Detection of DNA of lymphotropic herpesviruses in plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: frequency and clinical significance.
ABSTRACT: The frequency and clinical significance of detection of DNA of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, and HHV-8 in plasma were investigated by PCR. The plasma was obtained from 120 selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, of whom 75 had AIDS-related manifestations, 32 had primary HIV infection (PHI), and 13 had asymptomatic infections. Nested PCR analysis revealed that none of the lymphotropic herpesviruses tested were found in patients with PHI, in asymptomatic HIV-positive individuals, or in HIV-negative controls. By contrast, DNA of one or more of the viruses was found in 42 (56%) of 75 patients with AIDS-related manifestations, including CMV disease (CMV-D) or AIDS-related tumors. The presence of CMV DNA in plasma was significantly associated with CMV-D (P < 0.001). By contrast, EBV detection was not significantly associated with AIDS-related lymphomas (P = 0.31). Interestingly, the presence of HHV-8 DNA in plasma was significantly associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) disease (P < 0.001) and with the clinical status of KS patients (P < 0.001). CMV (primarily), EBV, and HHV-8 were the viruses most commonly reactivated in the context of severe immunosuppression (P < 0.05). In contrast, HHV-6 and HHV-7 infections were infrequent at any stage of disease. In conclusion, plasma PCR was confirmed to be useful in the diagnosis of CMV-D but not in that of tumors or other conditions possibly associated with EBV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. Our findings support the hypothesis of a direct involvement of HHV-8 replication in KS pathogenesis, thus emphasizing the usefulness of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests to monitor HHV-8 infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This longitudinal study described Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, Epstein-Barr (EBV) DNA and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA asymptomatic salivary shedding in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to 1-analyze frequency and persistence of herpesvirus shedding, 2-correlate herpesvirus positivity and HIV viroimmunological parameters and 3-assess the association between HIV-RNA suppression and herpesvirus replication. METHODS:Herpesvirus DNA was tested with an in-house real-time PCR in 2 salivary samples obtained at T0 and T1 (24 months after T0). HIV-RNA was evaluated in the 24 months prior to T0 and in the 24 months prior to T1; MSM were classified as successfully suppressed patients (SSPs), viremic patients (VPs) and partially suppressed patients (PSPs). EBV DNA load was classified as low viral load (EBV-LVL, value ≤10,000 copies/ml) and as high viral load (EBV-HVL,> 10,000 copies/ml). Mann-Whitney U test tested the difference of the median between groups of patients. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test compared categorical variables according to the frequencies. Kruskal-Wallis test compared continuous data distributions between levels of categorical variables. RESULTS:Ninety-two patients (median CD4+ count 575 cells/mm3, median nadir 330 CD4+ cells/mm3) were included: 40 SSPs,33 VPs and 19 PSPs. The more frequently single virus detected was EBV, both at T0 and at T1 (in 67.5 and 70% of SSPs, in 84.8 and 81.8% of VPs and in 68.4 and 73.7% of SPSs) and the most frequently multiple positivity detected was EBV + HHV-8. At T1, the percentage of CMV positivity was higher in VPs than in SSPs (36.4% vs 5%, p < 0.001), the combined shedding of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was present only in VPs (15.1%, p = 0.01 respect to SSPs) and no VPs confirmed the absence of shedding found at T0 (vs 17.5% of SSPs, p = 0.01). EBV-HVL was more frequent in VPs than in SSPs: 78.6% at T0 (p = 0.03) and 88.9% at T1 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The relationship between uncontrolled plasma HIV viremia and CMV, EBV, and HHV-8 shedding is multifaceted, as demonstrated by the focused association with EBV DNA load and not with its frequency and by the persistent combined detection of two oncogenic viruses as EBV and HHV-8 regardless of HIV virological control.
Project description:Detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. This study identified eight HHVs in the colonic mucosa of individuals with IBD and compared the results with immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.A total of 89 individuals who had colorectal ulcer on colonoscopy were enrolled: 26 with immunocompetency (n = 26), 41 with IBD, and 22 with HIV infection. We examined the colonic ulcers for the presence of eight HHVs-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8-using mucosal PCR.The IBD group had positivity rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 53.7%, 24.4%, 39%, 39%, and 0% for HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8, respectively. The positivity rates of EBV and CMV in colonic mucosa increased significantly in the order of the immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV groups (EBV: 23.1%, 53.7%, 72.7%, P for trend = 0.0005; CMV, 7.7%, 24.4%, 54.5%, P for trend = 0.0003, respectively), but no increase was found in the other HHVs. Median mucosal EBV DNA values in the immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV groups were 0, 76, and 287 copies/?g DNA, respectively (P for trend = 0.002). Corresponding median mucosal CMV DNA values were 0, 0, and 17 copies/?g DNA (P for trend = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the positivity rates of the eight HHVs between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.The HHVs of EBV, CMV, HHV-6, and HHV-7, but not of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, or HHV-8, were identified in the colonic mucosa of IBD individuals. EBV and CMV in colonic mucosa was correlated with host immune status in increasing order of immunocompetent, IBD, and HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:Multiple viruses coinfect the male genital tract, influencing each other’s replication and perhaps affecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis and disease progression.This study included 453 longitudinal seminal samples from 195 HIV-infected men from the San Diego Primary Infection Resource Consortium and 67 seminal samples from HIV-negative healthy controls. Seminal HIV RNA and DNA from 7 human herpesviruses (HHVs) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Longitudinal shedding rates were determined by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Predictors of viral shedding were determined using backwards selection in a multivariable generalized estimating equation model.HIV-infected participants presented significantly increased rates of seminal HHV shedding compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were the most commonly detected HHV in semen of HIV-infected participants. Persistent shedding was more common for CMV and EBV when compared to other HHVs. With exception of HHV-7, HHV shedding was not significantly influenced by HIV RNA levels, CD4+ cell counts, or antiretroviral therapy. Presence of CMV, EBV, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) were independent predictors of genital HIV RNA shedding after adjusting for plasma HIV RNA and longitudinal measurements.Seminal replication of multiple HHVs is common in our HIV primary infection cohort. Genital replication of CMV and EBV was the most common and was significantly associated with seminal HIV RNA shedding. Prevalence of HSV shedding was lower and mostly intermittent, but its association with seminal HIV RNA was the strongest. Understanding the complex viral milieu in semen is important for HIV transmission but might also play a role in HIV pathogenesis and disease progression.
Project description:We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay using 6-carboxyfluorescein, 6-carboxy-4',5'-dichloro-2',7'-dimethoxyfluorescein, and carbocyanine 5-labeled probes to simultaneously quantify Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) DNA. When previously tested and stored DNA samples were examined, results of the multiplex real-time PCR assay were as sensitive and specific as those of a single real-time PCR assay. The multiplex assay was used to quantify the EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 DNA in 46 transplant recipients. A total of 303 whole-blood and plasma specimens were collected and analyzed. According to the results of the multiplex assay, the detection rates for viral DNA in whole blood and plasma were 23.8% and 5.9% for EBV, 11.2% and 5.3% for CMV, and 12.5% and 2.0% for HHV-6, respectively. All forms of viral DNA were detected more frequently in whole blood than in plasma. During the symptomatic period, EBV DNA was detected in all whole-blood specimens but not in all plasma specimens. Furthermore, the EBV DNA load in whole blood was higher during the symptomatic period than during the asymptomatic period, whereas the EBV DNA load in plasma was similar for both periods. These results demonstrate that whole blood is more suitable for the quantification of EBV DNA in transplant patients. However, a cutoff value with clinical relevance still needs to be determined.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection.<h4>Methods</h4>Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical.<h4>Conclusions</h4>By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants.
Project description:We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation.We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints.HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon ?-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals.Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.
Project description:Seroprevalence data of human herpesviruses (HHVs) are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. These are important to provide an indication of potential burden of HHV-related disease, in particular in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who are known to be at increased risk of these conditions in the Western world. In this cross-sectional study among 405 HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals in rural South Africa the seroprevalence of HHVs was: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (98%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (87%), varicella zoster virus (VZV) (89%), and 100% for both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Independent factors associated with VZV seropositivity were low educational status and having children. Lack of in-house access to drinking water was independently associated with positive HSV-1 serostatus, whereas Shangaan ethnicity was associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Increasing age was associated with higher IgG titres to both EBV and CMV, whereas CD4 cell count was negatively associated with EBV and CMV IgG titres. Moreover, IgG titres of HSV-1 and 2, VZV and CMV, and CMV and EBV were positively correlated. The high HHV seroprevalence emphasises the importance of awareness of these viral infections in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa.
Project description:AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) caused by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the most severe and resistant form of KS tumor. Our aim was to verify whether there is an association between HHV-8 variability and development of AIDS-KS in Brazil by comparing the HHV-8 variability between individuals without and with KS. Saliva samples and blood, when available, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for detection of the fragments of ORF K1 of HHV-8, which were then genotyped and analyzed regarding the genetic variability. Our study described 106 positive cases for HHV-8 in the saliva from 751 AIDS patients without previous KS. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of HHV-8 in 34 of the 106 AIDS patients without KS and in 33 of the 37 patients with active KS. The distribution of HHV-8 genotypes A, B, C, and F in AIDS individuals was indistinguishable by comparing non-KS and KS groups, as well as regarding ethnicity. Considering the KS group, genotype B was associated with better prognosis of KS tumor. Interestingly, we found a particular profile of diversity within clade C and 2 recombinant patterns of HHV-8 in the saliva of AIDS individuals without KS. We emphasize the need to achieve standard genotyping protocol for ORF K1 amplification, thus allowing for substantial detection of HHV-8 variants. Our findings can shed light on the role of HHV-8 variability in the pathogenesis of AIDS-KS.
Project description:Human herpes viruses (HHVs) are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0) and 14 days later (after treatment), or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human herpesviruses (HHVs) remain latent after primary infection and can be reactivated in response to immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Little is known about their incidence, potential relationships, risk factors and clinical impact in non-transplant leukemia patients. This study investigated prospectively incidence, risk factors, clinical impact and possible association of HHVs-(1-7) infections in patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. METHODS:Study design involved longitudinal sampling before chemotherapy and in different phases of chemotherapy: post-induction, post-remission, and post-salvage during 2016-2018. A total of 734 plasma samples from 95 patients were analyzed by a qualitative, multiplex PCR for HHVs detection and a quantitative real-time PCR was used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) quantification. HHVs-(1-6) IgG and IgM antibodies were tested using immunoassays. Risk factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression and relationships between viruses were analyzed using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. RESULTS:The overall seroprevalences of HHV-(1-6) IgG were high (>?80%). At least one herpes viral agent was detected in 60 patients (63.3%). CMV was the most commonly detected virus in the different phases of chemotherapy (19.4%), followed by HHV-6 (9.7%), HHV-7 (5.2%) and EBV (2.7%). HSV-1/2 and VZV DNA were not detected. Twenty-seven patients (28.4%) had more than one virus detected in the follow-up, with 23 who were co-infected. CMV/HHV-6 was the most frequent co-infection (69.5%, 16/23). HHV-6 infection (p?=?0.008) was identified as a risk factor for CMV infection while salvage treatment (p?=?0.04) and CMV infection (p?=?0.007) were found to be independent risk factors for HHV-6 infection. CMV co-infection was associated with severe lymphopenia with an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (<?500/?L) (p?=?0.009), rash (p?=?0.011), pneumonia (p?=?0.016) and opportunistic infections [bacteremia, p?<?0.001 and invasive fungal infection, (p?=?0.024)] more frequently than CMV mono-viral infections. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that co-infection with HHVs, especially CMV and HHV-6, may contribute to the development of serious clinical manifestations with profound lymphopenia, pneumonia rash and increased risk for bacterial and fungal co-infections. These findings may suggest the synergistic effect of HHVs associated infection.