A multiresistant clone of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O118:[H16] is spread in cattle and humans over different European countries.
ABSTRACT: Multiresistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O118:H16 and O118 nonmotile strains (designated O118:[H16]) were detected by examination of 171 STEC isolates for their antimicrobial sensitivity. Of 48 STEC O118:[H16] strains, 98% were resistant to sulfonamide, 96% were resistant to streptomycin, 79% were resistant to kanamycin, 75% were resistant to tetracycline, 67% were resistant to ampicillin, 60% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 48% were resistant to trimethoprim, and 10% each were resistant to gentamicin and nalidixic acid. Nalidixic acid resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were associated with the mutation gyrA(LEU-83). The STEC O118:[H16] strains were found to belong to a single genetic clone as investigated by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and by multilocus sequence analysis of E. coli housekeeping genes. The STEC O118:[H16] strains originated from humans and cattle and were isolated in seven different countries of Europe between 1986 and 1999. Strains showing multiresistance to up to eight different antimicrobials predominated among the more recent STEC O118:[H16] strains. The genes in parentheses were associated with resistance to kanamycin (aphA1-Ia), chloramphenicol (catA1), tetracycline [tet(A)], and ampicillin (bla(TEM-1)). Class 1 integrons containing sulI (sulfonamide resistance), aadA1a (streptomycin resistance), or dfrA1 (trimethoprim resistance)-aadA1a gene cassettes were detected in 28 strains. The bla(TEM-1b) gene was present in 18 of 21 strains that were examined by nucleotide sequencing. Class 1 integrons and bla(TEM) genes were localized on plasmids and/or on the chromosome in different STEC O118:[H16] strains. Hybridization of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that bla(TEM) genes were integrated at different positions in the chromosome of STEC O118:[H16] strains that could have occurred by Tn2 insertion. Our data suggest that strains belonging to the STEC O118:[H16] clonal group have a characteristic propensity for acquisition and maintenance of resistance determinants, thus contrasting to STEC belonging to other serotypes.
Project description:A recent case report of a child infected with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of serotype O118:H16 in Bavaria, in association with the isolation of a bovine O118 strain on the same farm (A. Weber, H. Klie, H. Richter, P. Gallien, M. Timm, and K. W. Perlberg, Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wochenschr. 110:211-213, 1997), prompted us to investigate the relationship between bovine and human strains of serogroup O118. A total of 29 human O118 E. coli strains from Europe (21), Canada (4), and Peru (4) were compared by virulence typing and macrorestriction analysis with 7 bovine O118 EHEC strains isolated in Bavaria. Twenty-five of the human strains were characterized as EHEC. By serotyping and determination of the virulence-associated factors Shiga toxin (stx1 stx2 stx2 variants), intimin (eae), and EHEC hemolysin (Hly(EHEC)), three distinctive groups of O118 human pathogens were identified. Most of the strains belonged to serotype O118:H16, displaying the virulence traits Stx1, intimin, Hly(EHEC), and EspP/PssA (group 1). In addition, we identified strains of serotype O118:H12 (Stx2d only; group 2) and of serotype O118:H30 (Stx2 and intimin; group 3). Macrorestriction analysis with BlnI and XbaI revealed that all strains with a single O118 serotype profile (O118:H12, O118:H16, and O118:H30) belonged to one clonal cluster, irrespective of their origin. Group 1 strains clustered in the same clonal group as the bovine O118:H16 strains. Moreover, four pairs of strains of different origins and indistinguishable by all other methods applied were identified as group 1 strains. Our data support the direct transmission of an EHEC O118:H16 strain from a calf to a 2-year-old boy in the above-mentioned case report. Since bovine and human O118:H16 strains represent the same clones, they must be considered zoonotic EHEC pathogens. In contrast, EHEC strains of serotypes O118:H12 and O118:H30 have been isolated only from humans, indicating a reservoir for certain human O118 EHEC strains other than bovines.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is recognized as an important human diarrheal pathogen. Swine plays an important role as a carrier of this pathogen. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of STEC from healthy swine collected between May 2011 and August 2012 from 3 cities/provinces in China. RESULTS: A total of 1003 samples, including 326 fecal, 351 small intestinal contents and 326 colon contents samples, was analyzed. Two hundred and fifty five samples were stx-positive by PCR and 93 STEC isolates were recovered from 62 stx-positive samples. Twelve O serogroups and 19 O:H serotypes including 6 serotypes (O100:H20/[H20], O143:H38/[H38], O87:H10, O172:H30/[H30], O159:H16, O9:H30/[H30]) rarely found in swine and ruminants were identified. All 93 STEC isolates harbored stx2 only, all of which were stx2e subtype including 1 isolate being a new variant of stx2e. 53.76%, 15.05% and 2.15% STEC isolates carried astA, hlyA and ehxA respectively. Four STEC isolates harbored the high-pathogenicity island. Of the 15 adherence-associated genes tested, 13 (eae, efa1, iha, lpfAO113, lpfAO157/OI-154, lpfAO157/OI-141, toxB, saa, F4, F5, F6, F17 or F41) were all absent while 2 (paa and F18) were present in 7 and 4 STEC isolates respectively. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (79.57%), nalidixic acid (78.49%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.12%) and kanamycin (55.91%). The STEC isolates were divided into 63 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 21 sequence types (STs). Isolates of the same STs generally showed the same or similar drug resistance patterns. A higher proportion of STEC isolates from Chongqing showed multidrug resistance with one ST (ST3628) resistant to 14 antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that swine is a significant reservoir of STEC strains in China. Based on comparison by serotypes and sequence types with human strains and presence of virulence genes, the swine STEC may have a low potential to cause human disease.
Project description:We have investigated 677 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains from humans to determine their serotypes, virulence genes, and clinical signs in patients. Six different Shiga toxin types (1, 1c, 2, 2c, 2d, and 2e) were distributed in the STEC strains. Intimin (eae) genes were present in 62.6% of the strains and subtyped into intimins alpha1, beta1, gamma1, epsilon, theta, and eta. Shiga toxin types 1c and 2d were present only in eae-negative STEC strains, and type 2 was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent in eae-positive STEC strains. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin was associated with 96.2% of the eae-positive strains and with 65.2% of the eae-negative strains. Clinical signs in the patients were abdominal pain (8.7%), nonbloody diarrhea (59.2%), bloody diarrhea (14.3%), and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) (3.5%), and 14.3% of the patients had no signs of gastrointestinal disease or HUS. Infections with eae-positive STEC were significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent in children under 6 years of age than in other age groups, whereas eae-negative STEC infections dominated in adults. The STEC strains were grouped into 74 O:H types by serotyping and by PCR typing of the flagellar (fliC) genes in 221 nonmotile STEC strains. Eleven serotypes (O157:[H7], O26:[H11], O103:H2, O91:[H14], O111:[H8], O145:[H28], O128:H2, O113:[H4], O146:H21, O118:H16, and O76:[H19]) accounted for 69% of all STEC strains. We identified 41 STEC strains belonging to 31 serotypes which had not previously been described as human STEC. Twenty-six of these were positive for intimins alpha1 (one serotype), beta1 (eight serotypes), epsilon (two serotypes), and eta (three serotypes). Our study indicates that different types of STEC strains predominate in infant and adult patients and that new types of STEC strains are present among human isolates.
Project description:The presence and genetic content of integrons were investigated for 37 epidemiologically unrelated multiple-drug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from humans. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, as well as to tetracycline and/or nalidixic acid; 20% of them were also resistant to gentamicin and amikacin. Three different class 1 integrons (In-t1, In-t2, and In-t3) were identified by Southern blot hybridization, PCR, and DNA sequencing, and these integrons were found to carry the aadB, catB3, oxa1, aadA1a, aacA4, and aacC1 gene cassettes. Integrons In-t1 (aadB and catB3) and In-t2 (oxa1 and aadA1a) were both located on a conjugative IncFI plasmid of 140 kb. In-t3 (aacA4, aacC1, and aadAIa) was located on an IncL/M plasmid of 100 kb which was present, in association with the IncFI plasmid, in gentamicin- and amikacin-resistant isolates. Despite the extensive similarity at the level of the antibiotic resistance phenotype, integrons were not found on the prototypic IncFI plasmids carried by epidemic Salmonella strains isolated during the late 1970s. The recent appearance and the coexistence of multiple integrons on two conjugative plasmids in the same Salmonella isolate are examples of how mobile gene cassettes may contribute to the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Antibiograms and relevant genotypes of Korean avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates (n = 101) recovered between 1985 and 2005 were assessed via disc diffusion test, PCR, restriction enzyme analysis, and sequencing. These isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (84.2%), streptomycin (84.2%), enrofloxacin (71.3%), and ampicillin (67.3%), and most of the tetracycline, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, and ampicillin resistances were associated with tetA and/or tetB, aadA and/or strA-strB, mutations in gyrA and/or parC, and TEM, respectively. Class 1 integrons were detected in 40 isolates (39.6%), and a variety of gene cassettes conferring streptomycin (aadA), gentamicin (aadB), and trimethoprim (dfr) resistances were identified: aadA1a (27.5%), dfrV-orfD (2.5%), aadB-aadA1a (2.5%), dfrI-aadA1a (47.5%), dfrXVII-aadA5 (12.5%), and dfrXII-orfF-aadA2 (7.5%). In addition, several types of common promoters (P(ant)) of the gene cassettes (hybrid P1, weak P1, or weak P1 plus P2) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in aadA1a were identified. The results of a chronological analysis demonstrated significant and continuous increases in the frequencies of resistances to several antibiotics (tetracycline, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) and of the relevant resistance genes (tetA, strA-strB, and TEM), mutations in gyrA and parC, and multidrug-resistant APEC strains during the period 2000 to 2005.
Project description:Resistance to antibiotics is one of the most relevant public health concerns in the world. Aquatic environments play an important role because they are reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic-resistant strains, contributing to the spread of resistance. The present study investigated the resistome in Lake Bolonha (three sampling sites) in the Amazon region using a metagenomics approach and culture-dependent methods. Whole-metagenome-based results showed that the most abundant phyla were Protobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. The composition of the resistome demonstrated that the genes that confer resistance to ?-lactams were prevalent at all sampling sites, followed by genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and tetracycline. Acquired genes encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (e.g., bla CTX-M) and resistance to carbapenems (e.g., bla IMP and bla VIM) were detected through metagenome analysis. Bacteria were isolated from culture medium supplemented with cefotaxime or imipenem, and isolates were identified and analyzed for their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and resistance genes. In total, 98 bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (37), Acinetobacter (32), Klebsiella (13), Enterobacter (9), Pantoe (3), Stenotrophomonas (3), and Methylobacterium (1) were obtained. Among isolates, the most abundant genes were bla CTX-M (28.3%), bla SHV (22.6%) and bla TEM (18.8%) in isolates from cefotaxime-supplemented medium and bla VIM (28.8%) and bla IMP (22.2%) in isolates recovered from imipenem-supplemented medium. The genes intl1 and intl2 were detected in 19.3% and 7.1% of isolates. Antibiograms showed that 94.9% (from cefotaxime-supplemented medium) and 85.7% (from imipenem-supplemented medium) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Besides cefotaxime and imipenem, isolates were mostly resistant to aztreonam (91.8%), amoxicillin (98.8%), ampicillin (82.6%), and nalidixic acid (77.5%). Hence, the present study demonstrates that Lake Bolonha is a reservoir of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and resistance genes, some of which are of critical importance to human health.
Project description:Plasmid-mediated mechanisms, comprising TEM hyperproduction, TEM derivative production, and OXA production, lead to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in enterobacteria. The ability of the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-PCR method to differentiate the genes encoding inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases was evaluated with three bla(TEM) primer pairs. The bla(TEM) genes, which were known to be different on the basis of their nucleotide sequences (bla[TEM-1A], bla[TEM-1B], bla[TEM-2], bla[TEM-30], bla[TEM-32], and bla[TEM-35]), were identified as different by their electrophoretic mobilities. The bla(TEM-33), bla(TEM-34), bla(TEM-36), bla(TEM-37), bla(TEM-38), and bla(TEM-39) genes, whose sequence differences have been established by oligotyping, displayed different SSCP profiles for different fragments, suggesting genetic differences in addition to those defined by oligotyping. Confirmed by sequencing, these additional genetic events concerned silent mutations at certain positions and, notably, a G-->T transversion at position 1 of the -10 consensus sequence in bla(TEM-34), bla(TEM-36), bla(TEM-37), and bla(TEM-39). Applied to eight clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, the SSCP method detected TEM-1 in three strains and TEM-30, TEM-32, and TEM-35 in three other strains, respectively. A novel TEM derivative (TEM-58) was detected in another strain, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed two substitutions: Arg244Ser, which is known to confer amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in TEM-30, and Val261Ile, which has not been described previously. The eighth strain produced an OXA beta-lactamase. Given the discriminatory power and the applicability of SSCP-PCR, this method can be proposed as a means of following the evolution of the frequencies of the different inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases.
Project description:Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli is the causative agent of diarrhea in infants and animals worldwide. Many isolated strains recovered from pigs with postweaning diarrhea are multidrug resistance (MDR), and hybrids of E. coli are potentially more virulent, as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)/Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) hybrids. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to analyze clinical isolates of the five colistin-resistant E. coli. The E. coli CAU15104, CAU15134, and CAU16060 belonged to ETEC/STEC hybrids, displaying the same serotype O3:H45 and sequence type ST4214. The E. coli CAU16175 and CAU16177 belonged to atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), display O4:H11 and O103:H2, ST29, and ST20, respectively. The E. coli CAU16175 carries six plasmids. An IncHI2-type plasmid, pCAU16175_1, harbors an IS26-enriched MDR region, which includes 16 antimicrobial-resistant genes. An IncFII-type plasmid, pCAU16175_3, harbors mcr-1.1, tet(M), and bla TEM-1B, whereas mcr-1.1 is located within a Tn2 derivative. Our findings indicate that the ETEC/STEC strains of the O3:H45 serotype as well as the aEPEC strains of the O4:H11 and O103:H2 serotypes are associated with postweaning diarrhea in swine and that some of diarrheagenic E. coli contains IS26-enriched MDR region and the mcr-1 gene located within a Tn2 derivative on IncFII plasmid.
Project description:Background: Shigella spp. are primary pathogens of diarrhea in children worldwide. Emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins is crucial in the management of pediatric shigellosis. We determined the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Shigella species isolated from pediatric patients in central Iran. Materials and methods: Pediatric diarrhea samples (n=230) were cultured on MacConkey and XLD agar media and in GN broth. Genus-specific PCR for ipaH was also used for detection directly from fecal specimens. Antibiotic resistance and the frequency of ESBL and AmpC genes were determined. Results: Out of the 230 samples, 19 (8.2%) cases of Shigella spp. were identified using culture. Twenty-six samples were positive by PCR (11.3%), S. flexneri (4/19; 21%) and S. sonnei (15/19; 78.9%) being the most detected. The highest antibiotic resistance rates were found for cotrimoxazole (19/19; 100%), ampicillin (16/19; 84.2%), cefixime (13/19; 68.4%) and ceftriaxone (12/19; 63.1%). Ten cases showed phenotypic ESBL presence and all these strains were positive for bla TEM, bla CTX-M-1, and bla CTX-M-15. Three strains were AmpC positive, all of which harbored bla CMY-2 and two contained bla CIT. Of the 19 Shigella isolates 5 (26.3%), 2 (10.5%), and 1 (5.2%) were phenotypically resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, respectively. Class 1 integron was found in 18 (94.7%) isolates whereas class 2 integron was found in 19 (100%) strains. Conclusion: We found a considerable presence of Shigella species with elevated antibiotic resistance levels. In particular, the resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (ESBL) and ciprofloxacin must be taken seriously.
Project description:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella are one of the most important public health problems in developed countries. ESBL-producing Salmonella strains have been isolated from humans in Asian countries neighboring Japan, along with strains harboring the plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistance gene, ampC (pAmpC). However, only a few studies have investigated the prevalence of ESC-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan, which are the main vehicle of Salmonella transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing, pAmpC-harboring, or carbapenem-resistant Salmonella in chicken products in Japan. In total, 355 out of 779 (45.6%) chicken product samples collected from 1996-2010 contained Salmonella, resulting in 378 distinct isolates. Of these isolates, 373 were tested for resistance to ESCs, cephamycins, or carbapenems. Isolates that showed resistance to one or more of these antimicrobials were then examined by PCR and DNA sequence analysis for the presence of the bla(CMY), bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), and bla(SHV) resistance genes. Thirty-five resistant isolates were detected, including 26 isolates that contained pAmpC (bla(CMY-2)), and nine ESBL-producing isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) (n = 4, consisting of two bla(CTX-M-2) and two bla(CTX-M-15 genes)), bla(TEM) (n = 4, consisting of one bla(TEM-20) and three bla(TEM-52) genes), and bla(SHV) (n = 1, bla(SHV-12)). All pAmpC-harboring and ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates were obtained from samples collected after 2005, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased significantly from 0% in 2004 to 27.9% in 2010 (P for trend = 0.006). This increase was caused in part by an increase in the number of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis strains harboring an approximately 280-kb plasmid containing bla(CMY-2) in proximity to ISEcp1. The dissemination of ESC-resistant Salmonella containing plasmid-mediated bla(CMY-2) in chicken products indicates the need for the development of continuous monitoring strategies in the interests of public health.