Trafficking defects of the Southeast Asian ovalocytosis deletion mutant of anion exchanger 1 membrane proteins.
ABSTRACT: Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a membrane glycoprotein found in erythrocytes and as a truncated form (kAE1) in the BLM (basolateral membrane) of a-intercalated cells of the distal nephron, where they carry out electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange. SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) is a dominant inherited haematological condition arising from deletion of Ala400-Ala408 in AE1, resulting in a misfolded and transport-inactive protein present in the ovalocyte membrane. Heterozygotes with SAO are able to acidify their urine, without symptoms of dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis) that can be associated with mutations in kAE1. We examined the effect of the SAO deletion on stability and trafficking of AE1 and kAE1 in transfected HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and kAE1 in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells. In HEK-293 cells, expression levels and stabilities of SAO proteins were significantly reduced, and no mutant protein was detected at the cell surface. The intracellular retention of AE1 SAO in transfected HEK-293 cells suggests that erythroid-specific factors lacking in HEK-293 cells may be required for cell-surface expression. Although misfolded, SAO proteins could form heterodimers with the normal proteins, as well as homodimers. In MDCK cells, kAE1 was localized to the cell surface or the BLM after polarization, while kAE1 SAO was retained intracellularly. When kAE1 SAO was co-expressed with kAE1 in MDCK cells, kAE1 SAO was largely retained intracellularly; however, it also co-localized with kAE1 at the cell surface. We propose that, in the kidney of heterozygous SAO patients, dimers of kAE1 and heterodimers of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 traffic to the BLM of a-intercalated cells, while homodimers of kAE1 SAO are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. This results in sufficient cell-surface expression of kAE1 to maintain adequate bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion without dRTA.
Project description:Autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) has been associated with several mutations in the anion exchanger AE1 gene. The effect of an 11-amino-acid C-terminal dRTA truncation mutation (901 stop) on the expression of kidney AE1 (kAE1) and erythroid AE1 was examined in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. Unlike the wild-type proteins, kAE1 901 stop and AE1 901 stop mutants exhibited impaired trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane as determined by immunolocalization, cell-surface biotinylation, oligosaccharide processing and pulse-chase experiments. The 901 stop mutants were able to bind to an inhibitor affinity resin, suggesting that these mutant membrane proteins were not grossly misfolded. Co-expression of wild-type and mutant kAE1 or AE1 resulted in intracellular retention of the wild-type proteins in a pre-medial Golgi compartment. This dominant negative effect was due to hetero-oligomer formation of the mutant and wild-type proteins. Intracellular retention of kAE1 in the alpha-intercalated cells of the kidney would account for the impaired acid secretion into the urine characteristic of dRTA.
Project description:Various conditions including distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can induce stone formation in the kidney. dRTA is characterized by an impairment of urine acidification in the distal nephron. dRTA is caused by variations in genes functioning in intercalated cells including SLC4A1/AE1/Band3 transcribing two kinds of mRNAs encoding the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in erythrocytes and that expressed in α-intercalated cells (kAE1). With the acid-loading test, 25% of urolithiasis patients were diagnosed with incomplete dRTA. In erythroid intron 3 containing the promoter region of kAE1, rs999716 SNP showed a significantly higher minor allele A frequency in incomplete dRTA compared with non-dRTA patients. The promoter regions of the kAE1 gene with the minor allele A at rs999716 downstream of the TATA box showed reduced promoter activities compared that with the major allele G. Patients with the A allele at rs999716 may express less kAE1 mRNA and protein in the intercalated cells, developing incomplete dRTA.
Project description:We describe three mutations of the red-cell anion exchangerband 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) gene associated with distalrenal tubular acidosis (dRTA) in families from Malaysia and Papua NewGuinea: Gly(701)-->Asp (G701D), Ala(858)-->Asp(A858D) and deletion of Val(850) (DeltaV850). The mutationsA858D and DeltaV850 are novel; all three mutations seem to berestricted to South-East Asian populations. South-East Asianovalocytosis (SAO), resulting from the band 3 deletion of residues400-408, occurred in many of the families but did not itselfresult in dRTA. Compound heterozygotes of each of the dRTA mutationswith SAO all had dRTA, evidence of haemolytic anaemia and abnormal red-cell properties. The A858D mutation showed dominant inheritance and therecessive DeltaV850 and G701D mutations showed a pseudo-dominantphenotype when the transport-inactive SAO allele was also present. Red-cell and Xenopus oocyte expression studies showed that theDeltaV850 and A858D mutant proteins have greatly decreased aniontransport when present as compound heterozygotes (DeltaV850/A858D,DeltaV850/SAO or A858D/SAO). Red cells with A858D/SAO had only 3% ofthe SO(4)(2-) efflux of normal cells, thelowest anion transport activity so far reported for human red cells. The results suggest dRTA might arise by a different mechanism for eachmutation. We confirm that the G701D mutant protein has an absoluterequirement for glycophorin A for movement to the cell surface. Wesuggest that the dominant A858D mutant protein is possibly mis-targetedto an inappropriate plasma membrane domain in the renal tubular cell,and that the recessive DeltaV850 mutation might give dRTA because ofits decreased anion transport activity.
Project description:Mutations of SLC4A1 (AE1) encoding the kidney anion (Cl(-)/HCO(3) (-)) exchanger 1 (kAE1 or band 3) can result in either autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). The molecular mechanisms associated with SLC4A1 mutations resulting in these different modes of inheritance are now being unveiled using transfected cell systems. The dominant mutants kAE1 R589H, R901X and S613F, which have normal or insignificant changes in anion transport function, exhibit intracellular retention with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization in cultured non-polarized and polarized cells, while the dominant mutants kAE1 R901X and G609R are mis-targeted to apical membrane in addition to the basolateral membrane in cultured polarized cells. A dominant-negative effect is likely responsible for the dominant disease because heterodimers of kAE1 mutants and the wild-type protein are intracellularly retained. The recessive mutants kAE1 G701D and S773P however exhibit distinct trafficking defects. The kAE1 G701D mutant is retained in the Golgi apparatus, while the misfolded kAE1 S773P, which is impaired in ER exit and is degraded by proteosome, can only partially be delivered to the basolateral membrane of the polarized cells. In contrast to the dominant mutant kAE1, heterodimers of the recessive mutant kAE1 and wild-type kAE1 are able to traffic to the plasma membrane. The wild-type kAE1 thus exhibits a 'dominant-positive effect' relative to the recessive mutant kAE1 because it can rescue the mutant proteins from intracellular retention to be expressed at the cell surface. Consequently, homozygous or compound heterozygous recessive mutations are required for presentation of the disease phenotype. Future work using animal models of dRTA will provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of this disease.
Project description:Distal nephron acid secretion is mediated by highly specialized type A intercalated cells (A-ICs), which contain vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-type ATPase)-rich vesicles that fuse with the apical plasma membrane on demand. Intracellular bicarbonate generated by luminal H+ secretion is removed by the basolateral anion-exchanger AE1. Chronically reduced renal acid excretion in distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) may lead to nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. Studies in MDCK monolayers led to the proposal of a dominant-negative trafficking mechanism to explain AE1-associated dominant dRTA. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated an Ae1 R607H knockin mouse, which corresponds to the most common dominant dRTA mutation in human AE1, R589H. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous and homozygous R607H knockin mice displayed incomplete dRTA characterized by compensatory upregulation of the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1. Red blood cell Ae1-mediated anion-exchange activity and surface polypeptide expression did not change. Mutant mice expressed far less Ae1 in A-ICs, but basolateral targeting of the mutant protein was preserved. Notably, mutant mice also exhibited reduced expression of V-type ATPase and compromised targeting of this proton pump to the plasma membrane upon acid challenge. Accumulation of p62- and ubiquitin-positive material in A-ICs of knockin mice suggested a defect in the degradative pathway, which may explain the observed loss of A-ICs. R607H knockin did not affect type B intercalated cells. We propose that reduced basolateral anion-exchange activity in A-ICs inhibits trafficking and regulation of V-type ATPase, compromising luminal H+ secretion and possibly lysosomal acidification.
Project description:AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes, where it mediates the electroneutral exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, a process important in CO2 removal from tissues. It had been previously shown that human AE1 purified from erythrocytes is covalently modified at Cys-843 in the membrane domain with palmitic acid. In this study, the role of Cys-843 in human AE1 trafficking was investigated by expressing various AE1 and Cys-843Ala (C843A) mutant constructs in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells. The AE1 C843A mutant was expressed to a similar level to AE1. The rate of N-glycan conversion from high-mannose into complex form in a glycosylation mutant (N555) of AE1 C843A, and thus the rate of trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, were comparable with that of AE1 (N555). Like AE1, AE1 C843A could be biotinylated at the cell surface, indicating that a cysteine residue at position 843 is not required for cell-surface expression of the protein. The turnover rate of AE1 C843A was not significantly different from AE1. While other proteins could be palmitoylated, labelling of transiently transfected HEK-293 cells or COS7 cells with [3H]palmitic acid failed to produce any detectable AE1 palmitoylation. These results suggest that AE1 is not palmitoylated in HEK-293 or COS7 cells and can traffic to the plasma membrane.
Project description:Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the ?-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1.
Project description:Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1), or Band 3, is an abundant membrane glycoprotein found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. The physiological role of the protein is to carry out chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the plasma membrane, a process that increases the carbon-dioxide-carrying capacity of blood. To study the topology of TMs (transmembrane segments) 1-4, a series of scanning N-glycosylation mutants were created spanning the region from EC (extracellular loop) 1 to EC2 in full-length AE1. These constructs were expressed in HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells, and their N-glycosylation efficiencies were determined. Unexpectedly, positions within putative TMs 2 and 3 could be efficiently glycosylated. In contrast, the same positions were very poorly glycosylated when present in mutant AE1 with the SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) deletion (DeltaA400-A408) in TM1. These results suggest that the TM2-3 region of AE1 may become transiently exposed to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen during biosynthesis, and that there is a competition between proper folding of the region into the membrane and N-glycosylation at introduced sites. The SAO deletion disrupts the proper integration of TMs 1-2, probably leaving the region exposed to the cytosol. As a result, engineered N-glycosylation acceptor sites in TM2-3 could not be utilized by the oligosaccharyltransferase in this mutant form of AE1. The properties of TM2-3 suggest that these segments form a re-entrant loop in human AE1.
Project description:The AE1 gene encodes band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers that are expressed both in the erythrocyte and in the acid-secreting, type A intercalated cells of the kidney. Kidney AE1 contributes to urinary acidification by providing the major exit route for HCO3- across the basolateral membrane. Several AE1 mutations cosegregate with dominantly transmitted nonsyndromic renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, the modest degree of in vitro hypofunction exhibited by these dRTA-associated mutations fails to explain the disease phenotype in light of the normal urinary acidification associated with the complete loss-of-function exhibited by AE1 mutations linked to dominant spherocytosis. We report here novel AE1 mutations linked to a recessive syndrome of dRTA and hemolytic anemia in which red cell anion transport is normal. Both affected individuals were triply homozygous for two benign mutations M31T and K56E and for the loss-of-function mutation, G701D. AE1 G701D loss-of-function was accompanied by impaired trafficking to the Xenopus oocyte surface. Coexpression with AE1 G701D of the erythroid AE1 chaperonin, glycophorin A, rescued both AE1-mediated Cl- transport and AE1 surface expression in oocytes. The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport.
Project description:The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE)1 (Band 3) contains a single complex N-linked oligosaccharide that is attached to Asn(642) in the fourth extracellular loop of this polytopic membrane protein, while other isoforms (AE2, AE3 and trout AE1) are N-glycosylated on the preceding extracellular loop. Human AE1 expressed in transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 or COS-7 cells contained a high-mannose oligosaccharide. The lack of oligosaccharide processing was not due to retention of AE1 in the endoplasmic reticulum since biotinylation assays showed that approx. 30% of the protein was expressed at the cell surface. Moving the N-glycosylation site to the preceding extracellular loop in an AE1 glycosylation mutant (N555) resulted in processing of the oligosaccharide and production of a complex form of AE1. A double N-glycosylation mutant (N555/N642) contained both a high-mannose and a complex oligosaccharide chain. The complex form of the N555 mutant could be biotinylated showing that this form of the glycoprotein was at the cell surface. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the N555 mutant was efficiently converted from a high-mannose to a complex oligosaccharide with a half-time of approx. 4 h, which reflected the time course of trafficking of AE1 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. The turnover of the complex form of the N555 mutant occurred with a half-life of approx. 15 h. The results show that the oligosaccharide attached to the endogenous site in extracellular loop 4 in human AE1 is not processed in HEK-293 or COS-7 cells, while the oligosaccharide attached to the preceding loop is converted into the complex form.