A combination DNA and attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine strategy provides enhanced protection from simian/human immunodeficiency virus-induced disease.
ABSTRACT: Among the most effective vaccine candidates tested in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque system, live attenuated viruses have been shown to provide the best protection from challenge. To investigate if preimmunization would increase the level of protection afforded by live attenuated SIVmac239Deltanef (Deltanef), macaques were given two priming immunizations of DNA encoding SIV Gag and Pol proteins, with control macaques receiving vector DNA immunizations. In macaques receiving the SIV DNA inoculation, SIV-specific cellular but not humoral responses were readily detectable 2 weeks after the second DNA inoculation. Following boosting with live attenuated virus, control of Deltanef replication was superior in SIV-DNA-primed macaques versus vector-DNA-primed macaques and was correlated with higher levels of CD8+/gamma-interferon-positive and/or interleukin-2-positive cells. Challenge with an intravenous inoculation of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain SHIV89.6p resulted in infection of all animals. However, macaques receiving SIV DNA as the priming immunizations had statistically lower viral loads than control animals and did not develop signs of disease, whereas three of seven macaques receiving vector DNA showed severe CD4+ T-cell decline, with development of AIDS in one of these animals. No correlation of immune responses to protection from disease could be derived from our analyses. These results demonstrate that addition of a DNA prime to a live attenuated virus provided better protection from disease following challenge than live attenuated virus alone.
Project description:Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated SIV may provide important insights into the immune responses needed for protection against HIV-1. Here we investigated the development of antibodies that are functional against neutralization-resistant SIV challenge strains, and tested the hypothesis that these antibodies are associated with protection. In the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies, Env-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) emerged by three weeks after inoculation with SIV?nef, increased progressively over time, and was proportional to SIV?nef replication. Persistent infection with SIV?nef elicited significantly higher ADCC titers than immunization with a non-persistent SIV strain that is limited to a single cycle of infection. ADCC titers were higher against viruses matched to the vaccine strain in Env, but were measurable against viruses expressing heterologous Env proteins. In two separate experiments, which took advantage of either the strain-specificity or the time-dependent maturation of immunity to overcome complete protection against SIV(mac)251 challenge, measures of ADCC activity were higher among the SIV?nef-inoculated macaques that remained uninfected than among those that became infected. These observations show that features of the antibody response elicited by SIV?nef are consistent with hallmarks of protection by live-attenuated SIV, and reveal an association between Env-specific antibodies that direct ADCC and apparent sterilizing protection by SIV?nef.
Project description:Delivering attenuated lentivirus vaccines as proviral DNA would be simple and inexpensive. Inoculation of macaques with wild-type simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac239 (SIV(mac239)) DNA or SIV(mac239) DNA containing a single deletion in the 3' nef-long terminal repeat overlap region (nef/LTR) led to sustained SIV infections and AIDS. Injection of SIV(mac239) DNA containing identical deletions in both the 5' LTR and 3' nef/LTR resulted in attenuated SIV infections and substantial protection against subsequent mucosal SIV(mac251) challenge.
Project description:Vaccination with SIVmac239?nef provides robust protection against subsequent challenge with wild-type simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), but safety issues have precluded designing an HIV-1 vaccine based on a live-attenuated virus concept. Safe immunogens and adjuvants that could reproduce identified immune correlates of SIVmac239?nef protection therefore offer an alternative path for development of an HIV vaccine. Here we describe SIV envelope trimeric gp41 (gp41t) immunogens based on a protective correlate of antibodies to gp41t concentrated on the path of virus entry by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in cervical vaginal epithelium. We developed a gp41t immunogen-monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant liposomal nanoparticle for intramuscular (i.m.) immunization and a gp41t-Fc immunogen for intranasal immunization for pilot studies in mice, rabbits, and rhesus macaques. Repeated immunizations to mimic persistent antigen exposure in infection elicited gp41t antibodies in rhesus macaques that were detectable in FcRn+ cervical vaginal epithelium, thus recapitulating one key feature of SIVmac239?nef vaccinated and protected animals. Although this strategy did not reproduce the system of local production of antibody in SIVmac239?nef-vaccinated animals, passive immunization experiments supported the concept that sufficiently high levels of antibody can be concentrated by the FcRn at mucosal frontlines, thus setting the stage for assessing protection against vaginal challenge by gp41t immunization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines represent the most effective means of vaccinating macaques against pathogenic SIV challenge. However, thus far, protection has been demonstrated to be more effective against homologous than heterologous strains. Immune correlates of vaccine-induced protection have also been difficult to identify, particularly those measurable in the peripheral circulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here we describe potent protection in 6 out of 8 Mauritian-derived cynomolgus macaques (MCM) against heterologous virus challenge with the pathogenic, uncloned SIVsmE660 viral stock following vaccination with live attenuated SIVmac251/C8. MCM provided a characterised host genetic background with limited Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and TRIM5? allelic diversity. Early protection, observed as soon as 3 weeks post-vaccination, was comparable to that of 20 weeks vaccination. Recrudescence of vaccine virus was most pronounced in breakthrough cases where simultaneous identification of vaccine and challenge viruses by virus-specific PCR was indicative of active co-infection. Persistence of the vaccine virus in a range of lymphoid tissues was typified by a consistent level of SIV RNA positive cells in protected vaccinates. However, no association between MHC class I/II haplotype or TRIM5? polymorphism and study outcome was identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE:This SIV vaccine study, conducted in MHC-characterised MCM, demonstrated potent protection against the pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenge stock after only 3 weeks vaccination. This level of protection against this viral stock by intravenous challenge has not been hitherto observed. The mechanism(s) of protection by vaccination with live attenuated SIV must account for the heterologous and early protection data described in this study, including those which relate to the innate immune system.
Project description:Rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with live-attenuated Rev-Independent Nef¯ simian immunodeficiency virus (Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV) as adults or neonates controlled viremia to undetectable levels and showed no signs of immunodeficiency over 6-8 years of follow-up. We tested the capacity of this live-attenuated virus to protect RMs against pathogenic, heterologous SIVsmE660 challenges Blood PBMC Time after SIV infection: 2 weeks post SIV infection Infection:Rev-Ind Nef¯SIV
Project description:In the quest for an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), live attenuated virus vaccines have proven to be very effective in the experimental model system of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques. However, live attenuated HIV vaccines are considered unsafe for use in humans because the attenuated virus may accumulate genetic changes during persistence and evolve to a pathogenic variant. As an alternative approach, we earlier presented a conditionally live HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively in the presence of doxycycline (DOX). Replication of this vaccine strain can be limited to the time that is needed to provide full protection through transient DOX administration. Since the effectiveness and safety of such a conditionally live AIDS vaccine should be tested in macaques, we constructed a similar DOX-dependent SIVmac239 variant in which the Tat-TAR (trans-acting responsive) transcription control mechanism was functionally replaced by the DOX-inducible Tet-On regulatory mechanism. Moreover, this virus can be used as a tool in SIV biology studies and vaccine research because both the level and duration of replication can be controlled by DOX administration. Unexpectedly, the new SIV variant required a wild-type Tat protein for replication, although gene expression was fully controlled by the incorporated Tet-On system. This result suggests that Tat has a second function in SIV replication in addition to its role in the activation of transcription.
Project description:Vaccination of macaques with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) provides significant protection against the wild-type virus. The use of a live attenuated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as AIDS vaccine in humans is however considered unsafe because of the risk that the attenuated virus may accumulate genetic changes during persistence and evolve to a pathogenic variant. We earlier presented a conditionally live HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively in the presence of doxycycline (dox). Replication of this vaccine strain can be limited to the time that is needed to provide full protection through transient dox administration. Since the effectiveness and safety of such a conditionally live virus vaccine should be tested in macaques, we constructed a similar dox-dependent SIV variant. The Tat-TAR transcription control mechanism in this virus was inactivated through mutation and functionally replaced by the dox-inducible Tet-On regulatory system. This SIV-rtTA variant replicated in a dox-dependent manner in T cell lines, but not as efficiently as the parental SIVmac239 strain. Since macaque studies will likely require an efficiently replicating variant, we set out to optimize SIV-rtTA through in vitro viral evolution.Upon long-term culturing of SIV-rtTA, additional nucleotide substitutions were observed in TAR that affect the structure of this RNA element but that do not restore Tat binding. We demonstrate that the bulge and loop mutations that we had introduced in the TAR element of SIV-rtTA to inactivate the Tat-TAR mechanism, shifted the equilibrium between two alternative conformations of TAR. The additional TAR mutations observed in the evolved variants partially or completely restored this equilibrium, which suggests that the balance between the two TAR conformations is important for efficient viral replication. Moreover, SIV-rtTA acquired mutations in the U3 promoter region. We demonstrate that these TAR and U3 changes improve viral replication in T-cell lines and macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but do not affect dox-control.The dox-dependent SIV-rtTA variant was optimized by viral evolution, yielding variants that can be used to test the conditionally live virus vaccine approach and as a tool in SIV biology studies and vaccine research.
Project description:Few studies have evaluated the impact of the viral challenge route on protection against a heterologous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge. We vaccinated seven macaques with a live attenuated SIV that differed from SIVmac239Δnef by 24 amino acids, called m3KOΔnef. All animals were protected from an intrarectal SIVmac239 challenge, whereas only four animals were protected from subsequent intravenous SIVmac239 challenge. These data suggest that immune responses elicited by vaccination with live attenuated SIV in an individual animal can confer protection from intrarectal challenge while remaining insufficient for protection from intravenous challenge.Our study is important because we show that vaccinated animals can be protected from a mucosal challenge with a heterologous SIV, but the same animals are not necessarily protected from intravenous challenge with the same virus. This is unique because in most studies, either vaccinated animals are challenged multiple times by the same route or only a single challenge is performed. An individually vaccinated animal is rarely challenged multiple times by different routes, so protection from different challenge routes cannot be measured in the same animal. Our data imply that vaccine-elicited responses in an individual animal may be insufficient for protection from intravenous challenge but may be suitable for protection from a mucosal challenge that better approximates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure.
Project description:HIV vaccine development has been hampered by issues such as undefined correlates of protection and extensive diversity of HIV. We addressed these issues using a previously established SIV-macaque model in which SIV mutants with deletions of multiple gp120 N-glycans function as potent live attenuated vaccines to induce near-sterile immunity against the parental pathogenic SIVmac239. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of these mutants against a highly pathogenic heterologous SIVsmE543-3 delivered intravenously to rhesus macaques with diverse MHC genotypes. All 11 vaccinated macaques contained the acute-phase infection with blood viral loads below the level of detection between 4 and 10 weeks postchallenge (pc), following a transient but marginal peak of viral replication at 2 weeks in only half of the challenged animals. In the chronic phase, seven vaccinees contained viral replication for over 80 weeks pc, while four did not. Neutralizing antibodies against challenge virus were not detected. Although overall levels of SIV specific T cell responses did not correlate with containment of acute and chronic viral replication, a critical role of cellular responses in the containment of viral replication was suggested. Emergence of viruses with altered fitness due to recombination between the vaccine and challenge viruses and increased gp120 glycosylation was linked to the failure to control SIV. These results demonstrate the induction of effective protective immune responses in a significant number of animals against heterologous virus by infection with deglycosylated attenuated SIV mutants in macaques with highly diverse MHC background. These findings suggest that broad HIV cross clade protection is possible, even in hosts with diverse genetic backgrounds. In summary, results of this study indicate that deglycosylated live-attenuated vaccines may provide a platform for the elucidation of correlates of protection needed for a successful HIV vaccine against diverse isolates.
Project description:Immunization of adult macaques with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) lacking the nef genes has been shown to protect against challenge with full-length pathogenic SIV. To test live attenuated virus vaccines for the first time in a natural host we have constructed a mutant SIV from African green monkeys (SIVagm) with a deletion of 125 bp in the nef gene (SIVagm3 delta nef). This mutant showed moderately delayed in vitro replication in the T cell line MOLT-4/8 and in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aetiops) and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) compared with cloned wild-type SIVagm3. In contrast, in vivo replication of SIVagm3 delta nef in African green monkeys was severely impaired or undetectable and did not induce seroconversion. After challenge with wild-type SIVagm3 the SIVagm3 delta nef preinoculated African green monkeys showed a memory antibody response that declined after week 2. In three of four African green monkeys the cell-associated virus load and in two of four African green monkeys the plasma virus load was dramatically decreased after the challenge compared with naive control animals. The remaining animal showed no evidence of productive challenge virus replication. This study demonstrates that a strong vaccine effect or protection in the SIVagm/African green monkey system is possible using a live attenuated vaccine in the absence of a productive infection and corresponding humoral immune response.