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Trafficking defects of the Southeast Asian ovalocytosis deletion mutant of anion exchanger 1 membrane proteins.

ABSTRACT: Human AE1 (anion exchanger 1) is a membrane glycoprotein found in erythrocytes and as a truncated form (kAE1) in the BLM (basolateral membrane) of a-intercalated cells of the distal nephron, where they carry out electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange. SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) is a dominant inherited haematological condition arising from deletion of Ala400-Ala408 in AE1, resulting in a misfolded and transport-inactive protein present in the ovalocyte membrane. Heterozygotes with SAO are able to acidify their urine, without symptoms of dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis) that can be associated with mutations in kAE1. We examined the effect of the SAO deletion on stability and trafficking of AE1 and kAE1 in transfected HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and kAE1 in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells. In HEK-293 cells, expression levels and stabilities of SAO proteins were significantly reduced, and no mutant protein was detected at the cell surface. The intracellular retention of AE1 SAO in transfected HEK-293 cells suggests that erythroid-specific factors lacking in HEK-293 cells may be required for cell-surface expression. Although misfolded, SAO proteins could form heterodimers with the normal proteins, as well as homodimers. In MDCK cells, kAE1 was localized to the cell surface or the BLM after polarization, while kAE1 SAO was retained intracellularly. When kAE1 SAO was co-expressed with kAE1 in MDCK cells, kAE1 SAO was largely retained intracellularly; however, it also co-localized with kAE1 at the cell surface. We propose that, in the kidney of heterozygous SAO patients, dimers of kAE1 and heterodimers of kAE1 SAO and kAE1 traffic to the BLM of a-intercalated cells, while homodimers of kAE1 SAO are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. This results in sufficient cell-surface expression of kAE1 to maintain adequate bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion without dRTA.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1316280 | BioStudies | 2005-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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