Molecular characterization of pigmented and nonpigmented isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Five pigmented isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS900-RFLP), and IS1311 polymorphism analysis using PCR. All of the pigmented isolates exhibited one of three distinct PFGE profiles with SnaBI, designated 9, 10, and 11, and with SpeI, designated 7, 8, and 9, which generated three multiplex profiles designated [9-7], [10-8], and [11-9]. All of the pigmented isolates had the same IS900-RFLP BstEII and PvuII profiles. The IS900-RFLP BstEII profile was new, but the IS900-RFLP PvuII profile corresponded to PvuII type 6 of a sheep strain described by Cousins and colleagues (D. V. Cousins, S. N. Williams, A. Hope, and G. J. Eamens, Aust. Vet. J. 78:184-190, 2000). IS1311-PCR analysis typed all of the pigmented isolates as sheep (S) strains. The genetic relationship between pigmented and nonpigmented isolates was investigated by using multiplex PFGE data from the analysis of both the 5 pigmented isolates and 88 nonpigmented isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from a variety of host species and geographic locations. It was possible to classify the isolates into two distinct types designated type I, comprising the pigmented isolates, and type II, comprising the nonpigmented isolates, which exhibit a very broad host range.
Project description:Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease and is endemic to the national cattle herds of many countries. Because of the very low level of genetic heterogeneity of this organism, it is difficult to select a workable procedure for strain differentiation at a resolution sufficient to investigate epidemiological links between herds or different ruminant species and the suggested zoonotic potential of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis for Crohn's disease. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) based on the insertion element IS900 (IS900 RFLP) with four restriction enzymes and 10 markers of specific mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs) and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) was applied to 71 bovine M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates originating from 14 herds from different regions in Germany. Among these isolates, all of which belonged to the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis type II group, 17 genotypes were detected by IS900 RFLP and consisted of a combination of seven BstEII, eight PstI, nine PvuII, and four BamHI restriction patterns. Novel RFLP types were found. The diversity of the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates inside the herds was different depending on the frequency of animal purchase. The results of typing by IS900 RFLP and MIRU-VNTR analyses were not associated. Fifteen MIRU-VNTR patterns were identified with a discriminatory index of 0.905. The most common BstEII-based IS900 RFLP type, type C1 (72%), was subdivided into 14 types by MIRU-VNTR analysis. A combination of fingerprinting and PCR-based techniques resulted in 24 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genotypes and achieved a discriminatory index of 0.997. By using only BstEII and PstI digestion together with typing by MIRU-VNTR analysis, a discriminatory index of 0.993 was achieved. This is high enough to support epidemiological studies on a national as well as a global scale.
Project description:Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to study 75 clinical isolates identified as Mycobacterium avium. Two repetitive insertion sequences, IS1311 and IS900, were used as DNA probes. Although less than 25% of isolates showed RFLP patterns with IS900, all strains gave banding patterns with IS1311. M. avium strains isolated from patients with AIDS exhibited marked polymorphism with both probes.
Project description:Mycobactin J-dependent mycobacterial isolates from sheep, goat, and cattle herds with Johne's disease in Morocco, South Africa, the United States, and Germany were tested for the repetitive insertion sequence IS900 of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by PCR. The IS900 PCR target sequence was detected in 90 of 93 fecal culture isolates tested (96.8%). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and in vitro growth characteristics were studied in 46 of the IS900-positive isolates and in two bovine vaccine strains of M. paratuberculosis. Five different RFLP types were identified in PvuII digests of genomic DNA by Southern hybridization with a DNA probe specific for IS900. All isolates of M. paratuberculosis could be classified into two major clusters by their growth rates as well as the relatedness of their PvuII-RFLP hybridization patterns. All of the sheep isolates were classified into cluster I (extremely slow growth), while all cattle and goat isolates were members of cluster II (moderately slow growth). Different PvuII-RFLP patterns were detected in different sheep flocks from Morocco and South Africa. Our results demonstrate that genetically and phenotypically different strains of M. paratuberculosis were present in ruminant populations. The strains from sheep in Morocco and South Africa tested in the study appeared to belong to a unique group of M. paratuberculosis strains that might have adapted to this host species. The presence of several genetically distinct strains in different sheep flocks suggested that analysis of IS900-specific RFLP patterns may provide a useful tool for the epidemiologic investigation of ovine paratuberculosis outbreaks.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the aetiological agent of Johne's disease or paratuberculosis and is included within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Map strains are of two major types often referred to as 'Sheep' or 'S-type' and 'Cattle' or 'C-type'. With the advent of more discriminatory typing techniques it has been possible to further classify the S-type strains into two groups referred to as Type I and Type III. This study was undertaken to genotype a large panel of S-type small ruminant isolates from different hosts and geographical origins and to compare them with a large panel of well documented C-type isolates to assess the genetic diversity of these strain types. Methods used included Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable-Number Tandem Repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR), analysis of Large Sequence Polymorphisms by PCR (LSP analysis), Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) analysis of gyr genes, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis coupled with hybridization to IS900 (IS900-RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: The presence of LSP(A)4 and absence of LSP(A)20 was confirmed in all 24 Map S-type strains analysed. SNPs within the gyr genes divided the S-type strains into types I and III. Twenty four PFGE multiplex profiles and eleven different IS900-RFLP profiles were identified among the S-type isolates, some of them not previously published. Both PFGE and IS900-RFLP segregated the S-type strains into types I and III and the results concurred with those of the gyr SNP analysis. Nine MIRU-VNTR genotypes were identified in these isolates. MIRU-VNTR analysis differentiated Map strains from other members of Mycobacterium avium Complex, and Map S-type from C-type but not type I from III. Pigmented Map isolates were found of type I or III. CONCLUSION: This is the largest panel of S-type strains investigated to date. The S-type strains could be further divided into two subtypes, I and III by some of the typing techniques (IS900-RFLP, PFGE and SNP analysis of the gyr genes). MIRU-VNTR did not divide the strains into the subtypes I and III but did detect genetic differences between isolates within each of the subtypes. Pigmentation is not exclusively associated with type I strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) causes an infectious chronic enteritis (paratuberculosis or Johne's disease) principally of ruminants. The epidemiology of Map is poorly understood, particularly with respect to the role of wildlife reservoirs and the controversial issue of zoonotic potential (Crohn's disease). Genotypic discrimination of Map isolates is pivotal to descriptive epidemiology and resolving these issues. This study was undertaken to determine the genetic diversity of Map, enhance our understanding of the host range and distribution and assess the potential for interspecies transmission. RESULTS: 164 Map isolates from seven European countries representing 19 different host species were genotyped by standardized IS900--restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS900-RFLP), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and mycobacterial interspersed repeat unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analyses. Six PstI and 17 BstEII IS900-RFLP, 31 multiplex [SnaBI-SpeI] PFGE profiles and 23 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected. AFLP gave insufficient discrimination of isolates for meaningful genetic analysis. Point estimates for Simpson's index of diversity calculated for the individual typing techniques were in the range of 0.636 to 0.664 but a combination of all three methods increased the discriminating power to 0.879, sufficient for investigating transmission dynamics. Two predominant strain types were detected across Europe with all three typing techniques. Evidence for interspecies transmission between wildlife and domestic ruminants on the same property was demonstrated in four cases, between wildlife species on the same property in two cases and between different species of domestic livestock on one property. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that it is necessary to use multiple genotyping techniques targeting different sources of genetic variation to obtain the level of discrimination necessary to investigate transmission dynamics and trace the source of Map infections. Furthermore, the combination of genotyping techniques may depend on the geographical location of the population to be tested. Identical genotypes were obtained from Map isolated from different host species co-habiting on the same property strongly suggesting that interspecies transmission occurs. Interspecies transmission of Map between wildlife species and domestic livestock on the same property provides further evidence to support a role for wildlife reservoirs of infection.
Project description:An outbreak of infections affecting 311 patients who had undergone different invasive procedures occurred in 2004 and 2005 in the city of Belém, in the northern region of Brazil. Sixty-seven isolates were studied; 58 were from patients who had undergone laparoscopic surgeries, 1 was from a patient with a postinjection abscess, and 8 were from patients who had undergone mesotherapy. All isolates were rapidly growing nonpigmented mycobacteria and presented a pattern by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene with BstEII of bands of 235 and 210 bp and with HaeIII of bands of 200, 70, 60, and 50 bp, which is common to Mycobacterium abscessus type 2, Mycobacterium bolletii, and Mycobacterium massiliense. hsp65 and rpoB gene sequencing of a subset of 20 isolates was used to discriminate between these three species. hsp65 and rpoB sequences chosen at random from 11 of the 58 isolates from surgical patients and the postinjection abscess isolate presented the highest degrees of similarity with the corresponding sequences of M. massiliense. In the same way, the eight mesotherapy isolates were identified as M. bolletii. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped all 58 surgical isolates, while the mesotherapy isolates presented three different PFGE patterns and the postinjection abscess isolate showed a unique PFGE pattern. In conclusion, molecular techniques for identification and typing were essential for the discrimination of two concomitant outbreaks and one case, the postinjection abscess, not related to either outbreak, all of which were originally attributed to a single strain of M. abscessus.
Project description:Short-sequence-repeat (SSR) sequencing was applied to 127 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates typed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and IS900 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Combined MIRU-VNTR and SSR typing followed by secondary IS900 RFLP typing is an improved approach to high-resolution genotyping of this pathogen.
Project description:Bacteria phenotypically resembling members of the phylogenetically distinct planctomycete group of the domain Bacteria were isolated from postlarvae of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. A selective medium designed in the light of planctomycete antibiotic resistance characteristics was used for this isolation. Planctomycetes were isolated from both healthy and monodon baculovirus-infected prawn postlarvae. The predominant colony type recovered from postlarvae regardless of viral infection status was nonpigmented. Other, less commonly observed types were pink or orange pigmented. A planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA-directed probe was designed and used to screen the isolates for their identity as planctomycetes prior to molecular phylogenetic characterization. 16S rRNA genes from nine prawn isolates together with two planctomycete reference strains (Planctomyces brasiliensis and Gemmata obscuriglobus) were sequenced and compared with reference sequences from the planctomycetes and other members of the domain Bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence signatures of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the prawn isolates were members of the planctomycete group. Five representatives of the predominant nonpigmented colony type were members of the Pirellula group within the planctomycetes, as were three pink-pigmented colony type representatives. Homology values and tree topology indicated that representatives of the nonpigmented and pink-pigmented colony types formed two discrete clusters within the Pirellula group, not identical to any known Pirellula species. A sole representative of the orange colony type was a member of the Planctomyces group, virtually identical in 16S rDNA sequence to P. brasiliensis, and exhibited distinctive morphology.
Project description:Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and a nutrient-rich surface for adhering marine bacteria. We have previously shown that chitin can induce the production of antibiotic compounds in Vibrionaceae, suggesting that the discovery of novel bioactive molecules from bacteria can be facilitated by mimicking their natural habitat. The purpose of this study was to determine the glycosyl hydrolase (GH) profiles of strains of the genus Pseudoalteromonas to enable selection of presumed growth substrates and explore possible links to secondary metabolism. Genomic analyses were conducted on 62 pigmented and 95 nonpigmented strains. Analysis of the total GH profiles and multidimensional scaling suggested that the degradation of chitin is a significant trait of pigmented strains, whereas nonpigmented strains seem to be driven toward the degradation of alga-derived carbohydrates. The genomes of all pigmented strains and 40 nonpigmented strains encoded at least one conserved chitin degradation cluster, and chitinolytic activity was phenotypically confirmed. Additionally, the genomes of all pigmented and a few nonpigmented strains encoded chitinases of the rare GH family 19. Pigmented strains devote up to 15% of their genome to secondary metabolism, while for nonpigmented species it was 3% at most. Thus, pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strains have a bioactive potential similar to that of well-known antibiotic producers of the Actinobacteria phylum. Growth on chitin did not measurably enhance the antibacterial activity of the strains; however, we demonstrated a remarkable co-occurrence of chitin degradation and the potential for secondary metabolite production in pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strains. This indicates that chitin and its colonizers of the Pseudoalteromonas genus represent a so far underexplored niche for novel enzymes and bioactive compounds.IMPORTANCE Infectious bacteria are developing and spreading resistance to conventional treatments at a rapid pace. To provide novel potent antimicrobials, we must develop new bioprospecting strategies. Here, we combined in silico and phenotypic approaches to explore the bioactive potential of the marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas We found that pigmented strains in particular represent an untapped resource of secondary metabolites and that they also harbor an elaborate chitinolytic machinery. Furthermore, our analysis showed that chitin is likely a preferred substrate for pigmented species, in contrast to nonpigmented species. Potentially, chitin could facilitate the production of new secondary metabolites in pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strains.
Project description:In October 1998, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assisted in an investigation of an outbreak of campylobacteriosis at a school in Salina, Kansas. Twenty-two isolates were submitted from the Kansas state public health laboratory to CDC, 9 associated with the outbreak and 13 epidemiologically unrelated sporadic isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI and SalI was initially used to validate the epidemiologic data. We then tested the ability of other subtyping techniques to distinguish the outbreak-associated isolates from unrelated sporadic isolates. The methods employed were somatic O serotyping, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of flaA, DNA sequence analysis of 582 bp of flaA that included the short variable region (SVR), and sequencing of the entire flaA gene. PFGE was the most discriminatory technique, yielding 11 SmaI and 10 SalI restriction profiles. All outbreak isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE, somatic O serotyping, and sequencing of the 582-bp region of the flaA gene. fla typing by PCR-RFLP grouped one sporadic isolate with the outbreak strain. Analysis of the DNA sequence of a 582-bp segment of flaA produced strain groupings similar to that generated by PCR-RFLP but further differentiated two flaA PCR-RFLP types (with a 1-bp difference in the 582-bp region). Two sporadic strains were distinct by flaA PCR-RFLP but differed only by a single base substitution in the 582-bp region. The entire flaA gene was sequenced from strains differing by a single base pair in the 582-bp region, and the data revealed that additional discrimination may in some cases be obtained by sequencing outside the SVR. PFGE was superior to all other typing methods tested for strain discrimination; it was crucial for understanding the Kansas outbreak and, when SmaI was used, provided adequate discrimination between unrelated isolates.