GroEL expression in gyrB mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi.
ABSTRACT: GroEL protein and groEL mRNA transcript were up-regulated in gyrB mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme disease. Furthermore, the protein and transcript levels in gyrB mutants were greater than those in experimentally heat-shocked cultures of wild-type B. burgdorferi. Circular DNA in the gyrB mutants was more relaxed than in wild-type cells, although groEL is on the linear chromosome of B. burgdorferi. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence, albeit indirect, for the effect of DNA topology on gene expression from a linear DNA molecule in a bacterium.
Project description:We have isolated and characterized mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi that are resistant to the antibiotic coumermycin A1, which targets the B subunit of DNA gyrase. Mutants had either 100- or 300-fold higher resistance to coumermycin A1 than wild-type B. burgdorferi. In each case, a single point mutation in the gyrB gene converted Arg-133 to Gly or Ile. Mutations in the homologous Arg residue of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase are also associated with resistance to coumarin antimicrobial agents.
Project description:This study describes the first isolation and characterization of spontaneous mutants conferring natural resistance to an antibiotic for any Bartonella species. The Bartonella bacilliformis gyrB gene, which encodes the B subunit of DNA gyrase, was cloned and sequenced. The gyrB open reading frame (ORF) is 2,079 bp and encodes a deduced amino acid sequence of 692 residues, corresponding to a predicted protein of approximately 77.5 kDa. Sequence alignment indicates that B. bacilliformis GyrB is most similar to the GyrB protein from Bacillus subtilis (40.1% amino acid sequence identity) and that it contains the longest N-terminal tail (52 residues) of any GyrB characterized to date. The cloned B. bacilliformis gyrB was expressed in an Escherichia coli S30 cell extract and was able to functionally complement a temperature-sensitive E. coli Cour gyrB mutant (strain N4177). We isolated and characterized spontaneous mutants of B. bacilliformis resistant to coumermycin A1, an antibiotic that targets GyrB. Sequence analysis of gyrB from 12 Cour mutants of B. bacilliformis identified single nucleotide transitions at three separate loci in the ORF. The predicted amino acid substitutions resulting from these transitions are Gly to Ser at position 124 (Gly124-->Ser), Arg184-->Gln, and Thr214-->Ala or Thr214-->Ile, which are analogous to mutated residues found in previously characterized resistant gyrB genes from Borrelia burgdorferi, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haloferax sp. The Cour mutants are three to five times more resistant to coumermycin A1 than the wild-type parental strain.
Project description:No useful method to genetically manipulate Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has been developed previously. We have used resistance to the coumarin antibiotic coumermycin A1, an inhibitor of DNA gyrase, as a genetic marker to monitor the transformation of B. burgdorferi by electroporation. Introduction of site-directed mutations into the gyrB gene demonstrated that transformation was successful, provided evidence that homologous recombination occurs on the chromosome, and established that mutations at Arg-133 of DNA gyrase B confer coumermycin A1 resistance in B. burgdorferi. The coumermycin A1-resistant gyrB marker and genetic transformation can now be applied toward dissecting the physiology and pathogenesis of the Lyme disease agent on a molecular genetic level.
Project description:hopA mutants, which have been suggested to be defective in mini-F plasmid partitioning (H. Niki, C. Ichinose, T. Ogura, H. Mori, M. Morita, M. Hasegawa, N. Kusukawa, and S. Hiraga, J. Bacteriol. 170:5272-5278, 1988), were found to carry mutations in the gyrB gene, coding for the B subunit of DNA gyrase. In gyrB(HopA) mutants, relaxation of the superhelicity of plasmids, increased IncG incompatibility, and increased SopB protein production were observed. It is suggested that altered expression of the sop genes, which is due to relaxation of the mini-F plasmid DNA, causes both defective partitioning of the mini-F plasmids and increased IncG incompatibility in gyrB(HopA) mutants.
Project description:Studies of the biology of Borrelia burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme disease are severely limited by the current lack of genetic tools. As an initial step toward facile genetic manipulation of this pathogenic spirochete, we have investigated gene inactivation by allelic exchange using a mutated borrelial gyrB gene that confers resistance to the antibiotic coumermycin A1 as a selectable marker. We have transformed B. burgdorferi by electroporation with a linear fragment of DNA in which this selectable marker was flanked by sequences from a native borrelial 26-kb circular plasmid. We have identified coumermycin A1-resistant transformants in which gyrB had interrupted the targeted site on the 26-kb plasmid via homologous recombination with the flanking sequences. Antibiotic resistance conferred by the mutated gyrB gene on the plasmid is dominant, and transformed spirochetes carrying this plasmid do not contain any unaltered copies of the plasmid. Coumermycin A1 resistance can be transferred to naive B. burgdorferi by transformation with borrelial plasmid DNA from the initial transformants. This work represents the first example of a directed mutation in B. burgdorferi whereby a large segment of heterologous DNA (gyrB) has been inserted via homologous recombination with flanking sequences, thus demonstrating the feasibility of specific gene inactivation by allelic exchange.
Project description:The genes encoding the DNA gyrase A and B subunits of Bacteroides fragilis were cloned and sequenced. The gyrA and gyrB genes code for proteins of 845 and 653 amino acids, respectively. These proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the combination of GyrA and GyrB exhibited ATP-dependent supercoiling activity. To analyze the role of DNA gyrase in quinolone resistance of B. fragilis, we isolated mutant strains by stepwise selection for resistance to increasing concentrations of levofloxacin. We analyzed the resistant mutants and showed that Ser-82 of GyrA, equivalent to resistance hot spot Ser-83 of GyrA in E. coli, was in each case replaced with Phe. These results suggest that DNA gyrase is an important target for quinolones in B. fragilis.
Project description:The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has resulted in increased interest in the fluoroquinolones (FQs) as antituberculosis agents. To investigate the frequency and mechanisms of FQ resistance in M. tuberculosis, we cloned and sequenced the wild-type gyrA and gyrB genes, which encode the A and B subunits of the DNA gyrase, respectively; DNA gyrase is the main target of the FQs. On the basis of the sequence information, we performed DNA amplification for sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis to examine the presumed quinolone resistance regions of gyrA and gyrB from reference strains (n = 4) and clinical isolates (n = 55). Mutations in codons of gyrA analogous to those described in other FQ-resistant bacteria were identified in all isolates (n = 14) for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was > 2 micrograms/ml. In addition, we selected ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis Erdman and H37ra. Spontaneously resistant mutants developed at a frequency of 1 in 10(7) to 10(8) at ciprofloxacin concentrations of 2 micrograms/ml, but no primary resistant colonies were selected at higher ciprofloxacin concentrations. Replating of those first-step mutants selected for mutants with high levels of resistance which harbored gyrA mutations similar to those found among clinical FQ-resistant isolates. The gyrA and gyrB sequence information will facilitate analysis of the mechanisms of resistance to drugs which target the gyrase and the implementation of rapid strategies for the estimation of FQ susceptibility in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.
Project description:Moxifloxacin has shown excellent activity against drug-sensitive as well as drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), thus confirming DNA gyrase as a clinically validated target for discovering novel anti-TB agents. We have identified novel inhibitors in the pyrrolamide class which kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis through inhibition of ATPase activity catalyzed by the GyrB domain of DNA gyrase. A homology model of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv GyrB domain was used for deciphering the structure-activity relationship and binding interactions of inhibitors with mycobacterial GyrB enzyme. Proposed binding interactions were later confirmed through cocrystal structure studies with the Mycobacterium smegmatis GyrB ATPase domain. The most potent compound in this series inhibited supercoiling activity of DNA gyrase with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of <5 nM, an MIC of 0.03 ?g/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and an MIC90 of <0.25 ?g/ml against 99 drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The frequency of isolating spontaneous resistant mutants was ?10(-6) to 10(-8), and the point mutation mapped to the M. tuberculosis GyrB domain (Ser208 Ala), thus confirming its mode of action. The best compound tested for in vivo efficacy in the mouse model showed a 1.1-log reduction in lung CFU in the acute model and a 0.7-log reduction in the chronic model. This class of GyrB inhibitors could be developed as novel anti-TB agents.
Project description:Kinetic analyses of GroE-assisted folding provide a dynamic sequence of molecular events that underlie chaperonin function. We used stopped-flow analysis of various fluorescent GroEL mutants to obtain details regarding the sequence of events that transpire immediately after ATP binding to GroEL and GroEL with prebound unfolded proteins. Characterization of GroEL CP86, a circularly permuted GroEL with the polypeptide ends relocated to the vicinity of the ATP binding site, showed that GroES binding and protection of unfolded protein from solution is achieved surprisingly early in the functional cycle, and in spite of greatly reduced apical domain movement. Analysis of fluorescent GroEL SR-1 and GroEL D398A variants suggested that among other factors, the presence of two GroEL rings and a specific conformational rearrangement of Helix M in GroEL contribute significantly to the rapid release of unfolded protein from the GroEL apical domain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL subunit consists of three domains linked via two hinge regions, and each domain is responsible for a specific role in the functional mechanism. Here, we have used circular permutation to study the structural and functional characteristics of the GroEL subunit. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three soluble, partially active mutants with polypeptide ends relocated into various positions of the apical domain of GroEL were isolated and studied. The basic functional hallmarks of GroEL (ATPase and chaperoning activities) were retained in all three mutants. Certain functional characteristics, such as basal ATPase activity and ATPase inhibition by the cochaperonin GroES, differed in the mutants while at the same time, the ability to facilitate the refolding of rhodanese was roughly equal. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments using a fluorescent variant of the circularly permuted GroEL CP376 revealed that a specific kinetic transition that reflects movements of the apical domain was missing in this mutant. This mutant also displayed several characteristics that suggested that the apical domains were behaving in an uncoordinated fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of apical domain coordination and a concomitant decrease in functional ability highlights the importance of certain conformational signals that are relayed through domain interlinks in GroEL. We propose that circular permutation is a very versatile tool to probe chaperonin structure and function.