AmfS, an extracellular peptidic morphogen in Streptomyces griseus.
ABSTRACT: The amf gene cluster was previously identified as a regulator for the onset of aerial-mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. The nucleotide sequences of amf and its counterparts in other species revealed a conserved gene organization consisting of five open reading frames. A nonsense mutation in amfS, encoding a 43-amino-acid peptide, caused significant blocking of aerial-mycelium formation and streptomycin production, suggesting its role as a regulatory molecule. Extracellular-complementation tests for the aerial-mycelium-deficient phenotype of the amfS mutant demonstrated that AmfS was secreted by the wild-type strain. A null mutation in amfBA, encoding HlyB-like membrane translocators, abolished the extracellular AmfS activity without affecting the wild-type morphology, which suggests that AmfBA is involved not in production but in export of AmfS. A synthetic C-terminal octapeptide partially induced aerial-mycelium formation in the amfS mutant, which suggests that an AmfS derivative, but not AmfS itself, serves as an extracellular morphogen.
Project description:The amf gene cluster encodes a probable secretion system for a peptidic morphogen, AmfS, which induces aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. Here we examined the transcriptional control mechanism for the promoter preceding amfT (PamfT) directing the transcription of the amfTSBA operon. High-resolution S1 analysis mapped a transcriptional start point at 31 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon of amfT. Low-resolution analysis showed that PamfT is developmentally regulated in the wild type and completely abolished in an amfR mutant. The -35 region of PamfT contained the consensus sequence for the binding of BldD, a pleiotropic negative regulator for morphological and physiological development in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The cloned bldD locus of S. griseus showed high sequence similarity to the S. coelicolor counterpart. Transcription of bldD occurred constitutively in both the wild type and an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus, which suggests that the regulatory role of BldD is independent of A-factor. The gel retardation assay revealed that purified BldD and AmfR recombinant proteins specifically bind PamfT. Overproduction of BldD in the wild-type cell conferred a bald phenotype (defective in aerial growth and streptomycin production) and caused marked repression of PamfT activity. An amfT-depleted mutant also showed a bald phenotype but PamfT activity was not affected. Both the bldD-overproducing wild-type strain and the amfT mutant were unable to induce aerial growth of an amfS mutant in a cross-feeding assay, which indicates that these strains are defective in the production of an active AmfS peptide. The results overall suggests that two independent regulators, AmfR and BldD, control PamfT activity via direct binding to determine the transcriptional level of the amf operon responsible for the production and secretion of AmfS peptide, which induces the erection of aerial hyphae in S. griseus.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essentially required for aerial mycelium formation and streptomycin production in Streptomyces griseus. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this strain on a high-copy-number plasmid. Subcloning and nucleotide sequencing revealed that one open reading frame with 218 amino acids, named AmfC, served as a multicopy suppressor of the aerial mycelium-defective phenotype of the A-factor-deficient strain. The amfC gene did not restore A-factor or streptomycin production, indicating that amfC is involved in aerial mycelium formation independently of secondary metabolic function. Disruption of the chromosomal amfC gene in the wild-type S. griseus strain caused a severe reduction in the abundance of spores but no effect on the shape or size of the spores. The infrequent sporulation of the amfC disruptant was reversed by introduction of amfC on a plasmid. The amfC-defective phenotype was also restored by the orf1590 gene but not by the amfR-amfA-amfB gene cluster. Nucleotide sequences homologous to the amfC gene were distributed in all of 12 Streptomyces species tested, including Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The amfC homolog of S. coelicolor A3(2) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The AmfC products of S. griseus and S. coelicolor A3(2) showed a 60% identity in their amino acid sequences. Introduction of the amfC gene of S. coelicolor A3(2) into strain HH1 induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation, which suggests that both play the same functional role in morphogenesis in the strains.
Project description:In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) switches on aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. An A-factor-dependent transcriptional activator, AdpA, activates multiple genes required for morphological development and secondary metabolism in a programmed manner. A region upstream of a zinc-containing metalloendopeptidase gene (sgmA) was found among the DNA fragments that had been isolated as AdpA-binding sites. The primary product of sgmA consisted of N-terminal pre, N-terminal pro, mature, and C-terminal pro regions. sgmA was transcribed in an AdpA-dependent manner, and its transcription was markedly enhanced at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. AdpA bound two sites in the region upstream of the sgmA promoter; one was at about nucleotide position -60 (A site) with respect to the transcriptional start point of sgmA, and the other was at about position -260 (B site), as determined by DNase I footprinting. Transcriptional analysis with mutated promoters showed that the A site was essential for the switching on of sgmA transcription and that the B site was necessary for the marked enhancement of transcription at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. Disruption of the chromosomal sgmA gene resulted in a delay in aerial hypha formation by half a day. SgmA is therefore suggested to be associated with the programmed morphological development of Streptomyces, in which this peptidase, perhaps together with other hydrolytic enzymes, plays a role in the degradation of proteins in substrate hyphae for reuse in aerial hypha formation.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) and its specific receptor protein control streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. The A-factor receptor protein (ArpA) was purified from a cell lysate of S. griseus IFO 13350. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of ArpA and lysyl endopeptidase-generated fragments were determined for the purpose of preparing oligonucleotide primers for cloning arpA by the PCR method. The arpA gene cloned in this way directed the synthesis of a protein having A-factor-specific binding activity when expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the T7 promoter. The arpA gene was thus concluded to encode a 276-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 29.1 kDa, as determined by nucleotide sequencing. The A-factor-binding activity was observed with a homodimer of ArpA. The NH2-terminal portion of ArpA contained an alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA-binding motif that showed great similarity to those of many DNA-binding proteins, which suggests that it exerts its regulatory function for the various phenotypes by directly binding to a certain key gene(s). Although a mutant strain deficient in both the ArpA protein and A-factor production overproduces streptomycin and forms aerial mycelium and spores earlier than the wild-type strain because of repressor-like behavior of ArpA, introduction of arpA into this mutant abolished simultaneously its streptomycin production and aerial mycelium formation. All of these data are consistent with the idea that ArpA acts as a repressor-type regulator for secondary metabolite formation and morphogenesis during the early growth phase and A-factor at a certain critical intracellular concentration releases the derepression, thus leading to the onset of secondary metabolism and aerial mycelium formation. The presence of ArpA-like proteins among Streptomyces spp., as revealed by PCR, together with the presence of A-factor-like compounds, suggests that a hormonal control similar to the A-factor system exists in many species of this genus.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essential for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. amfR is one of the genes which, when cloned on a low-copy-number plasmid, suppresses the aerial mycelium-negative phenotype of an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus. Disruption of the chromosomal amfR gene resulted in complete abolition of aerial mycelium formation, indicating that amfR is essential for the onset of morphogenesis. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the region upstream of amfR predicted an operon consisting of orf5, orf4, and amfR. Consistent with this idea, Northern blotting and S1 mapping analyses suggested that these three genes were cotranscribed mainly by a promoter (PORF5) in front of orf5. Furthermore, PORF5 was active only in the presence of A-factor, indicating that it is A-factor dependent. Gel mobility shift assays showed the presence of a protein (AdpB) able to bind PORF5 in the cell extract from an A-factor-deficient mutant but not from the wild-type strain. AdpB was purified to homogeneity and found to bind specifically to the region from -72 to -44 bp with respect to the transcriptional start point. Runoff transcriptional analysis of PORF5 with purified AdpB and an RNA polymerase complex isolated from vegetative mycelium showed that AdpB repressed the transcription in a concentration-dependent manner. It is thus apparent that AmfR as a switch for aerial mycelium formation and AdpB as a repressor for amfR are members in the A-factor regulatory cascade, leading to morphogenesis.
Project description:AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus activates a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. The Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) gene, sgiA, in S. griseus was transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that sgiA is a member of the AdpA regulon. AdpA bound a single site upstream of the sgiA promoter at approximately position -70 with respect to its transcriptional start point. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding site showed that the AdpA-binding site was essential for transcriptional activation. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted had higher trypsin, chymotrypsin, metalloendopeptidase, and total protease activities than the wild-type strain, which showed that SgiA modulated the activities of these extracellularly produced proteases. Because a number of genes encoding chymotrypsins, trypsins, and metalloendopeptidases, most of which are SSI-sensitive proteases, are also under the control of AdpA, the A-factor regulatory cascade was thought to play a crucial role in modulating the extracellular protease activities by triggering simultaneous production of the proteases and their inhibitor at a specific timing during growth. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted grew normally and formed aerial hyphae and spores with the same time course as the wild-type strain. However, exogenous addition of purified SgiA to substrate mycelium grown on agar medium resulted in a delay in aerial mycelium formation, indicating that SgiA is involved in aerial hypha formation in conjunction with proteases.
Project description:In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) serves as a microbial hormone that switches on many genes required for streptomycin production and morphological development. An open reading frame (Orf1) showing high sequence similarity to oligoribonucleases of various origins is present just downstream of adpA, one of the A-factor-dependent genes. Orf1 was named OrnA (oligoribonuclease A) because it showed 3'-to-5' exo-oligoribonuclease activity, releasing [(32)P]CMP from ApCpC[(32)P]pC used as a substrate. Reverse transcription-PCR and S1 nuclease mapping analyses revealed that ornA was transcribed from two promoters; one was a developmentally regulated, A-factor-dependent promoter in front of adpA, and the other was a constitutive promoter in front of the ornA coding sequence. Transcription of ornA was thus additively enhanced at the initiation stage for secondary metabolism and aerial mycelium formation. ornA-disrupted strains grew slowly and scarcely formed aerial mycelium. ornA homologues were distributed in a wide variety of Streptomyces species, including S. coelicolor A3(2), as determined by Southern hybridization analysis. Disruption of the ornA homologue in S. coelicolor A3(2) also caused phenotypes similar to those of the S. griseus DeltaornA strains. The OrnA oligoribonucleases in Streptomyces species are therefore not essential but play an important role in vegetative growth and in the initiation of differentiation.
Project description:Mutants of Streptomyces griseus deficient in A-factor production are sporulation negative, since A-factor is an essential hormonal regulator for the induction of morphological and physiological differentiation in this bacterium. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this mutant strain. Subcloning experiments and nucleotide sequencing showed that two open reading frames, ORF1 with 656 amino acids and ORF2 with 201 amino acids, were required in order to induce sporulation. The amino acid sequence of ORF1 significantly resembled that of the Escherichia coli HlyB protein, a member of a family of bacterial membrane proteins engaged in ATP-dependent secretion mechanisms. Conserved features of this surface translocator family, such as the transmembrane structure predicted by their hydropathy profiles and the amino acid sequence forming an ATP-binding fold, were also conserved in ORF1. The ORF1 gene appeared to constitute a transcriptional unit with an additional upstream gene encoding ORF3, which was greatly similar to ORF1 in size and amino acid sequence. The other protein, ORF2, showed significant end-to-end homology with the E. coli uhpA product, a regulatory protein for the uptake of sugar phosphates. Like UhpA as a response regulator of a bacterial two-component regulatory system, ORF2 contained a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain at its COOH-terminal portion and an Asp residue (Asp-54) probably to be phosphorylated at its NH2-terminal portion. An amino acid replacement from Asp-54 to Asn resulted in the loss of the ability of ORF2 to induce sporulation in strain HH1.
Project description:Streptomyces griseus NP4, which was derived by UV mutagenesis from strain IFO13350, showed a bald and wrinkled colony morphology in response to glucose. Mutant NP4 formed ectopic septa at intervals along substrate hyphae, and each of the compartments developed into a spore which was indistinguishable from an aerial spore in size, shape, and thickness of the spore wall and in susceptibility to lysozyme and heat. The ectopic spores of NP4 formed in liquid medium differed from "submerged spores" in lysozyme sensitivity. Shotgun cloning experiments with a library of the chromosomal DNA of the parental strain and mutant NP4 as the host gave rise to DNA fragments giving two different phenotypes; one complementing the bald phenotype of the host, and the other causing much severe wrinkled morphology in the host. Subcloning identified a gene (dasR) encoding a transcriptional repressor belonging to the GntR family that was responsible for the reversal of the bald phenotype and a gene (dasA) encoding a lipoprotein probably serving as a substrate-binding protein in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system that was responsible for the severe wrinkled morphology. These genes were adjacent but divergently encoded. Two genes, named dasB and dasC, encoding a membrane-spanning protein were present downstream of dasA, which suggested that dasRABC comprises a gene cluster for an ABC transporter, probably for sugar import. dasR was transcribed actively during vegetative growth, and dasA was transcribed just after commencement of aerial hypha formation and during sporulation, indicating that both were developmentally regulated. Transcriptional analysis and direct sequencing of dasRA in mutant NP4 suggested a defect of this mutant in the regulatory system to control the expression of these genes. Introduction of multicopies of dasA into the wild-type strain caused ectopic septation in very young substrate hyphae after only 1 day of growth and subsequent sporulation in response to glucose. The ectopic spores of the wild type had a thinner wall than those of mutant NP4, in agreement with the observation that the former was sensitive to lysozyme and heat. Disruption of the chromosomal dasA or dasR in the wild-type strain resulted in growth as substrate mycelium, suggesting an additional role of these genes in aerial mycelium formation. The ectopic septation and sporulation in mutant NP4 and the wild-type strain carrying multicopies of dasA were independent of a microbial hormone, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone), that acts as a master switch of aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolism.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis induces expression of the gene ytnP in the presence of the antimicrobial streptomycin, produced by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces griseus. ytnP encodes a lactonase-homologous protein that is able to inhibit the signaling pathway required for the streptomycin production and development of aerial mycelium in S. griseus.