Precipitous release of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 and histone deacetylase 1 from the methylated human multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) on activation.
ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the human multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) is a negative prognostic factor in leukemia. Despite intense efforts to characterize the gene at the molecular level, little is known about the genetic events that switch on gene expression in P-glycoprotein-negative cells. Recent studies have shown that the transcriptional competence of MDR1 is often closely associated with DNA methylation. Chromatin remodeling and modification targeted by the recognition of methylated DNA provide a dominant mechanism for transcriptional repression. Consistent with this epigenetic model, interference with DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase activity alone or in combination can reactivate silent genes. In the present study, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to monitor the molecular events involved in the activation and repression of MDR1. Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (5-azacytidine [5aC]) and histone deacetylase (trichostatin A [TSA]) were used to examine gene transcription, promoter methylation status, and the chromatin determinants associated with the MDR1 promoter. We have established that methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is involved in methylation-dependent silencing of human MDR1 in cells that lack the known transcriptional repressors MBD2 and MBD3. In the repressed state the MDR1 promoter is methylated and assembled into chromatin enriched with MeCP2 and deacetylated histone. TSA induced significant acetylation of histones H3 and H4 but did not activate transcription. 5aC induced DNA demethylation, leading to the release of MeCP2, promoter acetylation, and partial relief of repression. MDR1 expression was significantly increased following combined 5aC and TSA treatments. Inhibition of histone deacetylase is not an overriding mechanism in the reactivation of methylated MDR1. Our results provide us with a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanism necessary for repression of MDR1.
Project description:Histone deacetylase and chromatin assembly contribute to the control of transcription of the Xenopus TRbetaA gene promoter by the heterodimer of Xenopus thyroid hormone receptor and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (TR-RXR). Addition of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) relieves repression of transcription due to chromatin assembly following microinjection of templates into Xenopus oocyte nuclei, and eliminates regulation of transcription by TR-RXR. Expression of Xenopus RPD3p, the catalytic subunit of histone deacetylase, represses the TRbetaA promoter, but only after efficient assembly of the template into nucleosomes. In contrast, the unliganded TR-RXR represses templates only partially assembled into nucleosomes; addition of TSA also relieves this transcriptional repression. This result indicates the distinct requirements for chromatin assembly in mediating transcriptional repression by the deacetylase alone, compared with those needed in the presence of unliganded TR-RXR. In addition, whereas hormone-bound TR-RXR targets chromatin disruption as assayed through changes in minichromosome topology and loss of a regular nucleosomal ladder on micrococcal nuclease digestion, addition of TSA relieves transcriptional repression but does not disrupt chromatin. Thus, TR-RXR can facilitate transcriptional repression in the absence of hormone through mechanisms in addition to recruitment of deacetylase, and disrupts chromatin structure through mechanisms in addition to the inhibition or release of deacetylase.
Project description:Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) contains a transcriptional repression domain (TRD), which can act by recruitment of a large transcriptional co-repressor complex containing histone deacetylases HDAC1 and 2. We demonstrate here that transient transcription from the SV40 enhancer/promoter or the SV40 promoter is strongly repressed in a histone deacetylase-independent manner, since repression is not alleviated by Trichostatin A (TSA). In a mutational analysis, repression depends on a conserved 30 residue sequence containing two clusters of basic amino acids. Mutation of the first of these clusters inhibits in vitro interaction between TRD and mSin3A. Furthermore, a subdomain of the TRD containing the conserved 30-residue sequence and 16 flanking amino acids was sufficient to compromise VP16-activated transcription. In summary, our results indicate an alternative, histone deacetylase-independent pathway of transcriptional repression by MeCP2.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) mediates the uptake of both natural nucleosides and nucleoside-derived drugs. Therefore, it is important both physiologically and pharmacologically. However, CNT2 expression is significantly repressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we have elucidated the mechanism(s) underlying CNT2 repression in CRC. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Repression of CNT2 in tumour samples from patients with CRC was identified using Western blot and RT-qPCR. The histone acetylation state at the CNT2 promoter region was then evaluated with chromatin immunoprecipitation and trichostatin A (TSA) treatment. To find the key enzyme responsible for hypoacetylation at the CNT2 promoter region, siRNA knockdown and RT-qPCR were used. Effects of combining HDAC inhibitors and cladribine were studied in HCT15 and HT29 cells. KEY RESULTS:Histone deacetylase 7 was significantly up-regulated in CRC, leading to histone hypoacetylation at the CNT2 promoter region, especially at sites H3K9Ac, H3K18Ac and H4Ac. This hypoacetylation condensed the chromatin structure and reduced CNT2 expression. All these effects were reversed by treatment with TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In HCT15 and HT29 cells, inhibition of histone deacetylase increased cell uptake and decreased IC50 for cladribine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Histone hypoacetylation due to increased levels of histone deacetylase 7 results in CNT2 repression in CRC tumour tissue and could lead to decreased uptake of and consequent resistance to nucleoside anti-cancer agents. Such resistance could be overcome by combining inhibitors of histone deacetylase with the nucleoside anti-cancer agent.
Project description:Period circadian regulator (Per)1 and Per2 genes are involved in the molecular mechanism of the circadian clock, and exhibit tumor suppressor properties. Several studies have reported a decreased expression of Per1, Per2 and Per3 genes in different types of cancer and cancer cell lines. Promoter methylation downregulates Per1, Per2 or Per3 expression in myeloid leukemia, breast, lung, and other cancer cells; whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) upregulate Per1 or Per3 expression in certain cancer cell lines. However, the transcriptional regulation of Per1 and Per2 in cancer cells by chromatin modifications is not fully understood. The present study aimed to determine whether HDACi regulate Per1 and Per2 expression in gastric cancer cell lines, and to investigate changes in chromatin modifications in response to HDACi. Treatment of KATO III and NCI-N87 human gastric cancer cells with sodium butyrate (NaB) or Trichostatin A (TSA) induced Per1 and Per2 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitaion assays revealed that NaB and TSA decreased lysine 9 trimethylation on histone H3 (H3K9me3) at the Per1 promoter. TSA, but not NaB increased H3K9 acetylation at the Per2 promoter. It was also observed that binding of Sp1 and Sp3 to the Per1 promoter decreased following NaB treatment, whereas Sp1 binding increased at the Per2 promoter of NaB- and TSA-treated cells. In addition, Per1 promoter is not methylated in KATO III cells, while Per2 promoter was methylated, although NaB, TSA, and 5-Azacytidine do not change the methylated CpGs analyzed. In conclusion, HDACi induce Per1 and Per2 expression, in part, through mechanisms involving chromatin remodeling at the proximal promoter of these genes; however, other indirect mechanisms triggered by these HDACi cannot be ruled out. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated regulatory pathway between silencing of Per1 gene by H3K9me3 and upregulation of Per2 by HDACi in cancer cells.
Project description:The transcription factor Snail has been described as a direct repressor of E-cadherin expression during development and carcinogenesis; however, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain largely unknown. Here we show that mammalian Snail requires histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity to repress E-cadherin promoter and that treatment with trichostatin A (TSA) is sufficient to block the repressor effect of Snail. Moreover, overexpression of Snail is correlated with deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 at the E-cadherin promoter, and TSA treatment in Snail-expressing cells reverses the acetylation status of histones. Additionally, we demonstrate that Snail interacts in vivo with the E-cadherin promoter and recruits HDAC activity. Most importantly, we demonstrate an interaction between Snail, histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and HDAC2, and the corepressor mSin3A. This interaction is dependent on the SNAG domain of Snail, indicating that the Snail transcription factor mediates the repression by recruitment of chromatin-modifying activities, forming a multimolecular complex to repress E-cadherin expression. Our results establish a direct causal relationship between Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin and the modification of chromatin at its promoter.
Project description:MBD1 belongs to a family of mammalian proteins that share a methyl-CpG binding domain. Previous work has shown that MBD1 binds to methylated sites in vivo and in vitro and can repress transcription from methylated templates in transcription extracts and in cultured cells. In the present study we established by several experimental criteria that, contrary to a previous report, MBD1 is not a component of the MeCP1 repressor complex. We identified a powerful transcriptional repression domain (TRD) at the C terminus of MBD1 that can actively repress transcription at a distance. Methylation-dependent repression in vivo depends on the presence of both the TRD and the methyl-CpG binding domain. The mechanism is likely to involve deacetylation, since the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A can overcome MBD1-mediated repression. Accordingly, we found that endogenous MBD1 is particularly concentrated at sites of centromeric heterochromatin, where acetylated histone H4 is deficient. Unlike MBD2 and MeCP2, MBD1 is not depleted by antibodies to the histone deacetylase HDAC1. Thus, the deacetylase-dependent pathway by which MBD1 actively silences methylated genes is likely to be different from that utilized by the methylation-dependent repressors MeCP1 and MeCP2.
Project description:Although the function of DNA methylation in gene promoter regions is well established in transcriptional repression, the function of the evolutionarily conserved widespread distribution of DNA methylation in gene body regions remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that DNA methylation is enriched in included alternatively spliced exons (ASEs), and that inhibition of DNA methylation results in aberrant splicing of ASEs. The methyl-CpG-binding protein MeCP2 is enriched in included ASEs, particularly those that are also highly methylated, and inhibition of DNA methylation disrupts specific targeting of MeCP2 to exons. Interestingly, ablation of MeCP2 results in increased histone acetylation and aberrant ASE-skipping events. We further show that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity leads to exon skipping that shows a highly significant degree of overlap with that caused by MeCP2 knockdown. Together, our data indicate that intragenic DNA methylation operates in exon definition to modulate alternative RNA splicing and can enhance exon recognition via recruitment of the multifunctional protein MeCP2, which thereby maintains local histone hypoacetylation through the subsequent recruitment of HDACs.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors inhibit the proliferation of transformed cells in vitro, restrain tumor growth in animals, and are currently being actively exploited as potential anticancer agents. To identify gene targets of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), we compared the gene expression profiles of BALB/c-3T3 cells treated with or without TSA. Our results show that TSA up-regulates the expression of the gene encoding growth-differentiation factor 11 (Gdf11), a transforming growth factor beta family member that inhibits cell proliferation. Detailed analyses indicated that TSA activates the gdf11 promoter through a conserved CCAAT box element. A comprehensive survey of human HDACs revealed that HDAC3 is necessary and sufficient for the repression of gdf11 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that treatment of cells with TSA or silencing of HDAC3 expression by small interfering RNA causes the hyperacetylation of Lys-9 in histone H3 on the gdf11 promoter. Together, our results provide a new model in which HDAC inhibitors reverse abnormal cell growth by inactivation of HDAC3, which in turn leads to the derepression of gdf11 expression.
Project description:The majority of 5-methylcytosine in mammalian DNA resides in endogenous transposable elements and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of these parasitic elements. Methylation also plays an important role in the silencing of exogenous retroviruses. One of the difficulties inherent in the study of proviral silencing is that the sites in which proviruses randomly integrate influence the probability of de novo methylation and expression. In order to compare methylated and unmethylated proviruses at the same genomic site, we used a recombinase-based targeting approach to introduce an in vitro methylated or unmethylated Moloney murine leukemia-based provirus in MEL cells. The methylated and unmethylated states are maintained in vivo, with the exception of the initially methylated proviral enhancer, which becomes demethylated in vivo. Although the enhancer is unmethylated and remodeled, the methylated provirus is transcriptionally silent. To further analyze the repressed state, histone acetylation status was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, which revealed that localized histone H3 but not histone H4 hyperacetylation is inversely correlated with proviral methylation density. Since members of the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) family of proteins recruit histone deacetylase activity, these proteins may play a role in proviral repression. Interestingly, only MBD3 and MeCP2 are expressed in MEL cells. ChIPs with antibodies specific for these proteins revealed that only MeCP2 associates with the provirus in a methylation-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that MeCP2 recruitment to a methylated provirus is sufficient for transcriptional silencing, despite the presence of a remodeled enhancer.
Project description:Histone acetylation plays an important role in chromatin remodeling and gene expression. The molecular mechanisms involved in differential regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether histone deacetylation was involved in repression of uPA expression in human cancer cells. Induction of uPA expression by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA), sodium butyrate, and scriptaid was observed in all three different types of human cancer cells examined. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that the induction of uPA expression by TSA was accompanied by a remarkable increase of acetylation of histones H3 and H4, which are associated with the uPA promoter region in human cancer cells. These results were further substantiated by the findings of a restriction enzyme accessibility assay and TSA-stimulated uPA promoter activity through the inhibition of HDAC activity. In vitro Matrigel invasion assays showed that induction of uPA expression by HDAC inhibitors in human cancer cells resulted in a significant increase of cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, HDAC1 knockdown by small interference RNA stimulated uPA expression and cancer cell invasion. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important role of histone modifications in regulating uPA gene expression and raises a possibility that the use of HDAC inhibitors in patients as cancer therapy may paradoxically establish metastasis through up-regulation or reactivation of uPA.