Experimental and computational studies of the desensitization process in the bovine rhodopsin-arrestin complex.
ABSTRACT: The deactivation of the bovine G-protein-coupled receptor, rhodopsin, is a two-step process consisting of the phosphorylation of specific serine and threonine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of rhodopsin by rhodopsin kinase. Subsequent binding of the regulatory protein arrestin follows this phosphorylation. Previous results find that at least three phosphorylatable sites on the rhodopsin tail (T340) and at least two of the S338, S334, or S343 sites are needed for complete arrestin-mediated deactivation. Thus, to elucidate the details of the interaction between rhodopsin with arrestin, we have employed both a computational and an in vitro experimental approach. In this work, we first simulated the interaction of the carboxy tail of rhodopsin with arrestin using a Monte Carlo simulated annealing method. Since at this time phosphorylation of specific serines and threonines is not possible in our simulations, we substitute either aspartic or glutamic acid residues for the negatively charged phosphorylated residues required for binding. A total of 17 simulations were performed and analysis of this shows specific charge-charge interactions of the carboxy tail of rhodopsin with arrestin. We then confirmed these computational results with assays of comparable constructed rhodopsin mutations using our in vitro assay. This dual computational/experimental approach indicates that sites S334, S338, and T340 in rhodopsin and K14 and K15 on arrestin are indeed important in the interaction of rhodopsin with arrestin, with a possible weaker S343 (rhodopsin)/K15 (arrestin) interaction.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate diverse signaling in part through interaction with arrestins, whose binding promotes receptor internalization and signaling through G protein-independent pathways. High-affinity arrestin binding requires receptor phosphorylation, often at the receptor's C-terminal tail. Here, we report an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) crystal structure of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex, in which the phosphorylated C terminus of rhodopsin forms an extended intermolecular ? sheet with the N-terminal ? strands of arrestin. Phosphorylation was detected at rhodopsin C-terminal tail residues T336 and S338. These two phospho-residues, together with E341, form an extensive network of electrostatic interactions with three positively charged pockets in arrestin in a mode that resembles binding of the phosphorylated vasopressin-2 receptor tail to ?-arrestin-1. Based on these observations, we derived and validated a set of phosphorylation codes that serve as a common mechanism for phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of arrestins by GPCRs.
Project description:Continued activation of the photocycle of the dim-light receptor rhodopsin leads to the accumulation of all-trans-retinal in the rod outer segments (ROS). This accumulation can damage the photoreceptor cell. For retinal homeostasis, deactivation processes are initiated in which the release of retinal is delayed. One of these processes involves the binding of arrestin to rhodopsin. Here, the interaction of pre-activated truncated bovine visual arrestin (Arr(Tr)) with rhodopsin in 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micelles is investigated by solution NMR techniques and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Our results show that formation of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex markedly influences partitioning in the decay kinetics of rhodopsin, which involves the simultaneous formation of a meta?II and a meta?III state from the meta?I state. Binding of Arr(Tr) leads to an increase in the population of the meta?III state and consequently to an approximately twofold slower release of all-trans-retinal from rhodopsin.
Project description:Arrestins regulate signaling and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors by virtue of their preferential binding to the phosphorylated active form of the receptor. To identify sites in arrestin involved in receptor interaction, a nitroxide-containing side chain was introduced at each of 28 different positions in visual arrestin, and the dynamics of the side chain was used to monitor arrestin interaction with phosphorylated forms of its cognate receptor, rhodopsin. At physiological concentrations, visual arrestin associates with both inactive dark phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh) and light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*). Residues distributed over the concave surfaces of the two arrestin domains are involved in weak interactions with both states of phosphorhodopsin, and the flexible C-terminal sequence (C-tail) of arrestin becomes dynamically disordered in both complexes. A large-scale movement of the C-tail is demonstrated by direct distance measurements using a doubly labeled arrestin with one nitroxide in the C-tail and the other in the N-domain. Despite some overlap, the molecular "footprint" of arrestin bound to P-Rh and P-Rh* is different, showing the structure of the complexes to be unique. Strong immobilizing interactions with residues in a highly flexible loop between beta-strands V and VI are only observed in complex with the activated state. This result identifies this loop as a key recognition site in the arrestin-P-Rh* complex and supports the view that flexible sequences are key elements in protein-protein interactions.
Project description:Arrestins function as adapter proteins that mediate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization, internalization, and additional rounds of signaling. Here we have compared binding of the GPCR rhodopsin to 403 mutants of arrestin-1 covering its complete sequence. This comprehensive and unbiased mutagenesis approach provides a functional dimension to the crystal structures of inactive, preactivated p44 and phosphopeptide-bound arrestins and will guide our understanding of arrestin-GPCR complexes. The presented functional map quantitatively connects critical interactions in the polar core and along the C tail of arrestin. A series of amino acids (Phe375, Phe377, Phe380, and Arg382) anchor the C tail in a position that blocks binding of the receptor. Interaction of phosphates in the rhodopsin C terminus with Arg29 controls a C-tail exchange mechanism in which the C tail of arrestin is released and exposes several charged amino acids (Lys14, Lys15, Arg18, Lys20, Lys110, and Lys300) for binding of the phosphorylated receptor C terminus. In addition to this arrestin phosphosensor, our data reveal several patches of amino acids in the finger (Gln69 and Asp73-Met75) and the lariat loops (L249-S252 and Y254) that can act as direct binding interfaces. A stretch of amino acids at the edge of the C domain (Trp194-Ser199, Gly337-Gly340, Thr343, and Thr345) could act as membrane anchor, binding interface for a second rhodopsin, or rearrange closer to the central loops upon complex formation. We discuss these interfaces in the context of experimentally guided docking between the crystal structures of arrestin and light-activated rhodopsin.
Project description:Arrestin was identified in ciliary photoreceptors of Pecten irradians, and its role in terminating the light response was established electrophysiologically. Downstream effectors in these unusual visual cells diverge from both microvillar photoreceptors and rods and cones; the finding that key regulatory mechanisms of the early steps of visual excitation are conserved across such distant lineages of photoreceptors underscores that a common blueprint for phototransduction exists across metazoa. Arrestin was detected by Western blot analysis of retinal lysates, and localized in ciliary photoreceptors by immunostaining of whole-eye cryosections and dissociated cells. Two arrestin isoforms were molecularly identified by PCR; these present the canonical N- and C-arrestin domains, and are identical at the nucleotide level over much of their sequence. A high degree of homology to various ?-arrestins (up to 70% amino acid identity) was found. In situ hybridization localized the two transcripts within the retina, but failed to reveal finer spatial segregation, possibly because of insufficient differences between the riboprobes. Intracellular dialysis of anti arrestin antibodies into voltage-clamped ciliary photoreceptors produced a gradual slow-down of the photocurrent falling phase, leaving a tail that decayed over many seconds after light termination. The antibodies also caused spectrally neutral flashes to elicit prolonged aftercurrents in the absence of large metarhodopsin accumulation; such aftercurrents could be quenched by chromatic illumination that photoconverts metarhodopsin back to rhodopsin. These observations indicate that the antibodies depleted functionally available arrestin, and implicate this molecule in the deactivation of the photoresponse at the rhodopsin level.
Project description:Binding mechanism of arrestin requires photoactivation and phosphorylation of the receptor protein rhodopsin, where the receptor bound phosphate groups cause displacement of the long C-tail 'activating' arrestin. Mutation of arginine 175 to glutamic acid (R175E), a central residue in the polar core and previously predicted as the 'phosphosensor' leads to a pre-active arrestin that is able to terminate phototransduction by binding to non-phosphorylated, light-activated rhodopsin. Here, we report the first crystal structure of a R175E mutant arrestin at 2.7 Å resolution that reveals significant differences compared to the basal state reported in full-length arrestin structures. These differences comprise disruption of hydrogen bond network in the polar core, and three-element interaction including disordering of several residues in the receptor-binding finger loop and the C-terminus (residues 361-404). Additionally, R175E structure shows a 7.5° rotation of the amino and carboxy-terminal domains relative to each other. Consistent to the biochemical data, our structure suggests an important role of R29 in the initial activation step of C-tail release. Comparison of the crystal structures of basal arrestin and R175E mutant provide insights into the mechanism of arrestin activation, where binding of the receptor likely induces structural changes mimicked as in R175E.
Project description:Arrestin-1 selectively binds active phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*), demonstrating much lower affinity for inactive phosphorylated (P-Rh) and unphosphorylated active (Rh*) forms. Receptor interaction induces significant conformational changes in arrestin-1, which include large movement of the previously neglected 139-loop in the center of the receptor binding surface, away from the incoming receptor. To elucidate the functional role of this loop, in mouse arrestin-1 we introduced deletions of variable lengths and made several substitutions of Lys-142 in it and Asp-72 in the adjacent loop. Several mutants with perturbations in the 139-loop demonstrate increased binding to P-Rh*, dark P-Rh, Rh*, and phospho-opsin. Enhanced binding of arrestin-1 mutants to non-preferred forms of rhodopsin correlates with decreased thermal stability. The 139-loop perturbations increase P-Rh* binding of arrestin-1 at low temperatures and further change its binding profile on the background of 3A mutant, where the C-tail is detached from the body of the molecule by triple alanine substitution. Thus, the 139-loop stabilizes basal conformation of arrestin-1 and acts as a brake, preventing its binding to non-preferred forms of rhodopsin. Conservation of this loop in other subtypes suggests that it has the same function in all members of the arrestin family.
Project description:Arrestins are regulatory molecules for G-protein coupled receptor function. In visual rhodopsin, selective binding of arrestin to the cytoplasmic side of light-activated, phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh*) terminates signaling via the G-protein transducin. While the "phosphate-sensor" of arrestin for the recognition of receptor-attached phosphates is identified, the molecular mechanism of arrestin binding and the involvement of receptor conformations in this process are still largely hypothetic. Here we used fluorescence pump-probe and time-resolved fluorescence depolarization measurements to investigate the kinetics of arrestin conformational changes and the corresponding nanosecond dynamical changes at the receptor surface. We show that at least two sequential conformational changes of arrestin occur upon interaction with P-Rh*, thus providing a kinetic proof for the suggested multistep nature of arrestin binding. At the cytoplasmic surface of P-Rh*, the structural dynamics of the amphipathic helix 8 (H8), connecting transmembrane helix 7 and the phosphorylated C-terminal tail, depends on the arrestin interaction state. We find that a high mobility of H8 is required in the low-affinity (prebinding) but not in the high-affinity binding state. High-affinity arrestin binding is inhibited when a bulky, inflexible group is bound to H8, indicating close interaction. We further show that this close steric interaction of H8 with arrestin is mandatory for the transition from prebinding to high-affinity binding; i.e., for arrestin activation. This finding implies a regulatory role for H8 in activation of visual arrestin, which shows high selectivity to P-Rh* in contrast to the broad receptor specificity displayed by the two nonvisual arrestins.
Project description:G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of information transfer in eukaryotic cells. Interactions between GPCRs and their binding partners modulate the signaling process. For example, the interaction between GPCR and cognate G protein initiates the signal, while the interaction with cognate arrestin terminates G-protein-mediated signaling. In visual signal transduction, arrestin-1 selectively binds to the phosphorylated light-activated GPCR rhodopsin to terminate rhodopsin signaling. Under physiological conditions, the rhodopsin-arrestin-1 interaction occurs in highly specialized disk membrane in which rhodopsin resides. This membrane is replaced with mimetics when working with purified proteins. While detergents are commonly used as membrane mimetics, most detergents denature arrestin-1, preventing biochemical studies of this interaction. In contrast, bicelles provide a suitable alternative medium. An advantage of bicelles is that they contain lipids, which have been shown to be necessary for normal rhodopsin-arrestin-1 interaction. Here we describe how to reconstitute rhodopsin into bicelles, and how bicelle properties affect the rhodopsin-arrestin-1 interaction.
Project description:Arrestins specifically bind active and phosphorylated forms of their cognate G protein-coupled receptors, blocking G protein coupling and often redirecting the signaling to alternative pathways. High-affinity receptor binding is accompanied by two major structural changes in arrestin: release of the C-tail and rotation of the two domains relative to each other. The first requires detachment of the arrestin C-tail from the body of the molecule, whereas the second requires disruption of the network of charge-charge interactions at the interdomain interface, termed the polar core. These events can be facilitated by mutations destabilizing the polar core or the anchoring of the C-tail that yield "preactivated" arrestins that bind phosphorylated and unphosphorylated receptors with high affinity. Here we explored the functional role in arrestin activation of the three native cysteines in the N domain, which are conserved in all arrestin subtypes. Using visual arrestin-1 and rhodopsin as a model, we found that substitution of these cysteines with serine, alanine, or valine virtually eliminates the effects of the activating polar core mutations on the binding to unphosphorylated rhodopsin while only slightly reducing the effects of the C-tail mutations. Thus, these three conserved cysteines play a role in the domain rotation but not in the C-tail release.