the syntaxin 7-Vti1-syntaxin 8 t-SNARE complex is associated with incoming endocytic material.
Project description:Enveloped viruses exploit the endomembrane system to enter host cells. Through a cascade of membrane-trafficking events, virus-bearing vesicles fuse with acidic endosomes and/or lysosomes mediated by SNAREs triggering viral fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we found that UV-radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagic tumor suppressor, is required for the entry of the prototypic negative-strand RNA virus, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, by a mechanism independent of IFN and autophagy. UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)], leading to the assembly of a fusogenic trans-SNARE complex involving vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP8), but not VAMP7. Indeed, UVRAG stimulates VAMP8 translocation to virus-bearing endosomes. Inhibition of VAMP8, but not VAMP7, significantly reduces viral entry. Our data indicate that UVRAG, in concert with C-Vps, regulates viral entry by assembling a specific fusogenic SNARE complex. Thus, UVRAG governs downstream viral entry, highlighting an important pathway capable of potential antiviral therapeutics.
Project description:Endocytosis in alveolar macrophages can be reversibly inhibited, permitting the isolation of endocytic vesicles at defined stages of maturation. Using an in vitro fusion assay, we determined that each isolated endosome population was capable of homotypic fusion. All vesicle populations were also capable of heterotypic fusion in a temporally specific manner; early endosomes, isolated 4 min after internalization, could fuse with endosomes isolated 8 min after internalization but not with 12-min endosomes or lysosomes. Lysosomes fuse with 12-min endosomes but not with earlier endosomes. Using homogenous populations of endosomes, we have identified Syntaxin 7 as a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) required for late endosome-lysosome and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. A bacterially expressed human Syntaxin 7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited homotypic late endosome and lysosome fusion as well as heterotypic late endosome-lysosome fusion. Affinity-purified antibodies directed against Syntaxin 7 also inhibited lysosome fusion in vitro but had no affect on homotypic early endosome fusion. Previous work suggested that human VAMP-7 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-7) was a SNARE required for late endosome-lysosome fusion. A bacterially expressed human VAMP-7 lacking the transmembrane domain inhibited both late endosome-lysosome fusion and homotypic lysosome fusion in vitro. These studies indicate that: 1) fusion along the endocytic pathway is a highly regulated process, and 2) two SNARE molecules, Syntaxin 7 and human VAMP-7, are involved in fusion of vesicles in the late endocytic pathway in alveolar macrophages.
Project description:Membrane fusion in the secretory pathway is mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins. Different fusion steps are thought to be effected by independent sets of SNAREs, but it is unclear whether specificity is determined by an intrinsic specificity of SNARE pairing or by upstream factors. Using a newly developed microscopy-based assay, we have investigated the SNARE specificity of homotypic early endosomal fusion. We show that early endosomes contain multiple sets of SNAREs, including, in addition to the putative early endosomal SNAREs, those involved in exocytosis and in fusion of late endosomes. We demonstrate that fusion is largely mediated by a complex formed by syntaxin 13, syntaxin 6, vti1a, and VAMP4, whereas the exocytic and late endosomal SNAREs play little or no role in the reaction. In contrast, proteoliposomes reconstituted with early endosomal SNAREs promiscuously fuse with liposomes containing exocytotic or late endosomal SNAREs. We conclude that the specificity of SNARE pairing does not suffice to determine the specificity of organelle fusion.
Project description:SNARE proteins mediate membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells. They contain conserved SNARE motifs that are usually located adjacent to a C-terminal transmembrane domain. SNARE motifs spontaneously assemble into four helix bundles, with each helix belonging to a different subfamily. Liposomes containing SNAREs spontaneously fuse with each other, but it is debated how the SNAREs are distributed between the membranes. Here, we report that the SNAREs mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes fuse liposomes in five out of seven possible combinations, in contrast to previously studied SNAREs involved in heterotypic fusion events. The crystal structure of the early endosomal SNARE complex resembles that of the neuronal and late endosomal complexes, but differs in surface side-chain interactions. We conclude that homotypic fusion reactions may proceed with multiple SNARE topologies, suggesting that the conserved SNARE structure allows for flexibility in the initial interactions needed for fusion.
Project description:Sets of SNARE proteins mediate membrane fusion by assembling into core complexes. Multiple SNAREs are thought to function in different intracellular trafficking steps but it is often unclear which of the SNAREs cooperate in individual fusion reactions. We report that syntaxin 7, syntaxin 8, vti1b and endobrevin/VAMP-8 form a complex that functions in the fusion of late endosomes. Antibodies specific for each protein coprecipitate the complex, inhibit homotypic fusion of late endosomes in vitro and retard delivery of endocytosed epidermal growth factor to lysosomes. The purified proteins form core complexes with biochemical and biophysical properties remarkably similar to the neuronal core complex, although each of the four proteins carries a transmembrane domain and three have independently folded N-terminal domains. Substitution experiments, sequence and structural comparisons revealed that each protein occupies a unique position in the complex, with syntaxin 7 corresponding to syntaxin 1, and vti1b and syntaxin 8 corresponding to the N- and C-terminal domains of SNAP-25, respectively. We conclude that the structure of core complexes and their molecular mechanism in membrane fusion is highly conserved between distant SNAREs.
Project description:Munc13-4 is a Ca2+-dependent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)- and phospholipid-binding protein that localizes to and primes secretory granules (SGs) for Ca2+-evoked secretion in various secretory cells. Studies in mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells provide direct evidence that Munc13-4 with its two Ca2+-binding C2 domains functions as a Ca2+ sensor for SG exocytosis. Unexpectedly, Ca2+ stimulation also generated large (>2.4 ?m in diameter) Munc13-4+/Rab7+/Rab11+ endosomal vacuoles. Vacuole generation involved the homotypic fusion of Munc13-4+/Rab7+ SGs, followed by a merge with Rab11+ endosomes, and depended on Ca2+ binding to Munc13-4. Munc13-4 promoted the Ca2+-stimulated fusion of VAMP8-containing liposomes with liposomes containing exocytic or endosomal Q-SNAREs and directly interacted with late endosomal SNARE complexes. Thus Munc13-4 is a tethering/priming factor and Ca2+ sensor for both heterotypic SG-plasma membrane and homotypic SG-SG fusion. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed that vacuoles were exocytic and mediated secretion of ?-hexosaminidase and cytokines accompanied by Munc13-4 diffusion onto the plasma membrane. The results provide new molecular insights into the mechanism of multigranular compound exocytosis commonly observed in various secretory cells.
Project description:Autophagosome and lysosome fusion is an important macroautophagy/autophagy process for cargo degradation, and SNARE proteins, including STX17, SNAP29, VAMP7 and VAMP8, are key players in this process. However, the manner in which this process is precisely regulated is poorly understood. Here, we show that VAMP7B, a SNARE domain-disrupted isoform of R-SNARE protein VAMP7, competes with SNARE domain functional isoform VAMP7A to bind to STX17 and inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Moreover, we show that DIPK2A, a late endosome- and lysosome-localized protein, binds to VAMP7B, which inhibits the interaction of VAMP7B with STX17 and enhances the binding of STX17 to VAMP7A, thus enhancing autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, DIPK2A participates in autophagic degradation of mitochondria proteins and alleviates apoptosis. Thus, we reveal a new aspect of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in which different isoforms of VAMP7 compete with STX17 and their regulation by DIPK2A.Abbreviations: DIPK2A: divergent protein kinase domain 2A; EEA1: early endosome antigen 1; GOLGA2: golgin A2; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MFN2: mitofusin 2; MT-CO2: mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II; PARP1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RAB5A: RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family; RAB7A: RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family; REEP: receptor accessory protein; RTN4: reticulon 4; SNARE: SNAP receptor; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STX17: syntaxin 17; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; VAMP7: vesicle associated membrane protein 7; VAMP8: vesicle associated membrane protein 8.
Project description:SNARE protein complexes are key mediators of exocytosis by juxtaposing opposing membranes, leading to membrane fusion. SNAREs generally consist of one or two core domains that can form a four-helix bundle with other SNARE core domains. Some SNAREs, such as syntaxin target-SNAREs and longin vesicular-SNAREs, have independent, folded N-terminal domains that can interact with their respective SNARE core domains and thereby affect the kinetics of SNARE complex formation. This autoinhibition mechanism is believed to regulate the role of the longin VAMP7/TI-VAMP in neuronal morphogenesis. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the longin-SNARE core domain interaction for VAMP7. Using complete backbone resonance assignments, chemical shift perturbations analysis, and hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments, we conclusively show that VAMP7 adopts a preferentially closed conformation in solution. Taken together, the closed conformation of longins is conserved, in contrast to the syntaxin family of SNAREs for which mixtures of open and closed states have been observed. This may indicate different regulatory mechanisms for SNARE complexes containing syntaxins and longins, respectively.
Project description:Mitochondria are considered autonomous organelles, physically separated from endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. However, recent work uncovered a PINK1/parkin-dependent vesicle transport pathway wherein oxidized or damaged mitochondrial content are selectively delivered to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation, providing evidence that mitochondria are indeed integrated within the endomembrane system. Given that mitochondria have not been shown to use canonical soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) machinery for fusion, the mechanism by which mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are targeted to the endosomal compartment has remained unclear. In this study, we identify syntaxin-17 as a core mitochondrial SNARE required for the delivery of stress-induced PINK1/parkin-dependent MDVs to the late endosome/lysosome. Syntaxin-17 remains associated with mature MDVs and forms a ternary SNARE complex with SNAP29 and VAMP7 to mediate MDV-endolysosome fusion in a manner dependent on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex. Syntaxin-17 can be traced to the last eukaryotic common ancestor, hinting that the removal of damaged mitochondrial content may represent one of the earliest vesicle transport routes in the cell.