The N-terminal 26-residue fragment of human programmed cell death 5 protein can form a stable alpha-helix having unique electrostatic potential character.
ABSTRACT: PDCD5-(1-26) is a N-terminal 26-residue fragment of human PDCD5 (programmed cell death 5) protein. PDCD5 is an important novel protein that regulates both apoptotic and non-apoptotic programmed cell death. The conformation of PDCD5 protein is a stable helical core consisting of a triple-helix bundle and two dissociated terminal regions. The N-terminal region is ordered and contains abundant secondary structure. Overexpression and purification of the N-terminal 26-residure fragment, PDCD5-(1-26), was performed in this study to better understand its tertiary structure. The spectroscopic studies using CD and hetero- and homo-nuclear NMR methods determine a stable alpha-helix formed by Asp3-Ala19 of PDCD5-(1-26). The N-terminal residues Asp3-Ala19 of PDCD5 were then affirmed to have the capacity to form a stable alpha-helix independently of the core of the protein. Analysis of the helical peptide of PDCD5-(1-26) indicates that the surface of this well-formed alpha-helix has a unique electrostatic potential character. This may provide an environment for the N-terminal alpha-helix of PDCD5 to serve as an independent functional entity of the protein. The apoptosis activity assay shows that the deletion of the N-terminal alpha-helix of PDCD5 significantly attenuates the apoptosis-promoting effects on HL-60 cells induced by serum withdrawal.
Project description:Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is a vital signaling protein in the apoptosis pathway in eukaryotes. It is known that there are two dissociated N-terminal regions and a triple-helix core in eukaryotic PDCD5. Structural and functional studies of PDCD5 from hyperthermophilic archaea have been limited to date. Here, the PDCD5 homolog Sso0352 (SsoPDCD5) was identified in Sulfolobus solfataricus, the SsoPDCD5 protein was expressed and crystallized, and the phase was identified by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. The native SsoPDCD5 crystal belonged to space group C2 and diffracted to 1.49?Å resolution. This is the first crystal structure of a PDCD5 homolog to be solved. SsoPDCD5 shares a similar triple-helix bundle with eukaryotic PDCD5 but has a long ?-helix in the N-terminus. A structural search and biochemical data suggest that SsoPDCD5 may function as a DNA-binding protein.
Project description:The inhibition of p53 activity by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been reported, but the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) selectively mediates HDAC3 dissociation from p53, which induces HDAC3 cleavage and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Casein kinase 2 alpha phosphorylates PDCD5 at Ser-119 to enhance its stability and importin 13-mediated nuclear translocation of PDCD5. Genetic deletion of PDCD5 abrogates etoposide (ET)-induced p53 stabilization and HDAC3 cleavage, indicating an essential role of PDCD5 in p53 activation. Restoration of PDCD5(WT) in PDCD5(-/-) MEFs restores ET-induced HDAC3 cleavage. Reduction of both PDCD5 and p53, but not reduction of either protein alone, significantly enhances in vivo tumorigenicity of AGS gastric cancer cells and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Our results define a mechanism for p53 activation via PDCD5-dependent HDAC3 decay under genotoxic stress conditions.
Project description:800 MHz NMR structure of the 28-residue peptide thymosin alpha-1 in 40% TFE/60% water (v/v) has been determined. Restrained molecular dynamic simulations with an explicit solvent box containing 40% TFE/60% TIP3P water (v/v) were used, in order to get the 3D model of the NMR structure. We found that the peptide adopts a structured conformation having two stable regions: an alpha-helix region from residues 14 to 26 and two double ?-turns in the N-terminal twelve residues which form a distorted helical structure.
Project description:Alpha-helices constitute the largest class of protein secondary structures and play a major role in mediating protein-protein interactions. Development of stable mimics of short alpha-helices would be invaluable for inhibition of protein-protein interactions. This Account describes our efforts in developing a general approach for constraining short peptides in alpha-helical conformations by a main-chain hydrogen bond surrogate (HBS) strategy. The HBS alpha-helices feature a carbon-carbon bond derived from a ring-closing metathesis reaction in place of an N-terminal intramolecular hydrogen bond between the peptide i and i + 4 residues. Our approach is centered on the helix-coil transition theory in peptides, which suggests that the energetically demanding organization of three consecutive amino acids into the helical orientation inherently limits the stability of short alpha-helices. The HBS method affords preorganized alpha-turns to overcome this intrinsic nucleation barrier and initiate helix formation. The HBS approach is an attractive strategy for generation of ligands for protein receptors because placement of the cross-link on the inside of the helix does not block solvent-exposed molecular recognition surfaces of the molecule. Our metathesis-based synthetic strategy utilizes standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis methodology, resins, and reagents and provides HBS helices in sufficient amounts for subsequent biophysical and biological analyses. Extensive conformational analysis of HBS alpha-helices with 2D NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography confirms the alpha-helical structure in these compounds. The crystal structure indicates that all i and i + 4 C=O and NH hydrogen-bonding partners fall within distances and angles expected for a fully hydrogen-bonded alpha-helix. The backbone conformation of HBS alpha-helix in the crystal structure superimposes with an rms difference of 0.75 A onto the backbone conformation of a model alpha-helix. Significantly, the backbone torsion angles for the HBS helix residues fall within the range expected for a canonical alpha-helix. Thermal and chemical denaturation studies suggest that the HBS approach provides exceptionally stable alpha-helices from a variety of short sequences, which retain their helical conformation in aqueous buffers at exceptionally high temperatures. The high degree of thermal stability observed for HBS helices is consistent with the theoretical predictions for a nucleated helix. The HBS approach was devised to afford internally constrained helices so that the molecular recognition surface of the helix and its protein binding properties are not compromised by the constraining moiety. Notably, our preliminary studies illustrate that HBS helices can target their expected protein receptors with high affinity.
Project description:Low expression levels of the programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) gene have been reported in numerous human cancers, however, PDCD5 expression has not been investigated in hepatic cancer. The present study aims to investigate the biological behavior of PDCD5 overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The PDCD5 gene was stably transfected into the HepG2 HCC cell line (HepG2-PDCD5), and the expression levels of PDCD5 were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. An MTT assay was used to assess the cellular proliferating ability, and propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to evaluate the cell cycle by flow cytometry. The cells were incubated with 2 ng/ml transforming growth factor (TGF)-? for 7 days in order to induce invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and PI double labeling. A Boyden chamber invasion assay was carried out to detect tumor invasion. Western blotting was performed to detect the protein expression levels of PDCD5, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and the EMT marker, Snail. The results showed that the HepG2-PDCD5 cells exhibited slower proliferation rates and high G2/M cell numbers compared with those of the HepG2 and HepG2-Neo controls (P<0.05). The PDCD5 transfected cells showed higher sensitivity to cisplatin treatment than the HepG2-Neo cells, with a higher p53 protein expression level. PDCD5 overexpression can attenuate tumor invasion, EMT and the level of IGF-1 protein induced by TGF-? treatment. In conclusion, stable transfection of the PDCD5 gene can inhibit growth and induce cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells, and its also notably improves the apoptosis-inducing effects of cisplatin, and reverses invasion and EMT induced by TGF-?. The use of PDCD5 is a novel strategy for improving the chemotherapeutic effects on HCC.
Project description:The structure and dynamics of a large segment of Ste2p, the G-protein-coupled alpha-factor receptor from yeast, were studied in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles using solution NMR spectroscopy. We investigated the 73-residue peptide EL3-TM7-CT40 consisting of the third extracellular loop 3 (EL3), the seventh transmembrane helix (TM7), and 40 residues from the cytosolic C-terminal domain (CT40). The structure reveals the presence of an alpha-helix in the segment encompassing residues 10-30, which is perturbed around the internal Pro-24 residue. Root mean-square deviation values of individually superimposed helical segments 10-20 and 25-30 were 0.91 +/- 0.33 A and 0.76 +/- 0.37 A, respectively. 15N-relaxation and residual dipolar coupling data support a rather stable fold for the TM7 part of EL3-TM7-CT40, whereas the EL3 and CT40 segments are more flexible. Spin-label data indicate that the TM7 helix integrates into DPC micelles but is flexible around the internal Pro-24 site, exposing residues 22-26 to solution and reveal a second site of interaction with the micelle within a region comprising residues 43-58, which forms part of a less well-defined nascent helix. These findings are discussed in light of previous studies in organic-aqueous solvent systems.
Project description:Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is a cytosolic protein suppressing growth of multiple types of cancer cells through activating p53. We hypothesized that PDCD5 plays an essential role in cardiac remodeling and function. PDCD5 was significantly up-regulated in the hearts from mice subjected to angiotensin II treatment or transverse aortic constriction. Thus, we generated transgenic mice over-expressing human PDCD5 under the control of alpha myosin heavy chain promoter to examine the role of PDCD5 in cardiac remodeling. Transgenic founder died spontaneously displayed enlarged heart. The high PDCD5 over-expressing line (10-fold) showed reduced survival rate, increase in heart weight normalized to body weight. Real-Time RT-PCR analysis revealed fetal gene program was up-regulated. Echocardiography and histopathological examination showed characteristics of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure in transgenic mice. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed autophagy was dramatically increased in transgenic mice as compared to WT littermates control mice, while apoptosis remained unchanged. The enhanced autophagy in high over-expressing line was associated with significant increase in p53 activity and its downstream target damage-regulated autophagy modulator expression. The low over-expressing line (3.5-fold) appeared normal, but was more susceptible to angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This study is the first providing evidence that PDCD5 plays an important role in cardiac remodeling.
Project description:Invariant natural killer T1 (iNKT1) cells are characterized by the preferential expression of T-box transcription factor T-bet (encoded by Tbx21) and the production of cytokine IFN-?, but the relationship between the developmental process and iNKT1 lineage diversification in the thymus remains elusive. We report in the present study a crucial role of programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) in iNKT cell terminal maturation and iNKT1 fate determination. Mice with T cell-specific deletion of PDCD5 had decreased numbers of thymic and peripheral iNKT cells with a predominantly immature phenotype and defects in response to ?-galactosylceramide. Loss of PDCD5 also selectively abolished the iNKT1 lineage by reducing T-bet expression in iNKT cells at an early thymic developmental stage (before CD44 upregulation). We further demonstrated that TOX2, one of the high mobility group proteins that was highly expressed in iNKT cells at stage 1 and could be stabilized by PDCD5, promoted the permissive histone H3K4me3 modification in the promoter region of Tbx21. These data indicate a pivotal and unique role of PDCD5/TOX2 in iNKT1 lineage determination. They also suggest that the fate of iNKT1 may be programmed at the developmental stage of iNKT cells in the thymus.
Project description:Tip60 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) involved in the acetyltransferase activity and the cellular response to DNA damage. Here, we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5), a human apoptosis-related protein, binds to Tip60 and enhances the stability of Tip60 protein in unstressed conditions. The binding amount of PDCD5 and Tip60 is significantly increased after UV irradiation. Further, PDCD5 enhances HAT activity of Tip60 and Tip60-dependent histone acetylation in both basal and UV-induced levels. We also find that PDCD5 increases Tip60-dependent K120 acetylation of p53 and participates in the p53-dependent expression of apoptosis-related genes, such as Bax. Moreover, we demonstrate the biological significance of the PDCD5-Tip60 interaction; that is, they function in cooperation to accelerate DNA damage-induced apoptosis and knockdown of PDCD5 or Tip60 impairs their apoptosis-accelerating activity, mutually. Consistent with this, PDCD5 levels increase significantly on DNA damage in U2OS cells, as does Tip60. Together, our findings indicate that PDCD5 may play a dual role in the Tip60 pathway. Specifically, under normal growth conditions, PDCD5 contributes to maintaining a basal pool of Tip60 and its HAT activity. After DNA damage, PDCD5 functions as a Tip60 coactivator to promote apoptosis.
Project description:The bundling of the N-terminal, partial domain helix (Helix C') of human erythroid alpha-spectrin (alphaI) with the C-terminal, partial domain helices (Helices A' and B') of erythroid beta-spectrin (betaI) to give a spectrin pseudo structural domain (triple helical bundle A'B'C') has long been recognized as a crucial step in forming functional spectrin tetramers in erythrocytes. We have used apparent polarity and Stern-Volmer quenching constants of Helix C' of alphaI bound to Helices A' and B' of betaI, along with previous NMR and EPR results, to propose a model for the triple helical bundle. This model was used as the input structure for molecular dynamics simulations for both wild type (WT) and alphaI mutant L49F. The simulation output structures show a stable helical bundle for WT, but not for L49F. In WT, four critical interactions were identified: two hydrophobic clusters and two salt bridges. However, in L49F, the region downstream of Helix C' was unable to assume a helical conformation and one critical hydrophobic cluster was disrupted. Other molecular interactions critical to the WT helical bundle were also weakened in L49F, possibly leading to the lower tetramer levels observed in patients with this mutation-induced blood disorder.