Molecular basis for substrate recognition and drug resistance from 1.1 to 1.6 angstroms resolution crystal structures of HIV-1 protease mutants with substrate analogs.
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 protease (PR) and two drug-resistant variants--PR with the V82A mutation (PR(V82A)) and PR with the I84V mutation (PR(I84V))--were studied using reduced peptide analogs of five natural cleavage sites (CA-p2, p2-NC, p6pol-PR, p1-p6 and NC-p1) to understand the structural and kinetic changes. The common drug-resistant mutations V82A and I84V alter residues forming the substrate-binding site. Eight crystal structures were refined at resolutions of 1.10-1.60 A. Differences in the PR-analog interactions depended on the peptide sequence and were consistent with the relative inhibition. Analog p6(pol)-PR formed more hydrogen bonds of P2 Asn with PR and fewer van der Waals contacts at P1' Pro compared with those formed by CA-p2 or p2-NC in PR complexes. The P3 Gly in p1-p6 provided fewer van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonds at P2-P3 and more water-mediated interactions. PR(I84V) showed reduced van der Waals interactions with inhibitor compared with PR, which was consistent with kinetic data. The structures suggest that the binding affinity for mutants is modulated by the conformational flexibility of the substrate analogs. The complexes of PR(V82A) showed smaller shifts of the main chain atoms of Ala82 relative to PR, but more movement of the peptide analog, compared to complexes with clinical inhibitors. PR(V82A) was able to compensate for the loss of interaction with inhibitor caused by mutation, in agreement with kinetic data, but substrate analogs have more flexibility than the drugs to accommodate the structural changes caused by mutation. Hence, these structures help to explain how HIV can develop drug resistance while retaining the ability of PR to hydrolyze natural substrates.
Project description:Maturation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on the processing of Gag and Pol polyproteins by the viral protease, making this enzyme a prime target for anti-HIV therapy. Among the protease substrates, the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) sequence is the least homologous, and its cleavage is the rate-determining step in viral maturation. In the other substrates of HIV-1 protease, P1 is usually either a hydrophobic or an aromatic residue, and P2 is usually a branched residue. NC-p1, however, contains Asn at P1 and Ala at P2. In response to the V82A drug-resistant protease mutation, the P2 alanine of NC-p1 mutates to valine (AP2V). To provide a structural rationale for HIV-1 protease binding to the NC-p1 cleavage site, we solved the crystal structures of inactive (D25N) WT and V82A HIV-1 proteases in complex with their respective WT and AP2V mutant NC-p1 substrates. Overall, the WT NC-p1 peptide binds HIV-1 protease less optimally than the AP2V mutant, as indicated by the presence of fewer hydrogen bonds and fewer van der Waals contacts. AlaP2 does not fill the P2 pocket completely; PheP1' makes van der Waals interactions with Val82 that are lost with the V82A protease mutation. This loss is compensated by the AP2V mutation, which reorients the peptide to a conformation more similar to that observed in other substrate-protease complexes. Thus, the mutant substrate not only binds the mutant protease more optimally but also reveals the interdependency between the P1' and P2 substrate sites. This structural interdependency results from coevolution of the substrate with the viral protease.
Project description:We report the structural analysis of highly drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus protease (PR) variant PRS17, rationally selected by machine learning, in complex with substrate analogues. Crystal structures were solved of inhibitor-free inactive PRS17-D25N, wild-type PR/CA-p2 complex, and PRS17 in complex with substrate analogues, CA-p2 and p2-NC. Peptide analogues p2-NC and CA-p2 exhibit inhibition constants of 514 and 22 nM, respectively, for PRS17 or approximately 3-fold better than for PR. CA-p2 is a better inhibitor of PRS17 than are clinical inhibitors (K i = 50-8390 nM) except for amprenavir (K i = 11 nM). G48V resistance mutation induces curled flap tips in PRS17-D25N structure. The inner P2-P2' residues of substrate analogues in PRS17 complexes maintain similar conformations to those of wild-type complex, while significant conformational changes are observed in the peripheral residues P3, P4' of CA-p2 and P3, P4, and P3' of p2-NC. The loss of ?-branched side chain by V82S mutation initiates a shift in 80's loop and reshapes the S3/S3' subsite, which enhances substrate binding with new hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions that are absent in the wild-type structures. The steric hindrance caused by G48V mutation in the flap of PRS17 contributes to altered binding interactions of P3 Arg, P4' norleucine of CA-p2, and P4 and P3' of p2-NC with the addition of new hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts. The enhanced interaction of PRS17 with substrate analogues agrees with their relative inhibition, suggesting that this mutant improves substrate binding while decreasing affinity for clinical inhibitors.
Project description:Drug resistance is an important cause of antiretroviral therapy failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Mutations in the protease render the virus resistant to protease inhibitors (PIs). Gag cleavage sites also mutate, sometimes correlating with resistance mutations in the protease, but their contribution to resistance has not been systematically analyzed. The present study examines mutations in Gag cleavage sites that associate with protease mutations and the impact of these associations on drug susceptibilities. Significant associations were observed between mutations in the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) and p1-p6 cleavage sites and various PI resistance-associated mutations in the protease. Several patterns were frequently observed, including mutations in the NC-p1 cleavage site in combination with I50L, V82A, and I84V within the protease and mutations within the p1-p6 cleavage site in combination with D30N, I50V, and I84V within the protease. For most patterns, viruses with mutations both in the protease and in either cleavage site were significantly less susceptible to specific PIs than viruses with mutations in the protease alone. Altered PI resistance in HIV-1 was found to be associated with the presence of Gag cleavage site mutations. These studies suggest that associated cleavage site mutations may contribute to PI susceptibility in highly specific ways depending on the particular combinations of mutations and inhibitors. Thus, cleavage site mutations should be considered when assessing the level of PI resistance.
Project description:Naturally occurring polymorphisms in the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C would be expected to lead to adaptive (compensatory) changes in protease cleavage sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined the prevalences and patterns of cleavage site polymorphisms in the Gag, Gag-Pol, and Nef cleavage sites of C compared to those in non-C subtypes. Codon-based maximum-likelihood methods were used to assess the natural selection and evolutionary history of individual cleavage sites. Seven cleavage sites (p17/p24, p24/p2, NC/p1, NC/TFP, PR/RT, RT/p66, and p66/IN) were well conserved over time and in all HIV-1 subtypes. One site (p1/p6(gag)) exhibited moderate variation, and four sites (p2/NC, TFP/p6(pol), p6(pol)/PR, and Nef) were highly variable, both within and between subtypes. Three of the variable sites are known to be major determinants of polyprotein processing and virion production. P2/NC controls the rate and order of cleavage, p6(gag) is an important phosphoprotein required for virion release, and TFP/p6(pol), a novel cleavage site in the transframe domain, influences the specificity of Gag-Pol processing and the activation of protease. Overall, 58.3% of the 12 HIV-1 cleavage sites were significantly more diverse in C than in B viruses. When analyzed as a single concatenated fragment of 360 bp, 96.0% of group M cleavage site sequences fell into subtype-specific phylogenetic clusters, suggesting that they coevolved with the virus. Natural variation at C cleavage sites may play an important role, not only in regulation of the viral cycle but also in disease progression and response to therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms at cleavage sites (CS) can influence Gag and Pol proteins processing by the viral protease (PR), restore viral fitness and influence the virological outcome of specific antiretroviral drugs. However, data of HIV-1 variant-associated CS variability is scarce. METHODS: In this descriptive research, we examine the effect of HIV-1 variants on CS conservation using all 9,028 gag and 3,906 pol HIV-1 sequences deposited in GenBank, focusing on the 110 residues (10 per site) involved at 11 CS: P17/P24, P24/P2, P2/P7, P7/P1, P1/P6 (gag) , NC/TFP, TFP/P6 (pol), P6 (pol) /PR, PR/RT(p51), RT(p51)/RT(p66) and RT(p66)/IN. CS consensus amino acid sequences across HIV-1 groups (M, O, N, P), group M 9 subtypes and 51 circulating recombinant forms (CRF) were inferred from our alignments and compared to the HIV-1 consensus-of-consensuses sequence provided by GenBank. RESULTS: In all HIV-1 variants, the most conserved CS were PR/RT(p51), RT(p51)/RT(p66), P24/P2 and RT(p66)/IN and the least P2/P7 and P6 (pol) /PR. Conservation was significantly lower in subtypes vs. recombinants in P2/P7 and TFP/P6 (pol) and higher in P17/P24. We found a significantly higher conservation rate among Group M vs. non-M Groups HIV-1. The late processing sites at Gag (P7/P1) and GagPol precursors (PR/RT(p51)) presented a significantly higher conservation vs. the first CS (P2/P7) in the 4 HIV-1 groups. Here we show 52 highly conserved residues across HIV-1 variants in 11 CS and the amino acid consensus sequence in each HIV-1 group and HIV-1 group M variant for each 11 CS. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the CS conservation level across all HIV-1 variants and 11 sites in one of the largest available sequence HIV-1 dataset. These results could help other researchers for the future design of both novel antiretroviral agents acting as maturation inhibitors as well as for vaccine targeting CS.
Project description:The potent new antiviral inhibitor GRL-98065 (1) of HIV-1 protease (PR) has been studied with PR variants containing the single mutations D30N, I50V, V82A, and I84V that provide resistance to the major clinical inhibitors. Compound 1 had inhibition constants of 17-fold, 8-fold, 3-fold, and 3-fold, respectively, for PR(D30N), PR(I50V), PR(V82A), and PR(I84V) relative to wild type PR. The chemically related darunavir had similar relative inhibition, except for PR(D30N), where inhibitor 1 was approximately 3-fold less potent. The high resolution (1.11-1.60 Angstrom) crystal structures of PR mutant complexes with inhibitor 1 showed small changes relative to the wild type enzyme. PR(D30N) and PR(V82A) showed compensating interactions with inhibitor 1 relative to those of PR, while reduced hydrophobic contacts were observed with PR(I50V) and PR(I84V). Importantly, inhibitor 1 complexes showed fewer changes relative to wild type enzyme than reported for darunavir complexes. Therefore, inhibitor 1 is a valuable addition to the antiviral inhibitors with high potency against resistant strains of HIV.
Project description:Processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag precursor is highly regulated, with differential rates of cleavage at the five major processing sites to give characteristic processing intermediates. We examined the role of the P1 amino acid in determining the rate of cleavage at each of these five sites by using libraries of mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Between 12 and 17 substitution mutants were tested at each P1 position in Gag, using recombinant HIV-1 protease (PR) in an in vitro processing reaction of radiolabeled Gag substrate. There were three sites in Gag (MA/CA, CA/p2, NC/p1) where one or more substitutions mediated enhanced rates of cleavage, with an enhancement greater than 60-fold in the case of NC/p1. For the other two sites (p2/NC, p1/p6), the wild-type amino acid conferred optimal cleavage. The order of the relative rates of cleavage with the P1 amino acids Tyr, Met, and Leu suggests that processing sites can be placed into two groups and that the two groups are defined by the size of the P1' amino acid. These results point to a trans effect between the P1 and P1' amino acids that is likely to be a major determinant of the rate of cleavage at the individual sites and therefore also a determinant of the ordered cleavage of the Gag precursor.
Project description:There is currently no specific therapeutics for the HIV-1-related central nervous system (CNS) complications. Here we report that three newly designed CNS-targeting HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-083-13, GRL-084-13, and GRL-087-13, which contain a P1-3,5-bis-fluorophenyl or P1-para-monofluorophenyl ring, and P2-bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) or P2-tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF), with a sulfonamide isostere, are highly active against wild-type HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0002 to ?0.003??M), with minimal cytotoxicity. These CNS-targeting PIs efficiently suppressed the replication of HIV-1 variants (EC50, 0.002 to ?0.047??M) that had been selected to propagate at high concentrations of conventional HIV-1 PIs. Such CNS-targeting PIs maintained their antiviral activity against HIV-2ROD as well as multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from AIDS patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term therapy. Long-term drug selection experiments revealed that the emergence of resistant-HIV-1 against these CNS-targeting PIs was substantially delayed. In addition, the CNS-targeting PIs showed the most favorable CNS penetration properties among the tested compounds, including various FDA-approved anti-HIV-1 drugs, as assessed with the in vitro blood-brain barrier reconstruction system. Crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the bicyclic rings at the P2 moiety of the CNS-targeting PIs form strong hydrogen-bond interactions with HIV-1 protease (PR) active site. Moreover, both the P1-3,5-bis-fluorophenyl and P1-para-monofluorophenyl rings sustain greater van der Waals contacts with PR than in the case of darunavir (DRV). The data suggest that the present CNS-targeting PIs have desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and might serve as promising preventive and/or therapeutic candidates for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and other CNS complications.
Project description:Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A) and inhibitor (GRL-0519) complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT) complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors.
Project description:A structure-guided design strategy was used to improve the resistance profile of HIV-1 protease inhibitors by optimizing hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions with the protease while staying within the substrate envelope. Stereoisomers of 4-(1-hydroxyethyl)benzene and 4-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)benzene moieties were explored as P2' ligands providing pairs of diastereoisomers epimeric at P2', which exhibited distinct potency profiles depending on the configuration of the hydroxyl group and size of the P1' group. While compounds with the 4-(1-hydroxyethyl)benzene P2' moiety maintained excellent antiviral potency against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains, analogues with the polar 4-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)benzene moiety were less potent, and only the (R)-epimer incorporating a larger 2-ethylbutyl P1' group showed improved potency. Crystal structures of protease-inhibitor complexes revealed strong hydrogen bonding interactions of both (R)- and (S)-stereoisomers of the hydroxyethyl group with Asp30'. Notably, the (R)-dihydroxyethyl group was involved in a unique pattern of direct hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone amides of Asp29' and Asp30'. The SAR data and analysis of crystal structures provide insights for optimizing these promising HIV-1 protease inhibitors.