Simultaneous detection of nine antibiotic resistance-related genes in Streptococcus agalactiae using multiplex PCR and reverse line blot hybridization assay.
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal sepsis. Penicillin is recommended for intrapartum prophylaxis, but erythromycin or clindamycin is used for penicillin-allergic carriers. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has increased recently and needs to be monitored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay to detect, simultaneously, seven genes encoding AR--erm(A/TR), erm(B), mef(A/E), tet(M), tet(O), aphA-3, and aad-6--and two AR-related genes, int-Tn and mreA. We tested 512 GBS isolates from Asia and Australasia and compared mPCR/RLB with antibiotic susceptibility phenotype or single-gene PCR. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was identified in 450 (88%) isolates, of which 442 had tet(M) (93%) and/or tet(O) (6%). Of 67 (13%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, 18 were susceptible to clindamycin, i.e., had the M phenotype, encoded by mef(A/E); 39 had constitutive (cMLS(B)) and 10 inducible clindamycin resistance, and of these, 34 contained erm(B) and 12 erm(A/TR). Of four additional isolates with mef(A/E), three contained erm(B) with cMLS(B) and one was erythromycin susceptible. Of 61 (12%) clindamycin-resistant isolates, 20 were susceptible to erythromycin and two had intermediate resistance. Based on sequencing, 21 of 22 isolates with mef had mef(E), and 8 of 353 with int-Tn had an atypical sequence. Several AR genes, erm(B), tet(O), aphA-3, aad-6, and mef(A/E), were significantly more common among Asian than Australasian isolates, and there were significant differences in distribution of AR genes between GBS serotypes. Our mPCR/RLB assay is simple, rapid, and suitable for surveillance of antibiotic resistance in GBS.
Project description:Macrolide (including erythromycin and azithromycin) and lincosamide (including clindamycin) antibiotics are recommended for treatment of penicillin-allergic patients with Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis. Resistance to erythromycin in S. pyogenes can be as high as 48% in specific populations in the United States. Macrolide and lincosamide resistance in S. pyogenes is mediated by several different genes. Expression of the erm(A) or erm(B) genes causes resistance to erythromycin and inducible or constitutive resistance to clindamycin, respectively, whereas expression of the mef(A) gene leads to resistance to erythromycin but not clindamycin. We studied the resistance of S. pyogenes to erythromycin and clindamycin at an urban tertiary-care hospital. Of 196 sequential isolates from throat cultures, 15 (7.7%) were resistant to erythromycin. Three of these were also constitutively resistant to clindamycin and had the erm(B) gene. Five of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were resistant to clindamycin upon induction with erythromycin and had the erm(A) gene. The remaining seven erythromycin-resistant isolates were susceptible to clindamycin even upon induction with erythromycin and had the mef(A) gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and emm typing demonstrated that the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes comprised multiple strains. These results demonstrate that multiple mechanisms of resistance to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics are present in S. pyogenes strains in the United States.
Project description:Among 100 patients with group G beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia in a 6-year period (1997 to 2002), seven had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant strains. Five of the seven patients had cellulitis and/or abscesses. The two isolates resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin possessed erm genes, one ermTR and the other ermB. The five isolates resistant to erythromycin but sensitive to clindamycin and one of those resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin possessed mef genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infections by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (SGSP) is often underestimated. Herein, the epidemiological features and resistant characteristics of SGSP in mainland China are characterized to enable a better understanding of its role in clinical infections. METHODS:In the present work, 45 SGSP isolates were collected from the samples of bloodstream, urine, aseptic body fluid, and fetal membrane/placenta from patients in 8 tertiary general hospitals of 6 cities/provinces in China from 2011 to 2017. The identification of all isolates was performed using traditional biochemical methods, 16S rRNA and gyrB sequencing, followed by the characterization of their antibiotic resistance profiling and involved genes. RESULTS:Among 34 non-pregnancy-related patients, 4 (4/34,11.8%) patients had gastrointestinal cancer, 10 (10/34, 29.4%) patients had diabetes, and one patient had infective endocarditis. Moreover, 11 cases of pregnant women were associated with intrauterine infection (9/11, 81.2%) and urinary tract infection (1/11, 9.1%), respectively. Except one, all other SGSP isolates were correctly identified by the BD Phoenix automated system. We found that all SGSP isolates were phenotypically susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, and vancomycin. Forty strains (40/45, 88.9%) were both erythromycin and clindamycin-resistant, belonging to the cMLSB phenotype, and the majority of them carried erm(B) gene (39/40, 97.5%). Although the cMLSB/erm(B) constituted the most frequently identified phenotype/genotype combination (25/40, 62.5%) among all erythromycin-resistant cMLSB isolates, erm(B)/erm(A), erm(B)/mef(A/E), and erm(B)/erm(T) was detected in 7, 4, and 3 isolates, respectively. Furthermore, 43 strains (43/45, 95.6%) were tetracycline-resistant, and out of these, 39 strains (39/45, 86.7%) carried tet(L), 27(27/45, 60.0%) strains carried tet(O), and 7 (7/45, 15.6%) strains carried tet(M), alone or combined, respectively. All erythromycin-resistant isolates were also resistant to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS:It is important to study and draw attention on SGSP, an underreported opportunistic pathogen targeting immunodeficient populations, notably elderly subjects, pregnant women and neonates.
Project description:We assessed the mechanisms of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics and related antibiotics in erythromycin-resistant viridans group streptococci (n = 164) and Gemella spp. (n = 28). The macrolide resistance phenotype was predominant (59.38%); all isolates with this phenotype carried the mef(A) or mef(E) gene, with mef(E) being predominant (95.36%). The erm(B) gene was always detected in strains with constitutive and inducible MLS(B) resistance and was combined with the mef(A/E) gene in 47.44% of isolates. None of the isolates carried the erm(A) subclass erm(TR), erm(A), or erm(C) genes. The mel gene was detected in all but four strains carrying the mef(A/E) gene. The tet(M) gene was found in 86.90% of tetracycline-resistant isolates and was strongly associated with the presence of the erm(B) gene. The cat(pC194) gene was detected in seven chloramphenicol-resistant Streptococcus mitis isolates, and the aph(3')-III gene was detected in four viridans group streptococcal isolates with high-level kanamycin resistance. The intTn gene was found in all isolates with the erm(B), tet(M), aph(3')-III, and cat(pC194) gene. The mef(E) and mel genes were successfully transferred from both groups of bacteria to Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 by transformation. Viridans group streptococci and Gemella spp. seem to be important reservoirs of resistance genes.
Project description:Macrolide resistance has been demonstrated in group B streptococcus (GBS), but there is limited information regarding mechanisms of resistance and their prevalence. We determined these in GBS obtained from neonatal blood cultures and vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Of 178 isolates from cases of neonatal GBS sepsis collected from 1995 to 1998, 8 and 4.5% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively, and one isolate showed intermediate penicillin resistance (MIC, 0.25 microg/ml). Of 101 consecutive vaginal or rectal/vaginal isolates collected in 1999, 18 and 8% were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Tetracycline resistance was high (>80%) among both groups of isolates. Of 32 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 28 possessed the erm methylase gene (7 ermB and 21 ermTR/ermA) and 4 harbored the mefA gene; one isolate harbored both genes. One isolate which was susceptible to erythromycin but resistant to clindamycin (MIC, 4 microg/ml) was found to have the linB gene, previously identified only in Enterococcus faecium. The mreA gene was found in all the erythromycin-resistant strains as well as in 10 erythromycin-susceptible strains. The rate of erythromycin resistance increased from 5% in 1995-96 to 13% in 1998-99, which coincided with an increase in macrolide usage during that time.
Project description:The epidemiologic relatedness of 29 erythromycin-resistant Gemella sp. strains from normal flora, characterized previously, were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Three isolates carried the tet(O) gene and the tet(M) gene. The msr(A) gene was found in two Gemella morbillorum strains in combination with the erm(B) or mef(E) gene. The sequences of the mef(A/E), erm(B), and msr(A) genes showed a high similarity to the corresponding sequences of other gram-positive cocci. All the strains harboring the mef(A/E) gene and the msr(D) gene possessed open reading frame 3 (ORF3)/ORF6. The 16 G. morbillorum isolates represented 15 distinct DNA profiles. Four clusters were identified (>or=80% genetic relatedness). The 12 Gemella haemolysans strains belonged to different PFGE types. The clonal diversity found suggests that horizontal transfer may be the main route through which erythromycin resistance is acquired.
Project description:Erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood cultures and noninvasive sites were studied over a 3-year period. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was 11.9% (19 of 160) in blood culture isolates but 4.2% (60 of 1,435) in noninvasive-site isolates. Sixty-two of the 79 resistant isolates were available for study. The M phenotype was responsible for 76% (47 of 62) of resistance, largely due to a serotype 14 clone, characterized by multilocus sequence typing as ST9, which accounted for 79% (37 of 47) of M phenotype resistance. The ST9 clone was 4.8 times more common in blood than in noninvasive sites. All M phenotype isolates were PCR positive for mef(A), but sequencing revealed that the ST9 clone possessed the mef(A) sequence commonly associated with Streptococcus pyogenes. All M phenotype isolates with this mef(A) sequence also had sequences consistent with the presence of the Tn1207.1 genetic element inserted in the celB gene. In contrast, isolates with the mef(E) sequence normally associated with S. pneumoniae contained sequences consistent with the presence of the mega insertion element. All MLS(B) isolates carried erm(B), and two isolates carried both erm(B) and mef(E). Fourteen of the 15 MLS(B) isolates were tetracycline resistant and contained tet(M). However, six M phenotype isolates of serotypes 19 (two isolates) and 23 (four isolates) were also tetracycline resistant and contained tet(M). MICs for isolates with the mef(A) sequence were significantly higher than MICs for isolates with the mef(E) sequence (P < 0.001). Thus, the ST9 clone of S. pneumoniae is a significant cause of invasive pneumococcal disease in northeast Scotland and is the single most important contributor to M phenotype erythromycin resistance.
Project description:In spite of a global concern on the transfer of antibiotic resistances (AR) via the food chain, limited information exists on this issue in species of Leuconostoc and Weissella, adjunct cultures used as aroma producers in fermented foods. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 16 antibiotics in 34 strains of dairy origin, belonging to Leuconostoc mesenteroides (18), Leuconostoc citreum (11), Leuconostoc lactis (2), Weissella hellenica (2), and Leuconostoc carnosum (1). Atypical resistances were found for kanamycin (17 strains), tetracycline and chloramphenicol (two strains each), and erythromycin, clindamycin, virginiamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampicin (one strain each). Surprisingly, L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides LbE16, showed resistance to four antibiotics, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and virginiamycin. PCR analysis identified tet(S) as responsible for tetracycline resistance in LbE16, but no gene was detected in a second tetracycline-resistant strain, L. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris LbT16. In Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum LbE15, erythromycin and clindamycin resistant, an erm(B) gene was amplified. Hybridization experiments proved erm(B) and tet(S) to be associated to a plasmid of ?35 kbp and to the chromosome of LbE15 and LbE16, respectively. The complete genome sequence of LbE15 and LbE16 was used to get further insights on the makeup and genetic organization of AR genes. Genome analysis confirmed the presence and location of erm(B) and tet(S), but genes providing tetracycline resistance in LbT16 were again not identified. In the genome of the multi-resistant strain LbE16, genes that might be involved in aminoglycoside (aadE, aphA-3, sat4) and virginiamycin [vat(E)] resistance were further found. The erm(B) gene but not tet(S) was transferred from Leuconostoc to Enterococcus faecalis both under laboratory conditions and in cheese. This study contributes to the characterization of AR in the Leuconostoc-Weissella group, provides evidence of the genetic basis of atypical resistances, and demonstrates the inter-species transfer of erythromycin resistance.
Project description:Streptococcus suis strains isolated from porcine endocarditis and tonsils in the Tokai area of Japan during 2004-2007 and 2014-2016 (n=114) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of selected resistance genes. No strains showed resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, meropenem, vancomycin, and levofloxacin. High resistance to tetracycline (80.7%), clindamycin (65.8%), erythromycin (56.1%), and clarithromycin (56.1%) was observed. In chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, there was a trend towards increased resistance between the first (2004-2007) and second (2014-2016) periods. tet(O) and erm(B) genes were the most frequently detected, and tet(M) and mef(A/E) genes were only detected in strains isolated during 2014-2016. These results indicate that chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistance, and tet(M) and mef(A/E) genes emerged in S. suis of this area after 2014.
Project description:In this study, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AR) as well as the abundance and diversity of plasmids were determined among multidrug resistant (MDR) enterococci from surface water in GA, USA. A total of 51 enterococci isolates were screened for the presence of 27 AR genes conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tylosin, kanamycin, streptomycin, lincomycin, Quinupristin/Dalfopristin (Q/D), and tetracycline. A plasmid classification system based on replication genes was used to detect 19 defined Gram-positive plasmid replicon families. Twelve genes were identified as conferring resistance to erythromycin and tylosin (erm(B) and erm(C)), kanamycin (aph(3')-IIIa), streptomycin (ant(6)-Ia), lincomycin (lnu(B)), Q/D (vat(E)), ciprofloxacin (qnrE. faecalis), and tetracycline (tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S)). Twelve different rep-families were identified in two-thirds of the isolates. While AR genes commonly found in human and animals were detected in this study among environmental enterococci, resistance genes could not be determined for many of the isolates, which indicates that diverse AR mechanisms exist among enterococci, and the understanding of AR mechanisms for environmental enterococci is limited. Diverse rep-families were identified among the enterococci recovered from the aquatic environment, and these rep-families appear to be quite different from those recovered from other sources. This work expands knowledge of AR gene reservoirs and enterococcal plasmids across a wider range of environments.