Identification and characterization of a tissue-specific coactivator, GT198, that interacts with the DNA-binding domains of nuclear receptors.
ABSTRACT: Gene activation mediated by nuclear receptors is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and requires interactions between nuclear receptors and their cofactors. Here, we identified and characterized a tissue-specific coactivator, GT198, that interacts with the DNA-binding domains of nuclear receptors. GT198 was originally described as a genomic transcript that mapped to the human breast cancer susceptibility locus 17q12-q21 with unknown function. We show that GT198 exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern in which its mRNA is elevated in testis, spleen, thymus, pituitary cells, and several cancer cell lines. GT198 is a 217-amino-acid nuclear protein that contains a leucine zipper required for its dimerization. In vitro binding and yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that GT198 interacted with nuclear receptors through their DNA-binding domains. GT198 potently stimulated transcription mediated by estrogen receptor alpha and beta, thyroid hormone receptor beta1, androgen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor. However, the action of GT198 was distinguishable from that of the ligand-binding domain-interacting nuclear receptor coactivators, such as TRBP, CBP, and SRC-1, with respect to basal activation and hormone sensitivity. Furthermore, protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinase can phosphorylate GT198 in vitro, and cotransfection of these kinases regulated the transcriptional activity of GT198. These data suggest that GT198 is a tissue-specific, kinase-regulated nuclear receptor coactivator that interacts with the DNA-binding domains of nuclear receptors.
Project description:Human breast cancer precursor cells remain to be elucidated. Using breast cancer gene product GT198 (PSMC3IP; alias TBPIP or Hop2) as a unique marker, we revealed the cellular identities of GT198 mutant cells in human breast tumor stroma. GT198 is a steroid hormone receptor coactivator and a crucial factor in DNA repair. Germline mutations in GT198 are present in breast and ovarian cancer families. Somatic mutations in GT198 are present in ovarian tumor stromal cells. Herein, we show that human breast tumor stromal cells carry GT198 somatic mutations and express cytoplasmic GT198 protein. GT198(+) stromal cells share vascular smooth muscle cell origin, including myoepithelial cells, adipocytes, capillary pericytes, and stromal fibroblasts. Frequent GT198 mutations are associated with GT198(+) tumor stroma but not with GT198(-) tumor cells. GT198(+) progenitor cells are mostly capillary pericytes. When tested in cultured cells, mutant GT198 induces vascular endothelial growth factor promoter, and potentially promotes angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Our results suggest that multiple lineages of breast tumor stromal cells are mutated in GT198. These findings imply the presence of mutant progenitors, whereas their descendants, carrying the same GT198 mutations, are collectively responsible for forming breast tumor microenvironment. GT198 expression is, therefore, a specific marker of mutant breast tumor stroma and has the potential to facilitate diagnosis and targeted treatment of human breast cancer.
Project description:Alternative pre-mRNA splicing yields functionally distinct splice variants in regulating normal cell differentiation as well as cancer development. The putative tumor suppressor gene GT198 (PSMC3IP), encoding a protein also known as TBPIP and Hop2, has been shown to regulate steroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription and to stimulate homologous recombination in DNA repair. Here, we have identified 6 distinct GT198 splice variant transcripts generated by alternative promoter usage or alternative splicing. Various splice variant transcripts preserve a common open reading frame, which encodes the DNA binding domain of GT198. The splice variants act as dominant negatives to counteract wild-type GT198 activity in transcription and to abolish Rad51 foci formation during radiation-induced DNA damage. In fallopian tube cancer, we have identified 44 point mutations in GT198 clustered in 2 mutation hotspot sequences. The mutation hotspots coincide with the regulatory sequences responsible for alternative splicing, strongly supporting that imbalanced alternative splicing is a selected consequence in cancer. In addition, splice variant-associated cytoplasmic expression is found in tumors carrying germline or somatic GT198 mutations. An altered alternative splicing pattern with increased variants is also present in lymphoblastoid cells derived from familial breast cancer patients carrying GT198 germline mutations. Furthermore, GT198 and its variant are reciprocally expressed during mouse stem cell differentiation. The constitutive expression of the GT198 variant but not the wild type induces tumor growth in nude mice. Our results collectively suggest that mutations in the GT198 gene deregulate alternative splicing. Defective alternative splicing promotes antagonizing variants and in turn induces a loss of the wild type in tumorigenesis. The study highlights the role of alternative splicing in tumor suppressor gene inactivation.
Project description:GT198, located 470 kb downstream of BRCA1, encodes for the nuclear PSMC3-interacting protein, which functions as co-activator of steroid hormone-mediated gene expression, and is involved in RAD51 and DMC1-mediated homologous recombination during DNA repair of double-strand breaks. Recently, germline variants in GT198 have been identified in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients, mainly in cases with early-onset. We screened a cohort of 166 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative HBOC patients, of which 56 developed early-onset breast cancer before the age of 36 years, for GT198 variants. We identified 7 novel or rare GT198 variants in 8 out of 166 index patients: c.-115G>A (rs191843707); c.-70T>A (rs752276800); c.-37A>T (rs199620968); c.-24C>G (rs200359709); c.519G>A p.(Trp173*); c.537+51G>C (rs375509656); c.*24G>A. Three out of 7 identified variants (c.-115G>A, c.519G>A and c.*24G>A) with putative pathogenic impact were found in HBOC patients with breast cancer onset at ≤ 36 years. The nonsense mutation c.519G>A p.(Trp173*) was located within the DNA binding domain of GT198 and is predicted to induce nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Functional analyses of c.-115G>A, and c.*24A>G indicated an influence of these variants on gene expression. This is the second study that gives evidence for an association between pathogenic GT198 germline variants and early-onset breast cancer in HBOC.
Project description:Angiogenesis promotes tumor development. Understanding the crucial factors regulating tumor angiogenesis may reveal new therapeutic targets. Human GT198 (PSMC3IP or Hop2) is an oncoprotein encoded by a DNA repair gene that is overexpressed in tumor stromal vasculature to stimulate the expression of angiogenic factors. Here we show that pericytes expressing GT198 give rise to tumor cells through angiogenesis. GT198+ pericytes and perivascular cells are commonly present in the stromal compartment of various human solid tumors and rodent xenograft tumor models. In human oral cancer, GT198+ pericytes proliferate into GT198+ tumor cells, which migrate into lymph nodes. Increased GT198 expression is associated with increased lymph node metastasis and decreased progression-free survival in oral cancer patients. In rat brain U-251 glioblastoma xenografts, GT198+ pericytes of human tumor origin encase endothelial cells of rat origin to form mosaic angiogenic blood vessels, and differentiate into pericyte-derived tumor cells. The net effect is continued production of glioblastoma tumor cells from malignant pericytes via angiogenesis. In addition, activation of GT198 induces the expression of VEGF and promotes tube formation in cultured U251 cells. Furthermore, vaccination using GT198 protein as an antigen in mouse xenograft of GL261 glioma delayed tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival. Together, these findings suggest that GT198-expressing malignant pericytes can give rise to tumor cells through angiogenesis, and serve as a potential source of cells for distant metastasis. Hence, the oncoprotein GT198 has the potential to be a new target in anti-angiogenic therapies in human cancer.
Project description:The human GT198 gene (gene symbol PSMC3IP) is located at chromosome 17q21, 470 kb proximal to BRCA1, a locus previously linked to breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. Its protein product (also known as TBPIP and Hop2) has been shown to regulate steroid hormone receptor-mediated gene activation and to stimulate homologous recombination in DNA repair. Here, we screened germline mutations in GT198 in familial and early-onset breast and ovarian cancer patients. We have identified 8 germline variants in a total of 212 index patients including reoccurring nonsense mutation c.310C>T (p.Q104X) and 5' UTR mutation c.-37A>T, each found in 2 unrelated families. Most identified index patients from cancer families had early onsets with a median age of 35 years. c.310C>T was absent in a total of 564 control individuals analyzed. GT198 gene amplification with an imbalanced mutant copy gain was identified in the blood DNA of one of the patients carrying c.310C>T. When tested, this truncating mutation abolished DNA damage-induced Rad51 foci formation. In addition, we have identified 15 somatic mutations in 2 tumors from 1 patient carrying germline mutation c.-37A>T. The presence of a somatic mutation on the wild-type allele showed that GT198 was biallelically mutated in the tumor. The somatic mutations identified near a splicing junction site caused defective alternative splicing and truncated the open reading frame. Therefore, distinct mutations may cause a similar consequence by truncating the full-length protein and inducing a loss of the wild type. Our study provides the first evidence of the presence of inactivating mutations in GT198 in familial and early-onset breast and ovarian cancer patients. Mutations in GT198, a gene regulating DNA repair, potentially contribute to an increased risk in familial breast and ovarian cancers.
Project description:Transcriptional activation by nuclear hormone receptors is mediated by the 160-kDa family of nuclear receptor coactivators. These coactivators associate with DNA-bound nuclear receptors and transmit activating signals to the transcription machinery through two activation domains. In screening for mammalian proteins that bind the C-terminal activation domain of the nuclear receptor coactivator GRIP1, we identified a new variant of mouse Zac1 which we call mZac1b. Zac1 was previously discovered as a putative transcriptional activator involved in regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle. In yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro, mZac1b bound to GRIP1, to CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 (which are coactivators for nuclear receptors and other transcriptional activators), and to nuclear receptors themselves in a hormone-independent manner. In transient-transfection assays mZac1b exhibited a transcriptional activation activity when fused with the Gal4 DNA binding domain, and it enhanced transcriptional activation by the Gal4 DNA binding domain fused to GRIP1 or CBP fragments. More importantly, mZac1b was a powerful coactivator for the hormone-dependent activity of nuclear receptors, including androgen, estrogen, glucocorticoid, and thyroid hormone receptors. However, with some reporter genes and in some cell lines mZac1b acted as a repressor rather than a coactivator of nuclear receptor activity. Thus, mZac1b can interact with nuclear receptors and their coactivators and play both positive and negative roles in regulating nuclear receptor function.
Project description:PNRC2 (proline-rich nuclear receptor co-regulatory protein 2) was identified using mouse steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human mammary gland cDNA expression library. PNRC2 is an unusual coactivator in that it is the smallest coactivator identified so far, with a molecular weight of 16 kDa, and interacts with nuclear receptors using a proline-rich sequence. In yeast two-hybrid assays PNRC2 interacted with orphan receptors SF1 and estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha1 in a ligand-independent manner. PNRC2 was also found to interact with the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, thyroid receptor, retinoic acid receptor and retinoid X receptor in a ligand-dependent manner. A functional activation function 2 domain is required for nuclear receptors to interact with PNRC2. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, the region amino acids 85-139 was found to be responsible for the interaction with nuclear receptors. This region contains an SH3 domain-binding motif (SEPPSPS) and an NR box-like sequence (LKTLL). A mutagenesis study has shown that the SH3 domain-binding motif is important for PNRC2 to interact with all the nuclear receptors tested. Our results reveal that PNRC2 has a structure and function similar to PNRC, a previously characterized coactivator. These two proteins represent a new type of nuclear receptor co-regulatory proteins.
Project description:Steroid receptors mediate responses to lipophilic hormones in a tissue- and ligand-specific manner. To identify nonreceptor proteins that confer specificity or regulate steroid signaling, we screened a human cDNA library in a steroid-responsive yeast strain. One of the identified cDNAs, isolated in the screen as ligand effect modulator 6, showed no homology to yeast or Caenorhabditis elegans proteins but high similarity to the recently described mouse coactivator PGC-1 and was accordingly termed hPGC-1. The hPGC-1 DNA encodes a nuclear protein that is expressed in a tissue-specific manner and carries novel motifs for transcriptional regulators. The expression of hPGC-1 in mammalian cells enhanced potently the transcriptional response to several steroids in a receptor-specific manner. hPGC-1-mediated enhancement required the receptor hormone-binding domain and was dependent on agonist ligands. Functional analysis of hPGC-1 revealed two domains that interact with steroid receptors in a hormone-dependent manner, a potent transcriptional activation function, and a putative dimerization domain. Our findings suggest a regulatory function for hPGC-1 as a tissue-specific coactivator for a subset of nuclear receptors.
Project description:The vitamin D receptor (VDR) functions as an obligate heterodimer in complex with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). These nuclear receptors are multidomain proteins, and it is unclear how various domains interact with one another within the nuclear receptor heterodimer. Here, we show that binding of intact heterodimer to DNA alters the receptor dynamics in regions remote from the DNA-binding domains (DBDs), including the coactivator binding surfaces of both co-receptors, and that the sequence of the DNA response element can determine these dynamics. Furthermore, agonist binding to the heterodimer results in changes in the stability of the VDR DBD, indicating that the ligand itself may play a role in DNA recognition. These data suggest a mechanism by which nuclear receptors show promoter specificity and have differential effects on various target genes, providing insight into the function of selective nuclear receptor modulators.
Project description:After binding to enhancer elements, transcription factors require transcriptional coactivator proteins to mediate their stimulation of transcription initiation. A search for possible coactivators for steroid hormone receptors resulted in identification of glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1). The complete coding sequence for GRIP1, isolated from a mouse brain cDNA library, contains an open reading frame of 1,462 codons. GRIP1 is the probable ortholog of the subsequently identified human protein transcription intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) and is also partially homologous to steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1). The full-length GRIP1 interacted with the hormone binding domains (HBDs) of all five steroid receptors in a hormone-dependent manner and also with HBDs of class II nuclear receptors, including thyroid receptor alpha, vitamin D receptor, retinoic acid receptor alpha, and retinoid X receptor alpha. In contrast to agonists, glucocorticoid antagonists did not promote interaction between the glucocorticoid receptor and GRIP1. In yeast cells, GRIP1 dramatically enhanced the transcriptional activation function of proteins containing the HBDs of any of the above-named receptors fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain and thus served as a transcriptional coactivator for them. This finding contrasts with previous reports of TIF2 and SRC-1, which in mammalian cells enhanced the transactivation activities of only a subset of the steroid and nuclear receptors that they physically interacted with. GRIP1 also enhanced the hormone-dependent transactivation activity of intact glucocorticoid receptor, estrogen receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor. Experiments with glucocorticoid receptor truncation and point mutants indicated that GRIP1 interacted with and enhanced the activity of the C-terminal AF-2 but not the N-terminal AF-1 transactivation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor. These results demonstrate directly that AF-1 and AF-2 domains accomplish their transactivation activities through different mechanisms: AF-2 requires GRIP1 as a coactivator, but AF-1 does not.