Inhibition of cap-dependent translation via phosphorylation of eIF4G by protein kinase Pak2.
ABSTRACT: Translation is downregulated in response to a variety of moderate stresses, including serum deprivation, hyperosmolarity and ionizing radiation. The cytostatic p21-activated protein kinase 2 (Pak2)/gamma-PAK is activated under the same stress conditions. Expression of wild-type Pak2 in cells and addition of Pak2 to reticulocyte lysate inhibit translation, while kinase-inactive mutants have no effect. Pak2 binds to and phosphorylates initiation factor (eIF)4G, which inhibits association of eIF4E with m(7)GTP, reducing initiation. The Pak2-binding site maps to the region on eIF4G that contains the eIF4E-binding site; Pak2 and eIF4E compete for binding to this site. Using an eIF4G-depleted reticulocyte lysate, reconstitution with mock-phosphorylated eIF4G fully restores translation, while phosphorylated eIF4G reduces translation to 37%. RNA interference releases Pak2-induced inhibition of translation in contact-inhibited cells by 2.7-fold. eIF4G mutants of the Pak2 site show that S896D inhibits translation, while S896A has no effect. Activation of Pak2 in response to hyperosmotic stress inhibits cap-dependent, but not IRES-driven, initiation. Thus, a novel pathway for mammalian cell stress signaling is identified, wherein activation of Pak2 leads to inhibition of cap-dependent translation through phosphorylation of eIF4G.
Project description:The interaction between the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4G (eIF4G), which brings about circularization of the mRNA, stimulates translation. General RNA-binding proteins affect translation, but their role in mRNA circularization has not been studied before. Here, we demonstrate that the major mRNA ribonucleoprotein YB-1 has a pivotal function in the regulation of eIF4F activity by PABP. In cell extracts, the addition of YB-1 exacerbated the inhibition of 80S ribosome initiation complex formation by PABP depletion. Rabbit reticulocyte lysate in which PABP weakly stimulates translation is rendered PABP-dependent after the addition of YB-1. In this system, eIF4E binding to the cap structure is inhibited by YB-1 and stimulated by a nonspecific RNA. Significantly, adding PABP back to the depleted lysate stimulated eIF4E binding to the cap structure more potently if this binding had been downregulated by YB-1. Conversely, adding nonspecific RNA abrogated PABP stimulation of eIF4E binding. These data strongly suggest that competition between YB-1 and eIF4G for mRNA binding is required for efficient stimulation of eIF4F activity by PABP.
Project description:Mammalian eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a cap-binding protein complex consisting of three subunits: eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF4G. In yeast and plants, two related eIF4G species are encoded by two different genes. To date, however, only one functional eIF4G polypeptide, referred to here as eIF4GI, has been identified in mammals. Here we describe the discovery and functional characterization of a closely related homolog, referred to as eIF4GII. eIF4GI and eIF4GII share 46% identity at the amino acid level and possess an overall similarity of 56%. The homology is particularly high in certain regions of the central and carboxy portions, while the amino-terminal regions are more divergent. Far-Western analysis and coimmunoprecipitation experiments were used to demonstrate that eIF4GII directly interacts with eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF3. eIF4GII, like eIF4GI, is also cleaved upon picornavirus infection. eIF4GII restores cap-dependent translation in a reticulocyte lysate which had been pretreated with rhinovirus 2A to cleave endogenous eIF4G. Finally, eIF4GII exists as a complex with eIF4E in HeLa cells, because eIF4GII and eIF4E can be purified together by cap affinity chromatography. Taken together, our findings indicate that eIF4GII is a functional homolog of eIF4GI. These results may have important implications for the understanding of the mechanism of shutoff of host protein synthesis following picornavirus infection.
Project description:High throughput screening has rendered new inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis. One such molecule, 4EGI-1 has been reported to selectively block the initiation factor eIF4E. We have investigated the action of this inhibitor on translation directed by several viral mRNAs which, in principle, do not utilize eIF4E. We found that 4EGI-1 inhibits translation directed by poliovirus IRES, in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, to a similar extent as capped mRNA. Moreover, 4EGI-1 inhibits translation driven by poliovirus IRES, both in vitro and in cultured cells, despite cleavage of eIF4G by picornavirus proteases. Finally, translation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNAs and Sindbis virus subgenomic mRNA is blocked by 4EGI-1 in infected cells to a similar extent as cellular mRNAs. These findings cast doubt on the selective action of this inhibitor, and suggest that this molecule may affect other steps in protein synthesis unrelated to cap recognition by eIF4E.
Project description:Translation initiation in eukaryotes is facilitated by the cap structure, m7GpppN (where N is any nucleotide). Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) is a cap binding protein complex that consists of three subunits: eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G. eIF4G interacts directly with eIF4E and eIF4A. The binding site of eIF4E resides in the N-terminal third of eIF4G, while eIF4A and eIF3 binding sites are present in the C-terminal two-thirds. Here, we describe a new eukaryotic translational regulator (hereafter called p97) which exhibits 28% identity to the C-terminal two-thirds of eIF4G. p97 mRNA has no initiator AUG and translation starts exclusively at a GUG codon. The GUG-initiated open reading frame (907 amino acids) has no canonical eIF4E binding site. p97 binds to eIF4A and eIF3, but not to eIF4E. Transient transfection experiments show that p97 suppresses both cap-dependent and independent translation, while eIF4G supports both translation pathways. Furthermore, inducible expression of p97 reduces overall protein synthesis. These results suggest that p97 functions as a general repressor of translation by forming translationally inactive complexes that include eIF4A and eIF3, but exclude eIF4E.
Project description:Dcp1 plays a key role in the mRNA decay process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cleaving off the 5' cap to leave an end susceptible to exonucleolytic degradation. The eukaryotic initiation factor complex eIF4F, which in yeast contains the core components eIF4E and eIF4G, uses the cap as a binding site, serving as an initial point of assembly for the translation apparatus, and also binds the poly(A) binding protein Pab1. We show that Dcp1 binds to eIF4G and Pab1 as free proteins, as well as to the complex eIF4E-eIF4G-Pab1. Dcp1 interacts with the N-terminal region of eIF4G but does not compete significantly with eIF4E or Pab1 for binding to eIF4G. Most importantly, eIF4G acts as a function-enhancing recruitment factor for Dcp1. However, eIF4E blocks this effect as a component of the high affinity cap-binding complex eIF4E-eIF4G. Indeed, cooperative enhancement of the eIF4E-cap interaction stabilizes yeast mRNAs in vivo. These data on interactions at the interface between translation and mRNA decay suggest how events at the 5' cap and 3' poly(A) tail might be coupled.
Project description:The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E plays key roles in cap-dependent translation and mRNA export. These functions rely on binding the 7-methyl-guanosine moiety (5'cap) on the 5'-end of all mRNAs. eIF4E is regulated by proteins such as eIF4G and eIF4E binding proteins (4EBPs) that bind the dorsal surface of eIF4E, distal to the cap binding site, and modulate cap binding activity. Both proteins increase the affinity of eIF4E for 5'cap. Our understanding of the allosteric effects and structural underpinnings of 4EBP1 or eIF4G binding can be advanced by obtaining structural data on cap-free eIF4E bound to one of these proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of apo-eIF4E and cap-free eIF4E in complex with a 4EBP1 peptide. We also monitored 4EBP1 binding to cap-free eIF4E in solution using NMR. Together, these studies suggest that 4EBP1 transforms eIF4E into a cap-receptive state. NMR methods were also used to compare the allosteric routes activated by 4EBP1, eIF4G, and the arenavirus Z protein, a negative regulator of cap binding. We observed chemical shift perturbation at the dorsal binding site leading to alterations in the core of the protein, which were ultimately communicated to the unoccupied cap binding site of eIF4E. There were notable similarities between the routes taken by 4EBP1 and eIF4G and differences from the negative regulator Z. Thus, binding of 4EBP1 or eIF4G allosterically drives alterations throughout the protein that increase the affinity of eIF4E for the 5'cap.
Project description:Comprehensive genome-wide analysis has revealed the presence of translational elements in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of human transcripts. However, the mechanisms by which translation is initiated in 3' UTRs and the physiological function of their products remain unclear. This study showed that eIF4G drives the translation of various downstream open reading frames (dORFs) in 3' UTRs. The 3' UTR of GCH1, which encodes GTP cyclohydrolase 1, contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that initiates the translation of dORFs. An in vitro reconstituted translation system showed that the IRES in the 3' UTR of GCH1 required eIF4G and conventional translation initiation factors, except eIF4E, for AUG-initiated translation of dORFs. The 3' UTR of GCH1-mediated translation was resistant to the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, which inhibits cap-dependent initiation by increasing eIF4E-unbound eIF4G. eIF4G was also required for the activity of various elements, including polyU and poliovirus type 2, a short element thought to recruit ribosomes by base-pairing with 18S rRNA. These findings indicate that eIF4G mediates translation initiation of various ORFs in mammalian cells, suggesting that the 3' UTRs of mRNAs may encode various products.
Project description:The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5'-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5'-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357-1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m(7)GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357-1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5'-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F.
Project description:Elevated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) levels frequently occur in a variety of human cancers. Overexpression of eIF4E promotes cellular transformation by selectively increasing the translation of proliferative and prosurvival mRNAs. These mRNAs possess highly structured 5'-UTRs that impede ribosome recruitment and scanning, yet the mechanism for how eIF4E abundance elevates their translation is not easily explained by its cap-binding activity. Here, we show that eIF4E possesses an unexpected second function in translation initiation by strongly stimulating eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase activity. Importantly, we demonstrate that this activity promotes mRNA restructuring in a manner that is independent of its cap-binding function. To explain these findings, we show that the eIF4E-binding site in eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) functions as an autoinhibitory domain to modulate its ability to stimulate eIF4A helicase activity. Binding of eIF4E counteracts this autoinhibition, enabling eIF4G to stimulate eIF4A helicase activity. Finally, we have successfully separated the two functions of eIF4E to show that its helicase promoting activity increases the rate of translation by a mechanism that is distinct from its cap-binding function. Based on our results, we propose that maintaining a connection between eIF4E and eIF4G throughout scanning provides a plausible mechanism to explain how eIF4E abundance selectively stimulates the translation of highly structured proliferation and tumor-promoting mRNAs.
Project description:The activity of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E is modulated through conformational response to its ligands. For example, eIF4G and eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) modulate cap affinity, and thus physiological activity of eIF4E, by binding a site distal to the 7-methylguanosine cap-binding site. Further, cap binding substantially modulates eIF4E's affinity for eIF4G and the 4E-BPs. To date, only cap-bound eIF4E structures were reported. In the absence of structural information on the apo form, the molecular underpinnings of this conformational response mechanism cannot be established. We report here the first cap-free eIF4E structure. Apo-eIF4E exhibits structural differences in the cap-binding site and dorsal surface relative to cap-eIF4E. Analysis of structure and dynamics of apo-eIF4E, and changes observed upon ligand binding, reveal a molecular basis for eIF4E's conformational response to these ligands. In particular, alterations in the S4-H4 loop, distal to either the cap or eIF4G binding sites, appear key to modulating these effects. Mutation in this loop mimics these effects. Overall, our studies have important implications for the regulation of eIF4E.