Herpes simplex virus type 1-encoded glycoprotein C contributes to direct coagulation factor X-virus binding.
ABSTRACT: The HSV1 (herpes simplex virus type 1) surface has been shown recently to initiate blood coagulation by FVIIa (activated Factor VII)-dependent proteolytic activation of FX (Factor X). At least two types of direct FX-HSV1 interactions were suggested by observing that host cell-encoded tissue factor and virus-encoded gC (glycoprotein C) independently enhance FVIIa function on the virus. Using differential sedimentation to separate bound from free 125I-ligand, we report in the present study that, in the presence of Ca2+, FX binds directly to purified wild-type HSV1 with an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 1.5+/-0.4 muM and 206+/-24 sites per virus at saturation. The number of FX-binding sites on gC-deficient virus was reduced to 43+/-5, and the remaining binding had a lower K(d) (0.7+/-0.2 microM), demonstrating an involvement of gC. Engineering gC back into the deficient strain or addition of a truncated soluble recombinant form of gC (sgC), increased the K(d) and the number of binding sites. Consistent with a gC/FX stoichiometry of approximately 1:1, 121+/-6 125I-sgC molecules were found to bind per wild-type HSV1. In the absence of Ca2+, the number of FX-binding sites on the wild-type virus was similar to the gC-deficient strain in the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in the absence of Ca2+, direct sgC binding to HSV1 was insignificant, although sgC was observed to inhibit the FX-virus association, suggesting a Ca2+-independent solution-phase FX-sgC interaction. Cumulatively, these data demonstrate that gC constitutes one type of direct FX-HSV1 interaction, possibly providing a molecular basis for clinical correlations between recurrent infection and vascular pathology.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cell membrane-derived initiators of coagulation, tissue factor (TF) and anionic phospholipid (aPL), are constitutive on the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) surface, bypassing physiological regulation. TF and aPL accelerate proteolytic activation of factor (F) X to FXa by FVIIa to induce clot formation and cell signaling. Thus, infection in vivo is enhanced by virus surface TF. HSV1-encoded glycoprotein C (gC) is implicated in this tenase activity by providing viral FX binding sites and increasing FVIIa function in solution.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the biochemical influences of gC on FVIIa-dependent FX activation.<h4>Methods</h4>Immunogold electron microscopy (IEM), kinetic chromogenic assays and microscale thermophoresis were used to dissect tenase biochemistry. Recombinant TF and gC were solubilized (s) by substituting the transmembrane domain with poly-histidine, which could be orientated on synthetic unilamellar vesicles containing Ni-chelating lipid (Ni-aPL). These constructs were compared to purified HSV1 TF±/gC ± variants.<h4>Results</h4>IEM confirmed that gC, TF, and aPL are simultaneously expressed on a single HSV1 particle where the contribution of gC to tenase activity required the availability of viral TF. Unlike viral tenase activity, the cofactor effects of sTF and sgC on FVIIa was additive when bound to Ni-aPL. FVIIa was found to bind to sgC and this was enhanced by FX. Orientation of sgC on a lipid membrane was critical for FVIIa-dependent FX activation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The assembly of gC with FVIIa/FX parallels that of TF and may involve other constituents on the HSV1 envelope with implications in virus infection and pathology.
Project description:Factor VII (FVII) consists of an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain followed by two epidermal growth factor-like (EGF1 and EGF2) domains and the C-terminal protease domain. Activation of FVII results in a two-chain FVIIa molecule consisting of a light chain (Gla-EGF1-EGF2 domains) and a heavy chain (protease domain) held together by a single disulfide bond. During coagulation, the complex of tissue factor (TF, a transmembrane glycoprotein) and FVIIa activates factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). FVIIa is structurally "zymogen-like" and when bound to TF, it is more "active enzyme-like." FIX and FX share structural homology with FVII. Three structural biology aspects of FVIIa/TF are presented in this review. One, regions in soluble TF (sTF) that interact with FVIIa as well as mapping of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Zn2+ sites in FVIIa and their functions; two, modeled interactive regions of Gla and EGF1 domains of FXa and FIXa with FVIIa/sTF; and three, incompletely formed oxyanion hole in FVIIa/sTF and its induction by substrate/inhibitor. Finally, an overview of the recognition elements in TF pathway inhibitor is provided.
Project description:The blood coagulation cascade is initiated when the cell-surface complex of factor VIIa (FVIIa, a trypsin-like serine protease) and tissue factor (TF, an integral membrane protein) proteolytically activates factor X (FX). Both FVIIa and FX bind to membranes via their ?-carboxyglutamate-rich domains (GLA domains). GLA domains contain seven to nine bound Ca(2+) ions that are critical for their folding and function, and most biochemical studies of blood clotting have employed supraphysiologic Ca(2+) concentrations to ensure saturation of these domains with bound Ca(2+). Recently, it has become clear that, at plasma concentrations of metal ions, Mg(2+) actually occupies two or three of the divalent metal ion-binding sites in GLA domains, and that these bound Mg(2+) ions are required for full function of these clotting proteins. In this study, we investigated how Mg(2+) influences FVIIa enzymatic activity. We found that the presence of TF was required for Mg(2+) to enhance the rate of FX activation by FVIIa, and we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis to identify TF residues important for mediating this response to Mg(2+). Several TF mutations, including those at residues G164, K166, and Y185, blunted the ability of Mg(2+) to enhance the activity of the TF/FVIIa complex. Our results suggest that these TF residues interact with the GLA domain of FX in a Mg(2+)-dependent manner (although effects of Mg(2+) on the FVIIa GLA domain cannot be ruled out). Notably, these TF residues are located within or immediately adjacent to the putative substrate-binding exosite of TF.
Project description:Activated Factor VII (FVIIa) is a vitamin-K-dependent serine protease that initiates blood clotting after interacting with its cofactor tissue factor (TF). The complex FVIIa-TF is responsible for the activation of Factor IX (FIX) and Factor X (FX), leading ultimately to the formation of a stable fibrin clot. Activated FX (FXa), a product of FVIIa enzymic activity, is also the most efficient activator of zymogen FVII. Interactions of FVII/FVIIa with its activators, cofactor and substrates have been investigated extensively to define contact regions and residues involved in the formation of the complexes. Site-directed mutagenesis and inhibition assays led to the identification of sites removed from the FVIIa active site that influence binding specificity and affinity of the enzyme. In this study we report the characterization of a frequent naturally occurring human FVII mutant, A294V (residue 152 in the chymotrypsin numbering system), located in loop 140s. This region undergoes major rearrangements after FVII activation and is relevant to the development of substrate specificity. FVII A294V shows delayed activation by FXa as well as reduced activity towards peptidyl and macromolecular substrates without impairing the catalytic efficiency of the triad. Also, the interaction of this FVII variant with TF was altered, suggesting that this residue, and more likely loop 140s, plays a pivotal role not only in the recognition of FX by the FVIIa-TF complex, but also in the interaction of FVII with both its activators and cofactor TF.
Project description:The protease domain of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is homologous to trypsin with a similar active site architecture. The catalytic function of FVIIa is regulated by allosteric modulations induced by binding of divalent metal ions and the cofactor tissue factor (TF). To further elucidate the mechanisms behind these transformations, the effects of Zn2+ binding to FVIIa in the free form and in complex with TF were investigated. Equilibrium dialysis suggested that two Zn2+ bind with high affinity to FVIIa outside the N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. Binding of Zn2+ to FVIIa, which was influenced by the presence of Ca2+, resulted in decreased amidolytic activity and slightly reduced affinity for TF. After binding to TF, FVIIa was less susceptible to zinc inhibition. Alanine substitutions for either of two histidine residues unique for FVIIa, His216, and His257, produced FVIIa variants with decreased sensitivity to Zn2+ inhibition. A search for putative Zn2+ binding sites in the crystal structure of the FVIIa protease domain was performed by Grid calculations. We identified a pair of Zn2+ binding sites in the Glu210-Glu220 Ca2+ binding loop adjacent to the so-called activation domain canonical to serine proteases. Based on our results, we propose a model that describes the conformational changes underlying the Zn2+-mediated allosteric down-regulation of FVIIa's activity.
Project description:Essentials How the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex selects between different substrates is not well understood. We investigated a serine loop in tissue factor and its role in substrate selectivity. The tissue factor serine loop is selective for factor X over factor IX. Substrate selectivity is facilitated by differential regulation of the nearby tissue factor exosite. ABSTRACT: Background The tissue factor-factor VIIa (TF-FVIIa) complex is the physiologic activator of blood clotting and plays a major role in many thrombotic diseases. TF-FVIIa drives clotting through proteolytic cleavage of its major protein substrates, factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). However, it remains unclear how TF-FVIIa exhibits selectivity between these substrates. We previously showed that TF residues adjacent to the putative substrate binding site of TF ("exosite") facilitate FX activation, but the role of these residues in substrate selectivity had not been tested. Objectives We hypothesized that a TF serine loop (residues S160-S163) mediates substrate selectivity by the TF-FVIIa complex. Methods We generated TF serine loop and exosite mutants. The mutants were tested in FIX and FX enzyme activation assays as well as thrombin generation assays. Results Changes in the length of the serine loop affected rates of FIX and FX activation very differently. FX activation was decreased by up to 200-fold when the loop length was changed by just one residue. In contrast, FIX activation was largely unaffected. Substrate selectivity was also detected in thrombin generation assays. Activation assays with TF serine loop and exosite double mutants revealed that the serine loop has no effect on the exosite during FIX activation. In contrast, the serine loop regulates the exosite during FX activation. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into how the TF-FVIIa complex actively selects between its major protein substrates, which is mediated by a TF serine loop.
Project description:Essentials Membrane-binding GLA domains of coagulation factors are essential for proper clot formation. Factor X (FX) is specific to phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids through unknown atomic-level interactions. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to develop the first membrane-bound model of FX-GLA. PS binding modes of FX-GLA were described, and potential PS-specific binding sites identified. SUMMARY:Background Factor X (FX) binds to cell membranes in a highly phospholipid-dependent manner and, in complex with tissue factor and factor VIIa (FVIIa), initiates the clotting cascade. Experimental information concerning the membrane-bound structure of FX with atomic resolution has remained elusive because of the fluid nature of cellular membranes. FX is known to bind preferentially to phosphatidylserine (PS). Objectives To develop the first membrane-bound model of the FX-GLA domain to PS at atomic level, and to identify PS-specific binding sites of the FX-GLA domain. Methods Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to develop an atomic-level model for the FX-GLA domain bound to PS bilayers. We utilized a membrane representation with enhanced lipid mobility, termed the highly mobile membrane mimetic (HMMM), permitting spontaneous membrane binding and insertion by FX-GLA in multiple 100-ns simulations. In 14 independent simulations, FX-GLA bound spontaneously to the membrane. The resulting membrane-bound models were converted from HMMM to conventional membrane and simulated for an additional 100 ns. Results The final membrane-bound FX-GLA model allowed for detailed characterization of the orientation, insertion depth and lipid interactions of the domain, providing insight into the molecular basis of its PS specificity. All binding simulations converged to the same configuration despite differing initial orientations. Conclusions Analysis of interactions between residues in FX-GLA and lipid-charged groups allowed for potential PS-specific binding sites to be identified. This new structural and dynamic information provides an additional step towards a full understanding of the role of atomic-level lipid-protein interactions in regulating the critical and complex clotting cascade.
Project description:Tissue Factor (TF) is the cellular receptor for coagulation Factor VII/VIIa (FVII/VIIa). TF binds to FVIIa and promotes the rapid activation of the zymogen substrates Factors IX and X (FIX and FX) to the respective serine proteinases. In order to probe structure-function relationships in TF, we have subjected the truncated membrane-bound variant, TF 1-243, to proteolytic digestion in SDS-containing gels. Three major polypeptide fragments were generated by proteolysis of TF 1-243 with chymotrypsin, producing cleavages C-terminal to residues 34, 76 and 103. All three polypeptides, TF 35-243, 77-243 and 104-243, bound biotinylated human FVII in a highly specific ligand blot assay. High-performance electrophoretic chromatography was used to isolated chymotrypsin-derived fragments of TF. These purified fragments bound FVII in ligand blots, and two of the three polypeptides exhibited much reduced, but significant, procoagulant activity in a chromogenic assay for the generation of Factor Xa in the presence of FVIIa and Ca2+. The smallest chymotrypsin-derived TF polypeptide, TF 104-243, showed reduced binding of FVII in ligand blot analyses, inhibited the activity of the full-length molecule, but had no procoagulant activity. These data suggest that a part of the binding site for FVII is contained within the TF sequence 104-243. The sequence TF 1-34 either contains a part of the FVII-binding domain or its removal leads to dysfunctional folding, disrupting binding sites elsewhere in the molecule.
Project description:Highly potent bifunctional inhibitors of Factor VIIa (FVIIa) were generated by linking two distinct peptides, recently shown to bind to two discrete exosites on the FVIIa protease domain [Dennis, Eigenbrot, Skelton, Ultsch, Santell, Dwyer, O'Connell and Lazarus (2000) Nature (London) 404, 465-470; Dennis, Roberge, Quan and Lazarus (2001) Biochemistry 40, 9513-9521; Roberge, Santell, Dennis, Eigenbrot, Dwyer and Lazarus (2001) Biochemistry 40, 9522-9531]. Fusion peptides consisting of an N-terminal A-series peptide followed by flexible linkers, an E-series peptide, and the Z-domain of protein A were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The fusion peptides were potent anticoagulants and had steep concentration dependence curves in tissue factor-dependent prothrombin time (PT) assays in comparison to the individual peptides or their noncovalent combination. This phenomenon was dependent on the length of the linker joining the A- and E-peptides. The fusion of the peptides increased the extent of inhibition of Factor X (FX) activation to 100% at saturating peptide concentrations, but did not improve the binding affinity for Factor VIIa (FVIIa) at the A- and E- binding sites or the IC(50) for the inhibition of FX activation. Differences between the peptides in the PT fold prolongation in normal and FVII-deficient plasma, in conjunction with the inhibition of (125)I-FVII activation, suggest that the enhanced effects of the fusion peptides involve the inhibition of FVII autoactivation.
Project description:Tissue factor (TF) facilitates the recognition and rapid activation of factor X (fX) by factor VIIa (fVIIa) in the extrinsic Xase pathway. TF makes extensive interactions with both light and heavy chains of fVIIa; however, with the exception of a basic recognition site for the Gla domain of fX, no other interactive site on TF for the substrate has been identified. Structural and modeling data have predicted that a basic region of TF comprised of residues Asn-199, Arg-200, and Lys-201 is located at a proper height on the membrane surface to interact with either the C-terminus of the Gla domain or the EGF-1 domain of fX. To investigate this possibility, we prepared the Ala substitution mutants of these residues and evaluated their ability to function as cofactors for fVIIa in the activation of wild-type fX and its two mutants which lack either the Gla domain (GD-fX) or both the Gla and EGF-1 domains (E2-fX). All three TF mutants exhibited normal cofactor activity in the amidolytic activity assays, but the cofactor activity of Arg-200 and Lys-201 mutants in fVIIa activation of both fX and GD-fX, but not E2-fX, was impaired approximately 3-fold. Further kinetic analysis revealed that kcat values with both TF mutants are impaired with no change in Km. These results suggest that both Arg-200 and Lys-201 of TF interact with EGF-1 of fX to facilitate the optimal docking of the substrate into the catalytic groove of the protease in the activation complex.