A multifunctional cytoprotective agent that reduces neurodegeneration after ischemia.
ABSTRACT: Cellular and molecular pathways underlying ischemic neurotoxicity are multifaceted and complex. Although many potentially neuroprotective agents have been investigated, the simplicity of their protective mechanisms has often resulted in insufficient clinical utility. We describe a previously uncharacterized class of potent neuroprotective compounds, represented by PAN-811, that effectively block both ischemic and hypoxic neurotoxicity. PAN-811 disrupts neurotoxic pathways by at least two modes of action. It causes a reduction of intracellular-free calcium as well as free radical scavenging resulting in a significant decrease in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. In a rat model of ischemic stroke, administration of PAN-811 i.c.v. 1 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a 59% reduction in the volume of infarction. Human trials of PAN-811 for an unrelated indication have established a favorable safety and pharmacodynamic profile within the dose range required for neuroprotection warranting its clinical trial as a neuroprotective drug.
Project description:A novel series of gardenamide A derivatives was synthesized as potential anti-Alzheimer's disease agents. The neuroprotective effects of these multifunctional agents against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and amyloid-?1-42 (A?1-42)-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons were evaluated. In vitro studies revealed that these compounds demonstrated moderate to good multifunctional neuroprotective activity. Among the entire series, compounds 10e, 10j, 10n and 10p appeared to be the most active multifunctional neuroprotective agents. Studies indicate that compounds 10e, 10f, 10h, 10i, 10j, 10n and 10p exhibit significant activities against OGD-induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons, and 10e, 10j, 10n and 10p show prominent activities against H2O2- and A?1-42-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurons. Moreover, these derivatives did not exert conspicuous neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Thus, the present study evidently shows that 10e, 10j, 10n and 10p are potent multifunctional neuroprotective agents, which may serve as promising lead candidates for anti-Alzheimer's disease drug development.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive impairment that eventually develops into dementia. Amyloid-beta (A?) accumulation is a widely described hallmark in AD, and has been reported to cause olfactory dysfunction, a condition considered an early marker of the disease associated with injuries in the olfactory bulb (OB), the hippocampus (HIPP) and other odor-related cortexes. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with neuroprotective effects. Studies have demonstrated that APN administration decreases A? neurotoxicity and Tau hyperphosphorylation in the HIPP, reducing cognitive impairment. However, there are no studies regarding the neuroprotective effects of APN in the olfactory dysfunction observed in the A? rat model. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) administration of APN prevents the early olfactory dysfunction in an i.c.v Amyloid-beta<sub>1-42</sub> (A?<sub>1-42</sub>) rat model. Hence, we evaluated olfactory function by using a battery of olfactory tests aimed to assess olfactory memory, discrimination and detection in the A? rat model treated with APN. In addition, we determined the number of cells expressing the neuronal nuclei (NeuN), as well as the number of microglial cells by using the ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) marker in the OB and, CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus (DG) in the HIPP. Finally, we determined Arginase-1 expression in both nuclei through Western blot.<h4>Results</h4>We observed that the i.c.v injection of A? decreased olfactory function, which was prevented by the i.c.v administration of APN. In accordance with the olfactory impairment observed in i.c.v A?-treated rats, we observed a decrease in NeuN expressing cells in the glomerular layer of the OB, which was also prevented with the i.c.v APN. Furthermore, we observed an increase of Iba-1 cells in CA1, and DG in the HIPP of the A? rats, which was prevented by the APN treatment.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The present study describes the olfactory impairment of A? treated rats and evidences the protective role that APN plays in the brain, by preventing the olfactory impairment induced by A?<sub>1-42</sub>. These results may lead to APN-based pharmacological therapies aimed to ameliorate AD neurotoxic effects.
Project description:Hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of medicinal herb St John's wort, has been identified as the main active ingredient of St John's wort extract for antidepressant action by experimental and clinical studies. Hyperforin is currently known to activate transient receptor potential canonical (subtype) 6 (TRPC6) channel, increase the phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), and has N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-antagonistic effect that convert potential neuroprotective effects in vitro. However, the protective effects of hyperforin on ischemic stroke in vivo remain controversial and its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of hyperforin on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Hyperforin, when applied immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset, significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells, and also increased neurologic scores at 24 hours after reperfusion accompanied by elevated TRPC6 and p-CREB activity and decreased SBDP145 activity. When MEK or CaMKIV activity was specifically inhibited, the neuroprotective effect of hyperforin was attenuated, and we observed a correlated decrease in CREB activity. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that i.c.v. injection of hyperforin immediately after MCAO onset blocked calpain-mediated TRPC6 channels degradation, and then to stimulate the Ras/MEK/ERK and CaMKIV pathways that converge on CREB activation, contributed to neuroprotection.
Project description:Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke, but its neurotoxicity is a significant problem. Here we tested the hypothesis that recombinant ADAMTS 13 (rADAMTS 13) would reduce tPA neurotoxicity in a mouse model of stroke. We show that treatment with rADAMTS 13 in combination with tPA significantly reduced infarct volume compared with mice treated with tPA alone 48 hours after stroke. The combination treatment significantly improved neurological deficits compared with mice treated with tPA or vehicle alone. These neuroprotective effects were associated with significant reductions in fibrin deposits in ischemic vessels and less severe cell death in ischemic brain. The effect of rADAMTS13 on tPA neurotoxicity was mimicked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist M-801, and was abolished by injection of NMDA. Moreover, rADAMTS 13 prevents the neurotoxicity effect of tPA, by blocking its interaction with the NMDA receptor NR2B and the attendant phosphorylation of NR2B and activation of ERK1/2. Finally, the NR2B-specific NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil abolished tPA neurotoxicity and rADAMTS 13 treatment had no further beneficial effect. Our data suggest that the combination of rADAMTS 13 and tPA may provide a novel treatment of ischemic stroke by diminishing the neurotoxic effects of exogenous tPA.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Amyloid-? (A?) aggregation into synaptotoxic, prefibrillar oligomers is a major pathogenic event underlying the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pharmacological and neuroprotective properties of a novel A? aggregation inhibitor, SEN1269, were investigated on aggregation and cell viability and in test systems relevant to synaptic function and memory, using both synthetic A?(1-42) and cell-derived A? oligomers.<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Surface plasmon resonance studies measured binding of SEN1269 to A?(1-42) . Thioflavin-T fluorescence and MTT assays were used to measure its ability to block A?(1-42) -induced aggregation and reduction in cell viability. In vitro and in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) experiments measured the effect of SEN1269 on deficits induced by synthetic A?(1-42) and cell-derived A? oligomers. Following i.c.v. administration of the latter, a complex (alternating-lever cyclic ratio) schedule of operant responding measured effects on memory in freely moving rats.<h4>Key results</h4>SEN1269 demonstrated direct binding to monomeric A?(1-42) , produced a concentration-related blockade of A?(1-42) aggregation and protected neuronal cell lines exposed to A?(1-42) . In vitro, SEN1269 alleviated deficits in hippocampal LTP induced by A?(1-42) and cell-derived A? oligomers. In vivo, SEN1269 reduced the deficits in LTP and memory induced by i.c.v. administration of cell-derived A? oligomers.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>SEN1269 protected cells exposed to A?(1-42) , displayed central activity with respect to reducing A?-induced neurotoxicity and was neuroprotective in electrophysiological and behavioural models of memory relevant to A?-induced neurodegeneration. It represents a promising lead for designing inhibitors of A?-mediated synaptic toxicity as potential neuroprotective agents for treating AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia in older people. The complex nature of AD calls for the development of multitarget agents addressing key pathogenic processes. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is a first-line acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of AD. Although several studies have demonstrated the symptomatic efficacy of donepezil treatment in AD patients, the possible effects of donepezil on the AD process are not yet known. In this study, a novel feruloyl-donepezil hybrid compound (PQM130) was synthesized and evaluated as a multitarget drug candidate against the neurotoxicity induced by A?1-42 oligomer (A?O) injection in mice. Interestingly, PQM130 had already shown anti-inflammatory activity in different in vivo models and neuroprotective activity in human neuronal cells. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of A?O in mice caused the increase of memory impairment, oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation. Instead, PQM130 (0.5-1 mg/kg) treatment after the i.c.v. A?O injection reduced oxidative damage and neuroinflammation and induced cell survival and protein synthesis through the modulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Moreover, PQM130 increased brain plasticity and protected mice against the decline in spatial cognition. Even more interesting is that PQM130 modulated different pathways compared to donepezil, and it is much more effective in counteracting A?O damage. Therefore, our findings highlighted that PQM130 is a potent multi-functional agent against AD and could act as a promising neuroprotective compound for anti-AD drug development.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has long been connected to the development of tissue lesion following ischemic stroke. Contradictory findings either situate VEGF as a promoter of large infarct volumes or as a potential attenuator of damage due to its well documented neuroprotective capability. The core of this discrepancy mostly lies on the substantial number of pleiotropic functions driven by VEGF. Mechanistically, these effects are activated through several VEGF receptors for which various closely related ligands exist. Here, we tested in an experimental model of stroke how the differential activation of VEGF receptors 1 and 2 would modify functional and histological outcomes in the acute phase post-ischemia. We also assessed whether VEGF-mediated responses would involve the modulation of inflammatory mechanisms and how this trophic factor acted specifically on neuronal receptors. We produced ischemic infarcts in adult rats by transiently occluding the middle cerebral artery and induced the pharmacological inhibition of VEGF receptors by i.c.v. administration of the specific VEGFR2 inhibitor SU1498 and the pan-VEGFR blocker Axitinib. We evaluated the neurological performance of animals at 24 h following stroke and the occurrence of brain infarctions analyzed at the gross metabolic and neuronal viability levels. We also assessed the induction of peripheral pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood and assessed the polarization of activated microglia. Finally, we studied the direct involvement of cortical neuronal receptors for VEGF with in vitro assays of excitotoxic damage. Preferential VEGFR1 activation by the endogenous ligand promotes neuronal protection and prevents the presentation of large volume infarcts that highly correlate with neurological performance, while the concomitant activation of VEGFR2 reduces this effect, even in the presence of exogenous ligand. This process partially involves the polarization of microglia to the state M2. At the cellular level, neurons also responded better to the preferential activation of VEGFR1 when challenged to N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity. Endogenous activation of VEGFR2 hinders the neuroprotective mechanisms mediated by the activation of VEGFR1. The selective modulation of these concurrent processes might enable the development of therapeutic approaches that target specific VEGFR1-mediated signaling during the acute phase post-stroke.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease still represents an untreated multifaceted pathology, and drugs able to stop or reverse its progression are urgently needed. In this paper, a series of naturally inspired chalcone-based derivatives were designed as structural simplification of our previously reported benzofuran lead compound, aiming at targeting both acetyl (AChE)- and butyryl (BuChE) cholinesterases that, despite having been studied for years, still deserve considerable attention. In addition, the new compounds could also modulate different pathways involved in disease progression, due to the peculiar trans-?,?-unsaturated ketone in the chalcone framework. All molecules presented in this study were evaluated for cholinesterase inhibition on the human enzymes and for antioxidant and neuroprotective activities on a SH-SY5Y cell line. The results proved that almost all the new compounds were low micromolar inhibitors, showing different selectivity depending on the appended substituent; some of them were also effective antioxidant and neuroprotective agents. In particular, compound 4, endowed with dual AChE/BuChE inhibitory activity, was able to decrease ROS formation and increase GSH levels, resulting in enhanced antioxidant endogenous defense. Moreover, this compound also proved to counteract the neurotoxicity elicited by A?1?42 oligomers, showing a promising neuroprotective potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, is also a high affinity sigma(1) receptor agonist. We examined the involvement of sigma(1) receptors in its anti-amnesic and neuroprotective properties against amyloid beta(25-35) peptide-induced toxicity in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Mice were given an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Abeta(25-35) peptide (9 nmol) 7-9 days before being tested for spontaneous alternation and passive avoidance. Hippocampal lipid peroxidation was measured 7 days after Abeta(25-35) injection to evaluate oxidative stress. Donepezil, the sigma(1) agonist PRE-084 or the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors tacrine, rivastigmine and galantamine were administered either 20 min before behavioural sessions to check their anti-amnesic effects, or 20 min before Abeta(25-35) injection, or 24 h after Abeta(25-35) injection and then once daily before behavioural sessions, to check their pre- and post-i.c.v. neuroprotective activity, respectively. KEY RESULTS: All the drugs tested were anti-amnesic, but only the effects of PRE-084 and donepezil were prevented by the sigma(1) antagonist BD1047. Only PRE-084 and donepezil showed neuroprotection when administered pre i.c.v.; they blocked lipid peroxidation and learning deficits, effects inhibited by BD1047. Post i.c.v., PRE-084 and donepezil showed complete neuroprotection whereas the other ChE inhibitors showed partial effects. BD1047 blocked these effects of PRE-084, attenuated those of donepezil, but did not affect the partial effects of the other ChE inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The potent anti-amnesic and neuroprotective effects of donepezil against Abeta(25-35)-induced toxicity involve both its cholinergic and sigma(1) agonistic properties. This dual action may explain its sustained activity compared to other ChE inhibitors.
Project description:Plasma protein C is a serine protease zymogen that is transformed into the active, trypsin-like protease, activated protein C (APC), which can exert multiple activities. For its anticoagulant action, APC causes inactivation of the procoagulant cofactors, factors Va and VIIIa, by limited proteolysis, and APC's anticoagulant activity is promoted by protein S, various lipids, high-density lipoprotein, and factor V. Hereditary heterozygous deficiency of protein C or protein S is linked to moderately increased risk for venous thrombosis, while a severe or total deficiency of either protein is linked to neonatal purpura fulminans. In recent years, the beneficial direct effects of APC on cells which are mediated by several specific receptors have become the focus of much attention. APC-induced signaling can promote multiple cytoprotective actions which can minimize injuries in various preclinical animal injury models. Remarkably, pharmacologic therapy using APC demonstrates substantial neuroprotective effects in various murine injury models, including ischemic stroke. This review summarizes the molecules that are central to the protein C pathways, the relationship of pathway deficiencies to venous thrombosis risk, and mechanisms for the beneficial effects of APC.