Protein disorder: conformational distribution of the flexible linker in a chimeric double cellulase.
ABSTRACT: The structural properties of the linker peptide connecting the cellulose-binding module to the catalytic module in bimodular cellulases have been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering. Since the linker and the cellulose-binding module are relatively small and cannot be readily detected separately, the conformation of the linker was studied by means of an artificial fusion protein, Cel6BA, in which an 88-residue linker connects the large catalytic modules of the cellulases Cel6A and Cel6B from Humicola insolens. Our data showed that Cel6BA is very elongated with a maximum dimension of 178 A, but could not be described by a single conformation. Modeling of a series of Cel6BA conformers with interdomain separations ranging between 10 A and 130 A showed that good Guinier and P(r) profile fits were obtained by a weighted average of the scattering curves of all the models where the linker follows a nonrandom distribution, with a preference for the more compact conformers. These structural properties are likely to be essential for the function of the linker as a molecular spring between the two functional modules. Small-angle x-ray scattering therefore provides a unique tool to quantitatively analyze the conformational disorder typical of proteins described as natively unfolded.
Project description:The interaction between cellulase enzymes and their substrates is of central importance to several technological and scientific challenges. Here we report that the binding of cellulose binding modules (CBM) from Trichoderma reesei cellulases Cel6A and Cel7A show a major difference in how they interact with substrates originating from wood compared to bacterial cellulose. We found that the CBM from TrCel7A recognizes the two substrates differently and as a consequence shows an unexpected way of binding. We show that the substrate has a large impact on the exchange rate of the studied CBM, and moreover, CBM-TrCel7A seems to have an additional mode of binding on wood derived cellulose but not on cellulose originating from bacterial source. This mode is not seen in double CBM (DCBM) constructs comprising both CBM-TrCel7A and CBM-TrCel6A. The linker length of DCBMs affects the binding properties, and slows down the exchange rates of the proteins and thus, can be used to analyze the differences between the single CBM. These results have impact on the cellulase research and offer new understanding on how these industrially relevant enzymes act.
Project description:Cellulases catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the major constituent of plant biomass and the most abundant organic polymer on earth. Cellulases are modular enzymes containing catalytic domains connected, via linker sequences, to noncatalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). A putative modular endo-?-1,4-glucanase (BhCel5B) is encoded at locus BH0603 in the genome of Bacillus halodurans. It is composed of an N-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 5 catalytic module (GH5) followed by an immunoglobulin-like module and a C-terminal family 46 CBM (BhCBM46). Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the trimodular BhCel5B are reported. The crystals of BhCel5B belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2121 2 and data were processed to a resolution of 1.64?Å. A molecular-replacement solution has been found.
Project description:A relationship between processivity and synergism has not been reported for cellulases, although both characteristics are very important for hydrolysis of insoluble substrates. Mutation of two residues located in the active site tunnel of Thermobifida fusca exocellulase Cel6B increased processivity on filter paper. Surprisingly, mixtures of the Cel6B mutant enzymes and T. fusca endocellulase Cel5A did not show increased synergism or processivity, and the mutant enzyme which had the highest processivity gave the poorest synergism. This study suggests that improving exocellulase processivity might be not an effective strategy for producing improved cellulase mixtures for biomass conversion. The inverse relationship between the activities of many of the mutant enzymes with bacterial microcrystalline cellulose and their activities with carboxymethyl cellulose indicated that there are differences in the mechanisms of hydrolysis for these substrates, supporting the possibility of engineering Cel6B to target selected substrates.
Project description:The secretion of large heterologous cellulases by Clostridium acetobutylicum was formerly shown to be deleterious. To circumvent this issue, various scaffoldins' modules were grafted at their N termini. Family 3a cellulose binding module combined with an X2 module(s) was found to trigger the secretion of Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulases by the solventogenic bacterium.
Project description:The enzymatic degradation of cellulose is a critical step in the biological conversion of plant biomass into an abundant renewable energy source. An understanding of the structural and dynamic features that cellulases utilize to bind a single strand of crystalline cellulose and hydrolyze the ?-1,4-glycosidic bonds of cellulose to produce fermentable sugars would greatly facilitate the engineering of improved cellulases for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass. Endoglucanase D (EngD) from Clostridium cellulovorans is a modular enzyme comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module, which is attached via a flexible linker. Here, we present the 2.1-Å-resolution crystal structures of full-length EngD with and without cellotriose bound, solution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of the full-length enzyme, the characterization of the active cleft glucose binding subsites, and substrate specificity of EngD on soluble and insoluble polymeric carbohydrates. SAXS data support a model in which the linker is flexible, allowing EngD to adopt an extended conformation in solution. The cellotriose-bound EngD structure revealed an extended active-site cleft that contains seven glucose-binding subsites, but unlike the majority of structurally determined endocellulases, the active-site cleft of EngD is partially enclosed by Trp162 and Tyr232. EngD variants, which lack Trp162, showed a significant reduction in activity and an alteration in the distribution of cellohexaose degradation products, suggesting that Trp162 plays a direct role in substrate binding.
Project description:Fungi and bacteria secrete glycoprotein cocktails to deconstruct cellulose. Cellulose-degrading enzymes (cellulases) are often modular, with catalytic domains for cellulose hydrolysis and carbohydrate-binding modules connected by linkers rich in serine and threonine with O-glycosylation. Few studies have probed the role that the linker and O-glycans play in catalysis. Since different expression and growth conditions produce different glycosylation patterns that affect enzyme activity, the structure-function relationships that glycosylation imparts to linkers are relevant for understanding cellulase mechanisms. Here, the linker of the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) is examined by simulation. Our results suggest that the Cel7A linker is an intrinsically disordered protein with and without glycosylation. Contrary to the predominant view, the O-glycosylation does not change the stiffness of the linker, as measured by the relative fluctuations in the end-to-end distance; rather, it provides a 16 Å extension, thus expanding the operating range of Cel7A. We explain observations from previous biochemical experiments in the light of results obtained here, and compare the Cel7A linker with linkers from other cellulases with sequence-based tools to predict disorder. This preliminary screen indicates that linkers from Family 7 enzymes from other genera and other cellulases within T. reesei may not be as disordered, warranting further study.
Project description:Many cellulose degrading and modifying enzymes have distinct parts called carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The CBMs have been shown to increase the concentration of enzymes on the insoluble substrate and thereby enhance catalytic activity. It has been suggested that CBMs also have a role in disrupting or dispersing the insoluble cellulose substrate, but dispute remains and explicit evidence of such a mechanism is lacking. We produced the isolated CBMs from two major cellulases (Cel6A and Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We then studied the viscoelastic properties of native unmodified cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) in combination with the highly purified CBMs to detect possible functional effects of the CBMs on the CNF. The two CBMs showed clearly different effects on the viscoelastic properties of CNF. The difference in effects is noteworthy, yet it was not possible to conclude for example disruptive effects. We discuss here the alternative explanations for viscoelastic effects on CNF caused by CBMs, including the effect of ionic cosolutes.
Project description:Trichoderma reesei Cel6A (TrCel6A) is a cellobiohydrolase that hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose into cellobiose. Here we directly observed the reaction cycle (binding, surface movement, and dissociation) of single-molecule intact TrCel6A, isolated catalytic domain (CD), cellulose-binding module (CBM), and CBM and linker (CBM-linker) on crystalline cellulose I? The CBM-linker showed a binding rate constant almost half that of intact TrCel6A, whereas those of the CD and CBM were only one-tenth of intact TrCel6A. These results indicate that the glycosylated linker region largely contributes to initial binding on crystalline cellulose. After binding, all samples showed slow and fast dissociations, likely caused by the two different bound states due to the heterogeneity of cellulose surface. The CBM showed much higher specificity to the high affinity site than to the low affinity site, whereas the CD did not, suggesting that the CBM leads the CD to the hydrophobic surface of crystalline cellulose. On the cellulose surface, intact molecules showed slow processive movements (8.8 ± 5.5 nm/s) and fast diffusional movements (30-40 nm/s), whereas the CBM-Linker, CD, and a catalytically inactive full-length mutant showed only fast diffusional movements. These results suggest that both direct binding and surface diffusion contribute to searching of the hydrolysable point of cellulose chains. The duration time constant for the processive movement was 7.7 s, and processivity was estimated as 68 ± 42. Our results reveal the role of each domain in the elementary steps of the reaction cycle and provide the first direct evidence of the processive movement of TrCel6A on crystalline cellulose.
Project description:Reaction conditions for the reducing-end-specific derivatization of cellulose substrates with the fluorogenic compound, anthranilic acid, have been established. Hydrolysis of fluorescence-labelled celluloses by cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei was consistent with the active-site titration kinetics (burst kinetics), which allowed the quantification of the processivity of the enzyme. The processivity values of 88+/-10, 42+/-10 and 34+/-2.0 cellobiose units were found for Cel7A acting on labelled bacterial cellulose, bacterial microcrystalline cellulose and endoglucanase-pretreated bacterial cellulose respectively. The anthranilic acid derivatization also provides an alternative means for estimating the average degree of polymerization of cellulose and, furthermore, allows the quantitative monitoring of the production of reducing end groups on solid cellulose on hydrolysis by cellulases. Hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose by cellulases from T. reesei revealed that, by contrast with endoglucanase Cel5A, neither cellobiohydrolases Cel7A nor Cel6A produced detectable amounts of new reducing end groups on residual cellulose.
Project description:Cellulases are important glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) that hydrolyze cellulose polymers into smaller oligosaccharides by breaking the cellulose beta (1-->4) bonds, and they are widely used to produce cellulosic ethanol from the plant biomass. N-linked and O-linked glycosylations were proposed to impact the catalytic efficiency, cellulose binding affinity and the stability of cellulases based on observations of individual cellulases. As far as we know, there has not been any systematic analysis of the distributions of N-linked and O-linked glycosylated residues in cellulases, mainly due to the limited annotations of the relevant functional domains and the glycosylated residues. We have computationally annotated the functional domains and glycosylated residues in cellulases, and conducted a systematic analysis of the distributions of the N-linked and O-linked glycosylated residues in these enzymes. Many N-linked glycosylated residues were known to be in the GH domains of cellulases, but they are there probably just by chance, since the GH domain usually occupies more than half of the sequence length of a cellulase. Our analysis indicates that the O-linked glycosylated residues are significantly enriched in the linker regions between the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) domains and GH domains of cellulases. Possible mechanisms are discussed.