Uneven distribution of expressed sequence tag loci on maize pachytene chromosomes.
ABSTRACT: Examining the relationships among DNA sequence, meiotic recombination, and chromosome structure at a genome-wide scale has been difficult because only a few markers connect genetic linkage maps with physical maps. Here, we have positioned 1195 genetically mapped expressed sequence tag (EST) markers onto the 10 pachytene chromosomes of maize by using a newly developed resource, the RN-cM map. The RN-cM map charts the distribution of crossing over in the form of recombination nodules (RNs) along synaptonemal complexes (SCs, pachytene chromosomes) and allows genetic cM distances to be converted into physical micrometer distances on chromosomes. When this conversion is made, most of the EST markers used in the study are located distally on the chromosomes in euchromatin. ESTs are significantly clustered on chromosomes, even when only euchromatic chromosomal segments are considered. Gene density and recombination rate (as measured by EST and RN frequencies, respectively) are strongly correlated. However, crossover frequencies for telomeric intervals are much higher than was expected from their EST frequencies. For pachytene chromosomes, EST density is about fourfold higher in euchromatin compared with heterochromatin, while DNA density is 1.4 times higher in heterochromatin than in euchromatin. Based on DNA density values and the fraction of pachytene chromosome length that is euchromatic, we estimate that approximately 1500 Mbp of the maize genome is in euchromatin. This overview of the organization of the maize genome will be useful in examining genome and chromosome evolution in plants.
Project description:Eleven sequenced BACs were annotated and localized via FISH to tomato pachytene chromosomes providing the first global insights into the compositional differences of euchromatin and pericentromeric heterochromatin in this model dicot species. The results indicate that tomato euchromatin has a gene density (6.7 kb/gene) similar to that of Arabidopsis and rice. Thus, while the euchromatin comprises only 25% of the tomato nuclear DNA, it is sufficient to account for approximately 90% of the estimated 38,000 nontransposon genes that compose the tomato genome. Moreover, euchromatic BACs were largely devoid of transposons or other repetitive elements. In contrast, BACs assigned to the pericentromeric heterochromatin had a gene density 10-100 times lower than that of the euchromatin and are heavily populated by retrotransposons preferential to the heterochromatin-the most abundant transposons belonging to the Jinling Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon family. Jinling elements are highly methylated and rarely transcribed. Nonetheless, they have spread throughout the pericentromeric heterochromatin in tomato and wild tomato species fairly recently-well after tomato diverged from potato and other related solanaceous species. The implications of these findings on evolution and on sequencing the genomes of tomato and other solanaceous species are discussed.
Project description:Cytogenetic maps of sorghum chromosomes 3-7, 9, and 10 were constructed on the basis of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of approximately 18-30 BAC probes mapped across each of these chromosomes. Distal regions of euchromatin and pericentromeric regions of heterochromatin were delimited for all 10 sorghum chromosomes and their DNA content quantified. Euchromatic DNA spans approximately 50% of the sorghum genome, ranging from approximately 60% of chromosome 1 (SBI-01) to approximately 33% of chromosome 7 (SBI-07). This portion of the sorghum genome is predicted to encode approximately 70% of the sorghum genes ( approximately 1 gene model/12.3 kbp), assuming that rice and sorghum encode a similar number of genes. Heterochromatin spans approximately 411 Mbp of the sorghum genome, a region characterized by a approximately 34-fold lower rate of recombination and approximately 3-fold lower gene density compared to euchromatic DNA. The sorghum and rice genomes exhibit a high degree of macrocolinearity; however, the sorghum genome is approximately 2-fold larger than the rice genome. The distal euchromatic regions of sorghum chromosomes 3-7 and 10 are approximately 1.8-fold larger overall and exhibit an approximately 1.5-fold lower average rate of recombination than the colinear regions of the homeologous rice chromosomes. By contrast, the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of these chromosomes are on average approximately 3.6-fold larger in sorghum and recombination is suppressed approximately 15-fold compared to the colinear regions of rice chromosomes.
Project description:A cytogenetic map has been developed for diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), in which the arms of the 12 potato bivalents can be identified in pachytene complements using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a set of 60 genetically anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the RHPOTKEY BAC library. This diagnostic set of selected BACs (five per chromosome) hybridizes to euchromatic regions and corresponds to well-defined loci in the ultradense genetic map, and with these probes a new detailed and reliable pachytene karyotype could be established. Chromosome size has been estimated both from microscopic length measurements and from 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole fluorescence-based DNA content measurements. In both approaches, chromosome 1 is the largest (100-115 Mb) and chromosome 11 the smallest (49-53 Mb). Detailed measurements of mega-base-pair to micrometer ratios have been obtained for chromosome 5, with average values of 1.07 Mb/mum for euchromatin and 3.67 Mb/mum for heterochromatin. In addition, our FISH results helped to solve two discrepancies in the potato genetic map related to chromosomes 8 and 12. Finally, we discuss the significance of the potato cytogenetic map for extended FISH studies in potato and related Solanaceae, which will be especially beneficial for the potato genome-sequencing project.
Project description:Integrated cytogenetic pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps were developed for chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 of maize using restriction fragment length polymorphism marker-selected Sorghum propinquum bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for 19 core bin markers and 4 additional genetic framework loci. Using transgenomic BAC FISH mapping on maize chromosome addition lines of oats, we found that the relative locus position along the pachytene chromosome did not change as a function of total arm length, indicative of uniform axial contraction along the fibers during mid-prophase for tested loci on chromosomes 4 and 5. Additionally, we cytogenetically FISH mapped six loci from chromosome 9 onto their duplicated syntenic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6, which have varying amounts of sequence divergence, using sorghum BACs homologous to the chromosome 9 loci. We found that successful FISH mapping was possible even when the chromosome 9 selective marker had no counterpart in the syntenic block. In total, these 29 FISH-mapped loci were used to create the most extensive pachytene FISH maps to date for these six maize chromosomes. The FISH-mapped loci were then merged into one composite karyotype for direct comparative analysis with the recombination nodule-predicted cytogenetic, genetic linkage, and genomic physical maps using the relative marker positions of the loci on all the maps. Marker colinearity was observed between all pair-wise map comparisons, although marker distribution patterns varied widely in some cases. As expected, we found that the recombination nodule-based predictions most closely resembled the cytogenetic map positions overall. Cytogenetic and linkage map comparisons agreed with previous studies showing a decrease in marker spacing in the peri-centromeric heterochromatin region on the genetic linkage maps. In fact, there was a general trend with most loci mapping closer towards the telomere on the linkage maps than on the cytogenetic maps, regardless of chromosome number or maize inbred line source, with just some of the telomeric loci exempted. Finally and somewhat surprisingly, we observed considerable variation between the relative arm positions of loci when comparing our cytogenetic FISH map to the B73 genomic physical maps, even where comparisons were to a B73-derived cytogenetic map. This variation is more evident between different chromosome arms, but less so within a given arm, ruling out any type of inbred-line dependent global features of linear deoxyribonucleic acid compared with the meiotic fiber organization. This study provides a means for analyzing the maize genome structure by producing new connections for integrating the cytogenetic, linkage, and physical maps of maize.
Project description:Maize B chromosome sequences have been previously cloned by microdissection, and all are proven to be highly repetitive, to be homologous to the normal complement, and to show no similarity to any published gene other than mobile elements. In this study, we isolated sequences from defined B regions. The strategy involved identification and then mapping of AFLP-derived B fragments before cloning. Of 14 B AFLPs, 13 were mapped by 12 B-10L translocations: 3 around the centromeric knob region, 3 in the proximal euchromatic, 1 around the border of proximal euchromatic and distal heterochromatic, and 6 in the distal heterochromatic region of the B long arm. The AFLP fragments were cloned and sequenced. Analogous to the microdissected sequences, all sequences were repetitive, and all but two were highly homologous to the A chromosomes. FISH signals of all but three clones appeared in pachytene B as well as in somatic A and B chromosomes. None of these clones exhibits identity to any published gene. Six clones displayed homology to two centromeric BACs, four to sequences of chromosomes 3, 4, 7, and 10, four to retrotransposons, and three to no sequence deposited in GenBank. Furthermore, flanking regions of two highly B-specific clones were characterized, showing extension of a B-exclusive nature. The possibility of the presence of novel B repeat(s) is discussed.
Project description:During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations. We mapped rQTL1 to semidominant polymorphisms in HEI10, which encodes a conserved ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates crossovers. Null hei10 mutants are haploinsufficient, and, using genome-wide mapping and immunocytology, we show that transformation of additional HEI10 copies is sufficient to more than double euchromatic crossovers. However, heterochromatic centromeres remained recombination-suppressed. The strongest HEI10-mediated crossover increases occur in subtelomeric euchromatin, which is reminiscent of sex differences in Arabidopsis recombination. Our work reveals that HEI10 naturally limits Arabidopsis crossovers and has the potential to influence the response to selection.
Project description:Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to examine the distribution of six abundant long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements, Opie, Huck, Cinful-1, Prem-2/Ji, Grande, and Tekay/Prem-1 on maize pachytene chromosomes. Retroelement staining in euchromatin was remarkably uniform, even when we included the structurally polymorphic abnormal chromosome 10 (Ab10) in our analysis. This uniformity made it possible to use euchromatin as a control for quantitative staining intensity measurements in other regions of the genome. The data show that knobs, known to function as facultative neocentromeres when Ab10 is present, tend to exclude retroelements. A notable exception is Cinful-1, which accumulates in TR-1 knob arrays. Staining for each of the six retroelements was also substantially reduced in centromeric satellite arrays to an average of 30% of the staining in euchromatin. This contrasted with two previously described centromere-specific retrotransposable (CR) elements that were readily detected in centromeres. We suggest that retroelements are relatively rare in centromeres because they interrupt the long satellite arrays thought to be required for efficient centromere function. CR elements may have evolved mutualistic relationships with their plant hosts: they are known to interact with the kinetochore protein CENH3 and appear to accumulate in clusters, leaving long satellite arrays intact.
Project description:Sorghum genotypes currently used for grain production in the United States were developed from African landraces that were imported starting in the mid-to-late 19(th) century. Farmers and plant breeders selected genotypes for grain production with reduced plant height, early flowering, increased grain yield, adaptation to drought, and improved resistance to lodging, diseases and pests. DNA polymorphisms that distinguish three historically important grain sorghum genotypes, BTx623, BTx642 and Tx7000, were characterized by genome sequencing, genotyping by sequencing, genetic mapping, and pedigree-based haplotype analysis. The distribution and density of DNA polymorphisms in the sequenced genomes varied widely, in part because the lines were derived through breeding and selection from diverse Kafir, Durra, and Caudatum race accessions. Genomic DNA spanning dw1 (SBI-09) and dw3 (SBI-07) had identical haplotypes due to selection for reduced height. Lower SNP density in genes located in pericentromeric regions compared with genes located in euchromatic regions is consistent with background selection in these regions of low recombination. SNP density was higher in euchromatic DNA and varied >100-fold in contiguous intervals that spanned up to 300 Kbp. The localized variation in DNA polymorphism density occurred throughout euchromatic regions where recombination is elevated, however, polymorphism density was not correlated with gene density or DNA methylation. Overall, sorghum chromosomes contain distal euchromatic regions characterized by extensive, localized variation in DNA polymorphism density, and large pericentromeric regions of low gene density, diversity, and recombination.
Project description:Maize karyotype variability has been extensively investigated. The identification of maize somatic and pachytene chromosomes has improved with the development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using tandemly repeated DNA sequences as probes. We identified the somatic chromosomes of sister inbred lines that were derived from a tropical flint maize population (Jac Duro [JD]), and hybrids between them, using FISH probes for the 180-bp knob repeat, centromeric satellite (CentC), centromeric satellite 4 (Cent4), subtelomeric clone 4-12-1, 5S ribosomal DNA and nucleolus organizing region DNA sequences. The observations were integrated with data based on C-banded mitotic metaphases and conventional analysis of pachytene chromosomes. Heterochromatic knobs visible at pachynema were coincident with C-bands and 180-bp FISH signals on somatic chromosomes, and most of them were large. Variation in the presence of some knobs was observed among lines. Small 180-bp knob signals were invariant on the short arms of chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. The subtelomeric 4-12-1 signal was also invariant and useful for identifying some chromosomes. The centromere location of chromosomes 2 and 4 differed from previous reports on standard maize lines. Somatic chromosomes of a JD line and the commonly used KYS line were compared by FISH in a hybrid of these lines. The pairing behavior of chromosomes 2 and 4 at pachytene stage in this hybrid was investigated using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. The homologues were fully synapsed, including the 5S rDNA and CentC sites on chromosome 2, and Cent4 and subtelomeric 4-12-1 sites on chromosome 4. This suggests that homologous chromosomes could pair through differential degrees of chromatin packaging in homologous arms differing in size. The results contribute to current knowledge of maize global diversity and also raise questions concerning the meiotic pairing of homologous chromosomes possibly differing in their amounts of repetitive DNA.
Project description:The small fourth chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster (3.5% of the genome) presents a puzzle. Cytological analysis suggests that the bulk of the fourth, including the portion that appears banded in the polytene chromosomes, is heterochromatic; the banded region includes blocks of middle repetitious DNA associated with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). However, genetic screens indicate 50-75 genes in this region, a density similar to that in other euchromatic portions of the genome. Using a P element containing an hsp70-white gene and a copy of hsp26 (marked with a fragment of plant DNA designated pt), we have identified domains that allow for full expression of the white marker (R domains), and others that induce a variegating phenotype (V domains). In the former case, the hsp26-pt gene shows an accessibility and heat-shock-inducible activity similar to that seen in euchromatin, whereas in the latter case, accessibility and inducible expression are reduced to levels typical of heterochromatin. Mapping by in situ hybridization and by hybridization of flanking DNA sequences to a collection of cosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome clones shows that the R domains (euchromatin-like) and V domains (heterochromatin-like) are interspersed. Examination of the effect of genetic modifiers on the variegating transgenes shows some differences among these domains. The results suggest that heterochromatic and euchromatic domains are interspersed and closely associated within this 1.2-megabase region of the genome.