Control by A-factor of a metalloendopeptidase gene involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus.
ABSTRACT: In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) switches on aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. An A-factor-dependent transcriptional activator, AdpA, activates multiple genes required for morphological development and secondary metabolism in a programmed manner. A region upstream of a zinc-containing metalloendopeptidase gene (sgmA) was found among the DNA fragments that had been isolated as AdpA-binding sites. The primary product of sgmA consisted of N-terminal pre, N-terminal pro, mature, and C-terminal pro regions. sgmA was transcribed in an AdpA-dependent manner, and its transcription was markedly enhanced at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. AdpA bound two sites in the region upstream of the sgmA promoter; one was at about nucleotide position -60 (A site) with respect to the transcriptional start point of sgmA, and the other was at about position -260 (B site), as determined by DNase I footprinting. Transcriptional analysis with mutated promoters showed that the A site was essential for the switching on of sgmA transcription and that the B site was necessary for the marked enhancement of transcription at the timing of aerial mycelium formation. Disruption of the chromosomal sgmA gene resulted in a delay in aerial hypha formation by half a day. SgmA is therefore suggested to be associated with the programmed morphological development of Streptomyces, in which this peptidase, perhaps together with other hydrolytic enzymes, plays a role in the degradation of proteins in substrate hyphae for reuse in aerial hypha formation.
Project description:AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus activates a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. The Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) gene, sgiA, in S. griseus was transcribed in response to AdpA, showing that sgiA is a member of the AdpA regulon. AdpA bound a single site upstream of the sgiA promoter at approximately position -70 with respect to its transcriptional start point. Mutational analysis of the AdpA-binding site showed that the AdpA-binding site was essential for transcriptional activation. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted had higher trypsin, chymotrypsin, metalloendopeptidase, and total protease activities than the wild-type strain, which showed that SgiA modulated the activities of these extracellularly produced proteases. Because a number of genes encoding chymotrypsins, trypsins, and metalloendopeptidases, most of which are SSI-sensitive proteases, are also under the control of AdpA, the A-factor regulatory cascade was thought to play a crucial role in modulating the extracellular protease activities by triggering simultaneous production of the proteases and their inhibitor at a specific timing during growth. Mutants in which sgiA was disrupted grew normally and formed aerial hyphae and spores with the same time course as the wild-type strain. However, exogenous addition of purified SgiA to substrate mycelium grown on agar medium resulted in a delay in aerial mycelium formation, indicating that SgiA is involved in aerial hypha formation in conjunction with proteases.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) at an extremely low concentration triggers streptomycin production and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. A-factor induces the expression of an A-factor-dependent transcriptional activator, AdpA, essential for both morphological and physiological differentiation by binding to the A-factor receptor protein ArpA, which has bound and repressed the adpA promoter, and dissociating it from the promoter. Nine DNA fragments that were specifically recognized and bound by histidine-tagged AdpA were isolated by cycles of a gel mobility shift-PCR method. One of them was located in front of a gene encoding an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor belonging to a subgroup of the primary sigma(70) family. The cloned gene was named AdpA-dependent sigma factor gene (adsA), and the gene product was named sigma(AdsA). Transcription of adsA depended on A-factor and AdpA, since adsA was transcribed at a very low and constant level in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain or in an adpA-disrupted strain. Consistent with this, transcription of adsA was greatly enhanced at or near the timing of aerial hyphae formation, as determined by low-resolution S1 nuclease mapping. High-resolution S1 mapping determined the transcriptional start point 82 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon. DNase I footprinting showed that AdpA bound both strands symmetrically between the transcriptional start point and the translational start codon; AdpA protected the antisense strand from positions +7 to +41 with respect to the transcriptional start point and the sense strand from positions +12 to +46. A weak palindrome was found in the AdpA-binding site. The unusual position bound by AdpA as a transcriptional activator, in relation to the promoter, suggested the presence of a mechanism by which AdpA activates transcription of adsA in some unknown way. Disruption of the chromosomal adsA gene resulted in loss of aerial hyphae formation but not streptomycin or yellow pigment production, indicating that sigma(AdsA) is involved only in morphological development and not in secondary metabolic function. The presence of a single copy in each of the Streptomyces species examined by Southern hybridization suggests a common role in morphogenesis in this genus.
Project description:In Streptomyces griseus, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) serves as a microbial hormone that switches on many genes required for streptomycin production and morphological development. An open reading frame (Orf1) showing high sequence similarity to oligoribonucleases of various origins is present just downstream of adpA, one of the A-factor-dependent genes. Orf1 was named OrnA (oligoribonuclease A) because it showed 3'-to-5' exo-oligoribonuclease activity, releasing [(32)P]CMP from ApCpC[(32)P]pC used as a substrate. Reverse transcription-PCR and S1 nuclease mapping analyses revealed that ornA was transcribed from two promoters; one was a developmentally regulated, A-factor-dependent promoter in front of adpA, and the other was a constitutive promoter in front of the ornA coding sequence. Transcription of ornA was thus additively enhanced at the initiation stage for secondary metabolism and aerial mycelium formation. ornA-disrupted strains grew slowly and scarcely formed aerial mycelium. ornA homologues were distributed in a wide variety of Streptomyces species, including S. coelicolor A3(2), as determined by Southern hybridization analysis. Disruption of the ornA homologue in S. coelicolor A3(2) also caused phenotypes similar to those of the S. griseus DeltaornA strains. The OrnA oligoribonucleases in Streptomyces species are therefore not essential but play an important role in vegetative growth and in the initiation of differentiation.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) triggers morphological development and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces griseus. A transcriptional activator (AdpA) in the A-factor regulatory cascade switches on a number of genes required for both processes. AdBS11 was identified in a library of the DNA fragments that are bound by AdpA and mapped upstream of ssgA, which is essential for septum formation in aerial hyphae. Gel mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting revealed three AdpA-binding sites at nucleotide positions about -235 (site 1), -110 (site 2), and +60 (site 3) with respect to the transcriptional start point, p1, of ssgA. ssgA had two transcriptional start points, one starting at 124 nucleotides (p1) and the other starting at 79 nucleotides (p2) upstream of the start codon of ssgA. Of the three binding sites, only sites 1 and 2 were required for transcriptional activation of p1 and p2 by AdpA. The transcriptional switch on of ssgA required the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor, sigma(AdsA), in addition to AdpA. However, it was unlikely that sigma(AdsA) recognized the two ssgA promoters, since their -35 and -10 sequences were not similar to the promoter sequence motifs recognized by sigma(BldN), a sigma(AdsA) homologue of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). An ssgA disruptant formed aerial hyphae, but did not form spores, irrespective of the carbon source of the medium, which indicated that ssgA is a member of the whi genes. Transcriptional analysis of ssfR, located just upstream of ssgA and encoding an IclR-type transcriptional regulator, suggested that no read-through from ssfR into ssgA occurred, and ssgA was transcribed in the absence of ssfR. ssgA was thus found to be controlled by AdpA and not by SsfR to a detectable extent. SsfR appeared to regulate spore septum formation independently of SsgA or through interaction with SsgA in some unknown way, because an ssfR disruptant also showed a whi phenotype.
Project description:AdpA is a key regulator of morphological differentiation in Streptomyces. In contrast to Streptomyces griseus, relatively little is known about AdpA protein functions in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we report for the first time the translation accumulation profile of the S. coelicolor adpA (adpA(Sc)) gene; the level of S. coelicolor AdpA (AdpA(Sc)) increased, reaching a maximum in the early stage of aerial mycelium formation (after 36 h), and remained relatively stable for the next several hours (48 to 60 h), and then the signal intensity decreased considerably. AdpA(Sc) specifically binds the adpA(Sc) promoter region in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that its expression is autoregulated; surprisingly, in contrast to S. griseus, the protein presumably acts as a transcriptional activator. We also demonstrate a direct influence of AdpA(Sc) on the expression of several genes whose products play key roles in the differentiation of S. coelicolor: STI, a protease inhibitor; RamR, an atypical response regulator that itself activates expression of the genes for a small modified peptide that is required for aerial growth; and ClpP1, an ATP-dependent protease. The diverse influence of AdpA(Sc) protein on the expression of the analyzed genes presumably results mainly from different affinities of AdpA(Sc) protein to individual promoters.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essential for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. amfR is one of the genes which, when cloned on a low-copy-number plasmid, suppresses the aerial mycelium-negative phenotype of an A-factor-deficient mutant of S. griseus. Disruption of the chromosomal amfR gene resulted in complete abolition of aerial mycelium formation, indicating that amfR is essential for the onset of morphogenesis. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the region upstream of amfR predicted an operon consisting of orf5, orf4, and amfR. Consistent with this idea, Northern blotting and S1 mapping analyses suggested that these three genes were cotranscribed mainly by a promoter (PORF5) in front of orf5. Furthermore, PORF5 was active only in the presence of A-factor, indicating that it is A-factor dependent. Gel mobility shift assays showed the presence of a protein (AdpB) able to bind PORF5 in the cell extract from an A-factor-deficient mutant but not from the wild-type strain. AdpB was purified to homogeneity and found to bind specifically to the region from -72 to -44 bp with respect to the transcriptional start point. Runoff transcriptional analysis of PORF5 with purified AdpB and an RNA polymerase complex isolated from vegetative mycelium showed that AdpB repressed the transcription in a concentration-dependent manner. It is thus apparent that AmfR as a switch for aerial mycelium formation and AdpB as a repressor for amfR are members in the A-factor regulatory cascade, leading to morphogenesis.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essentially required for aerial mycelium formation and streptomycin production in Streptomyces griseus. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this strain on a high-copy-number plasmid. Subcloning and nucleotide sequencing revealed that one open reading frame with 218 amino acids, named AmfC, served as a multicopy suppressor of the aerial mycelium-defective phenotype of the A-factor-deficient strain. The amfC gene did not restore A-factor or streptomycin production, indicating that amfC is involved in aerial mycelium formation independently of secondary metabolic function. Disruption of the chromosomal amfC gene in the wild-type S. griseus strain caused a severe reduction in the abundance of spores but no effect on the shape or size of the spores. The infrequent sporulation of the amfC disruptant was reversed by introduction of amfC on a plasmid. The amfC-defective phenotype was also restored by the orf1590 gene but not by the amfR-amfA-amfB gene cluster. Nucleotide sequences homologous to the amfC gene were distributed in all of 12 Streptomyces species tested, including Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The amfC homolog of S. coelicolor A3(2) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The AmfC products of S. griseus and S. coelicolor A3(2) showed a 60% identity in their amino acid sequences. Introduction of the amfC gene of S. coelicolor A3(2) into strain HH1 induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation, which suggests that both play the same functional role in morphogenesis in the strains.
Project description:A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) and its specific receptor protein control streptomycin production, streptomycin resistance, and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. The A-factor receptor protein (ArpA) was purified from a cell lysate of S. griseus IFO 13350. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of ArpA and lysyl endopeptidase-generated fragments were determined for the purpose of preparing oligonucleotide primers for cloning arpA by the PCR method. The arpA gene cloned in this way directed the synthesis of a protein having A-factor-specific binding activity when expressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the T7 promoter. The arpA gene was thus concluded to encode a 276-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 29.1 kDa, as determined by nucleotide sequencing. The A-factor-binding activity was observed with a homodimer of ArpA. The NH2-terminal portion of ArpA contained an alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA-binding motif that showed great similarity to those of many DNA-binding proteins, which suggests that it exerts its regulatory function for the various phenotypes by directly binding to a certain key gene(s). Although a mutant strain deficient in both the ArpA protein and A-factor production overproduces streptomycin and forms aerial mycelium and spores earlier than the wild-type strain because of repressor-like behavior of ArpA, introduction of arpA into this mutant abolished simultaneously its streptomycin production and aerial mycelium formation. All of these data are consistent with the idea that ArpA acts as a repressor-type regulator for secondary metabolite formation and morphogenesis during the early growth phase and A-factor at a certain critical intracellular concentration releases the derepression, thus leading to the onset of secondary metabolism and aerial mycelium formation. The presence of ArpA-like proteins among Streptomyces spp., as revealed by PCR, together with the presence of A-factor-like compounds, suggests that a hormonal control similar to the A-factor system exists in many species of this genus.
Project description:We identified adpA as an araC-like regulatory gene needed for colonial morphogenesis in Streptomyces coelicolor and showed that its activity depended on a unique TTA triplet corresponding to the leucyl-tRNA gene (bldA). These findings partially explained the dependence of aerial mycelium formation on a rare tRNA that is postulated to have developmental control functions.
Project description:In the model of the A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus, A-factor binds ArpA, the A-factor receptor protein, that has bound to the adpA promoter and dissociates it from the DNA, thus inducing the transcription of adpA. AdpA switches on the transcription of a number of genes required for secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation, forming an AdpA regulon. Consistent with this model, arpA null mutants produced streptomycin and a yellow pigment in larger amounts and formed aerial hyphae from an earlier growth stage than the wild-type strain. On the other hand, mutant MK2, expressing a mutant ArpA (Trp119Ala), neither produced secondary metabolites nor formed aerial hyphae, because this A-factor-insensitive mutant ArpA always bound to and repressed the adpA promoter due to the amino acid replacement of Trp-119 with Ala. Introduction of adpA under the control of a foreign promoter into mutant MK2 restored all of the phenotypes that we could observe, which suggests that the only significant target of ArpA is adpA. In contrast to other gamma-butyrolactone regulatory systems, disruption of arpA had no effect on A-factor production, indicating that ArpA does not regulate A-factor biosynthesis. Instead, A-factor production was found to be repressed by AdpA in a two-step regulatory feedback loop.