Two conformational states in the crystal structure of the Homo sapiens cytoplasmic ribosomal decoding A site.
ABSTRACT: The decoding A site of the small ribosomal subunit is an RNA molecular switch, which monitors codon-anticodon interactions to guarantee translation fidelity. We have solved the crystal structure of an RNA fragment containing two Homo sapiens cytoplasmic A sites. Each of the two A sites presents a different conformational state. In one state, adenines A1492 and A1493 are fully bulged-out with C1409 forming a wobble-like pair to A1491. In the second state, adenines A1492 and A1493 form non-Watson-Crick pairs with C1409 and G1408, respectively while A1491 bulges out. The first state of the eukaryotic A site is, thus, basically the same as in the bacterial A site with bulging A1492 and A1493. It is the state used for recognition of the codon/anticodon complex. On the contrary, the second state of the H.sapiens cytoplasmic A site is drastically different from any of those observed for the bacterial A site without bulging A1492 and A1493.
Project description:Accurate tRNA selection by the ribosome is essential for the synthesis of functional proteins. Previous structural studies indicated that the ribosome distinguishes between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs by monitoring the geometry of the codon-anticodon helix in the decoding center using the universally conserved 16S ribosomal RNA bases G530, A1492 and A1493. These bases form hydrogen bonds with the 2'-hydroxyl groups of the codon-anticodon helix, which are expected to be disrupted with a near-cognate codon-anticodon helix. However, a recent structural study showed that G530, A1492 and A1493 form hydrogen bonds in a manner identical with that of both cognate and near-cognate codon-anticodon helices. To understand how the ribosome discriminates between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs, we made 2'-deoxynucleotide and 2'-fluoro substituted mRNAs, which disrupt the hydrogen bonds between the A site codon and G530, A1492 and A1493. Our results show that multiple 2'-deoxynucleotide substitutions in the mRNA substantially inhibit tRNA selection, whereas multiple 2'-fluoro substitutions in the mRNA have only modest effects on tRNA selection. Furthermore, the miscoding antibiotics paromomycin and streptomycin rescue the defects in tRNA selection with the multiple 2'-deoxynucleotide substituted mRNA. These results suggest that steric complementarity in the decoding center is more important than the hydrogen bonds between the A site codon and G530, A1492 and A1493 for tRNA selection.
Project description:Many aminoglycosidic antibiotics target the A-site of 16S RNA in the small ribosomal subunit and affect the fidelity of protein translation in bacteria. Upon binding, aminoglycosides displace two adenines (A1492 and A1493 for E. coli numbering) that are involved in tRNA anticodon loop recognition. The major difference in the aminoglycosidic binding site between the prokaryota and eukaryota is an adenine into guanine substitution in the position 1408. This mutation likely affects the dynamics of near A1492 and A1493 and hinders the binding of aminoglycosides to eukaryotic ribosomes. With multiple 20 ns long all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we study the flexibility of a 22 nucleotide RNA fragment which mimics the aminoglycosidic binding site. Simulations are carried out for both native and A1408G mutated RNA as well as for their complexes with aminoglycosidic representative paromomycin. We observe intra- and extrahelical configurations of A1492 and A1493, which differ between the prokaryotic and the mutated structure. We obtain configurations of the A-site that are also observed in the NMR and crystal structures. Our studies show the differences in the internal mobility of the A-site, as well as that in ion and water density distributions inside of the binding cleft, between the prokaryotic and mutated RNA. We also compare the performance of two force field parameters for RNA, Amber and Charmm.
Project description:Tight recognition of codon-anticodon pairings by the ribosome ensures the accuracy and fidelity of protein synthesis. In eubacteria, translational surveillance and ribosome rescue are performed by the 'tmRNA-SmpB' system (transfer messenger RNA-small protein B). Remarkably, entry and accommodation of aminoacylated-tmRNA into stalled ribosomes occur without a codon-anticodon interaction but in the presence of SmpB. Here, we show that within a stalled ribosome, SmpB interacts with the three universally conserved bases G530, A1492 and A1493 that form the 30S subunit decoding centre, in which canonical codon-anticodon pairing occurs. The footprints at positions A1492 and A1493 of a small decoding centre, as well as on a set of conserved SmpB amino acids, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mutants at these residues display the same growth defects as for DeltasmpB strains. The SmpB protein has functional and structural similarities with initiation factor 1, and is proposed to be a functional mimic of the pairing between a codon and an anticodon.
Project description:During protein synthesis, the ribosome selects aminoacyl-transfer RNAs with anticodons matching the messenger RNA codon present in the A site of the small ribosomal subunit. The aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin disrupts decoding by binding close to the site of codon recognition. Here we use X-ray crystallography to define the impact of streptomycin on the decoding site of the Thermus thermophilus 30S ribosomal subunit in complexes with cognate or near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogues and messenger RNA. Our crystal structures display a significant local distortion of 16S ribosomal RNA induced by streptomycin, including the crucial bases A1492 and A1493 that participate directly in codon recognition. Consistent with kinetic data, we observe that streptomycin stabilizes the near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogue complex, while destabilizing the cognate anticodon stem-loop analogue complex. These data reveal how streptomycin disrupts the recognition of cognate anticodon stem-loop analogues and yet improves recognition of a near-cognate anticodon stem-loop analogue.
Project description:Chemical modifications of mRNA may regulate many aspects of mRNA processing and protein synthesis. Recently, 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides was identified as a frequent modification in translated regions of human mRNA, showing enrichment in codons for certain amino acids. Here, using single-molecule, bulk kinetics and structural methods, we show that 2'-O-methylation within coding regions of mRNA disrupts key steps in codon reading during cognate tRNA selection. Our results suggest that 2'-O-methylation sterically perturbs interactions of ribosomal-monitoring bases (G530, A1492 and A1493) with cognate codon-anticodon helices, thereby inhibiting downstream GTP hydrolysis by elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and A-site tRNA accommodation, leading to excessive rejection of cognate aminoacylated tRNAs in initial selection and proofreading. Our current and prior findings highlight how chemical modifications of mRNA tune the dynamics of protein synthesis at different steps of translation elongation.
Project description:The crystal structures of six complexes between aminoglycoside antibiotics (neamine, gentamicin C1A, kanamycin A, ribostamycin, lividomycin A and neomycin B) and oligonucleotides containing the decoding A site of bacterial ribosomes are reported at resolutions between 2.2 and 3.0 A. Although the number of contacts between the RNA and the aminoglycosides varies between 20 and 31, up to eight direct hydrogen bonds between rings I and II of the neamine moiety are conserved in the observed complexes. The puckered sugar ring I is inserted into the A site helix by stacking against G1491 and forms a pseudo base pair with two H-bonds to the Watson-Crick sites of the universally conserved A1408. This central interaction helps to maintain A1492 and A1493 in a bulged-out conformation. All these structures of the minimal A site RNA complexed to various aminoglycosides display crystal packings with intermolecular contacts between the bulging A1492 and A1493 and the shallow/minor groove of Watson-Crick pairs in a neighbouring helix. In one crystal, one empty A site is observed. In two crystals, two aminoglycosides are bound to the same A site with one bound specifically and the other bound in various ways in the deep/major groove at the edge of the A sites.
Project description:Paromomycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic that targets the RNA of the bacterial small ribosomal subunit. It binds in the A-site, which is one of the three tRNA binding sites, and affects translational fidelity by stabilizing two adenines (A1492 and A1493) in the flipped-out state. Experiments have shown that various mutations in the A-site result in bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides. In this study, we performed multiple molecular dynamics simulations of the mutated A-site RNA fragment in explicit solvent to analyze changes in the physicochemical features of the A-site that were introduced by substitutions of specific bases. The simulations were conducted for free RNA and in complex with paromomycin. We found that the specific mutations affect the shape and dynamics of the binding cleft as well as significantly alter its electrostatic properties. The most pronounced changes were observed in the U1406C?U1495A mutant, where important hydrogen bonds between the RNA and paromomycin were disrupted. The present study aims to clarify the underlying physicochemical mechanisms of bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides due to target mutations.
Project description:To understand a structural basis for the fitness cost of the A1408G antibiotic-resistance mutation in the ribosomal A-site RNA, we have determined crystal structures of its A1408C and A1408U lethal mutants, and made comparison with previously solved structures of the wild type and the antibiotic-resistant mutant. The A-site RNA containing an asymmetric internal loop functions as a molecular switch to discriminate a single cognate tRNA from several near-cognate tRNAs by its conformational ON/OFF switching. Overall structures of the "off" states of the A1408C/U lethal mutants are very similar to those of the wild type and the A1408G antibiotic-resistant mutant. However, significant differences are found in local base stacking interactions including the functionally important A1492 and A1493 residues. In the wild type and the A1408G antibiotic-resistant mutant "off" states, both adenines are exposed to the solvent region. On the other hand, one of the corresponding adenines of the lethal A1408C/U mutants stay deeply inside their A-site helices by forming a purine-pyrimidine AoC or A-U base pair and is sandwiched between the upper and lower bases. Therefore, the ON/OFF switching might unfavorably occur in the lethal mutants compared to the wild type and the A1408G antibiotic-resistant mutant. It is probable that bacteria manage to acquire antibiotic resistance without losing the function of the A-site molecular switch by mutating the position 1408 only from A to G, but not to pyrimidine base C or U.
Project description:The conformational properties of the aminoacyl-tRNA binding site (A-site), and its surroundings in the Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit, are of great relevance in designing antibacterial agents. The 30S subunit A-site is near ribosomal protein S12, which neighbors helices h27 and H69; this latter helix, of the 50S subunit, is a functionally important component of an intersubunit bridge. Experimental work has shown that specific point mutations in S12 (K42A, R53A) yield hyper-accurate ribosomes, which in turn confers resistance to the antibiotic 'paromomycin' (even when this aminoglycoside is bound to the A-site). Suspecting that these effects can be elucidated in terms of the local atomic interactions and detailed dynamics of this region of the bacterial ribosome, we have used molecular dynamics simulations to explore the motion of a fragment of the E. coli ribosome, including the A-site. We found that the ribosomal regions surrounding the A-site modify the conformational space of the flexible A-site adenines 1492/93. Specifically, we found that A-site mobility is affected by stacking interactions between adenines A1493 and A1913, and by contacts between A1492 and a flexible side-chain (K43) from the S12 protein. In addition, our simulations reveal possible indirect pathways by which the R53A and K42A mutations in S12 are coupled to the dynamical properties of the A-site. Our work extends what is known about the atomistic dynamics of the A-site, and suggests possible links between the biological effects of hyper-accurate mutations in the S12 protein and conformational properties of the ribosome; the implications for S12 dynamics help elucidate how the miscoding effects of paromomycin may be evaded in antibiotic-resistant mutants of the bacterial ribosome.
Project description:Inferring antibiotic mechanisms on translation through static structures has been challenging, as biological systems are highly dynamic. Dynamic single-molecule methods are also limited to few simultaneously measurable parameters. We have circumvented these limitations with a multifaceted approach to investigate three structurally distinct aminoglycosides that bind to the aminoacyl-transfer RNA site (A site) in the prokaryotic 30S ribosomal subunit: apramycin, paromomycin, and gentamicin. Using several single-molecule fluorescence measurements combined with structural and biochemical techniques, we observed distinct changes to translational dynamics for each aminoglycoside. While all three drugs effectively inhibit translation elongation, their actions are structurally and mechanistically distinct. Apramycin does not displace A1492 and A1493 at the decoding center, as demonstrated by a solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure, causing only limited miscoding; instead, it primarily blocks translocation. Paromomycin and gentamicin, which displace A1492 and A1493, cause significant miscoding, block intersubunit rotation, and inhibit translocation. Our results show the power of combined dynamics, structural, and biochemical approaches to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying translation and its inhibition.