Cyanine dyes as intercalating agents: kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the DNA/Cyan40 and DNA/CCyan2 systems.
ABSTRACT: The interaction of cyanines with nucleic acids is accompanied by intense changes of their optical properties. Consequently these molecules find numerous applications in biology and medicine. Since no detailed information on the binding mechanism of DNA/cyanine systems is available, a T-jump investigation of the kinetics and equilibria of binding of the cyanines Cyan40 [3-methyl-2-(1,2,6-trimethyl-4(1H)pyridinylidenmethyl)-benzothiazolium ion] and CCyan2 [3-methyl-2-[2-methyl-3-(3-methyl-2(3H)-benzothiazolylidene)-1-propenyl]-benzothiazolium ion] with CT-DNA is performed at 25 degrees C, pH 7 and various ionic strengths. Bathochromic shifts of the dye absorption band upon DNA addition, polymer melting point displacement (DeltaT = 8-10 degrees C), site size determination (n = 2), and stepwise kinetics concur in suggesting that the investigated cyanines bind to CT-DNA primary by intercalation. Measurements with poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) reveal fair selectivity of CCyan2 toward G-C basepairs. T-jump experiments show two kinetic effects for both systems. The binding process is discussed in terms of the sequence D + S left arrow over right arrow D,S left arrow over right arrow DS(I) left arrow over right arrow DS(II), which leads first to fast formation of an external complex D,S and then to a partially intercalated complex DS(I) which, in turn, converts to DS(II), a more stable intercalate. Absorption spectra reveal that both dyes tend to self-aggregate; the kinetics of CCyan2 self-aggregation is studied by T-jump relaxation and the results are interpreted in terms of dimer formation.
Project description:Epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract (FRT) participate in the initial innate immunity against viral infections. Poly(dA:dT) is a synthetic analog of B form double-stranded (ds) DNA which can activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway-mediated antiviral immunity through DNA-dependent RNA Polymerase III. Here we investigated whether poly(dA:dT) could inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection of human cervical epithelial cells (End1/E6E7). We demonstrated that poly(dA:dT) treatment of End1/E6E7 cells could significantly inhibit HSV-2 infection. Mechanistically, poly(dA:dT) treatment of the cells induced the expression of the intracellular IFNs and the multiple antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2), myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB), virus inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible (Viperin), and guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5). Further investigation showed that the activation of RIG-I was largely responsible for poly(dA:dT)-mediated HSV-2 inhibition and IFN/ISGs induction in the cervical epithelial cells, as RIG-I knockout abolished the poly(dA:dT) actions. These observations demonstrate the importance for design and development of AT-rich dsDNA-based intervention strategies to control HSV-2 mucosal transmission in FRT.
Project description:An investigation of the interactions of two novel and several known DBTAA-adenine conjugates with double-stranded DNA and RNA has revealed the DNA/RNA groove as the dominant binding site, which is in contrast to the majority of previously studied DBTAA analogues (DNA/RNA intercalators). Only DBTAA-propyladenine conjugates revealed the molecular recognition of AT-DNA by an ICD band pattern > 300 nm, whereas significant ICD bands did not appear for other ds-DNA/RNA. A structure-activity relation for the studied series of compounds showed that the essential structural features for the ICD recognition are a) the presence of DNA-binding appendages (adenine side chain and positively charged side chain) on both DBTAA side chains, and b) the presence of a short propyl linker, which does not support intramolecular aromatic stacking between DBTAA and adenine. The observed AT-DNA-ICD pattern differs from previously reported ss-DNA (poly dT) ICD recognition by a strong negative ICD band at 350 nm, which allows for the dynamic differentiation between ss-DNA (poly dT) and coupled ds-AT-DNA.
Project description:IFI16 and AIM2 are important DNA sensors in antiviral immunity. To characterize these two molecules in a woodchuck model, which is widely used to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we cloned and analyzed the complete coding sequences (CDSs) of woodchuck IFI16 and AIM2, and found that AIM2 was highly conserved in mammals, whereas the degree of sequence identity between woodchuck IFI16 and its mammalian orthologues was low. IFI16 and IFN-? were upregulated following VACV ds 70 mer transfection, while AIM2 and IL-1? were upregulated following poly (dA:dT) transfection, both in vitro and in vivo; IFI16-targeted siRNA decreased the transcription of IFI16 and IFN-? stimulated by VACV ds 70 mer, and AIM2 siRNA interference downregulated AIM2 and IL-1? transcripts stimulated by poly (dA:dT), in vitro, suggesting that woodchuck IFI16 and AIM2 may play pivotal roles in the DNA-mediated induction of IFN-? and IL-1?, respectively. IFI16 and AIM2 transcripts were upregulated in the liver and spleen following acute WHV infection, while IFI16 was downregulated in the liver following chronic infection, implying that IFI16 and AIM2 may be involved in WHV infection. These data provide the basis for the study of IFI16- and AIM2-mediated innate immunity using the woodchuck model.
Project description:Keratinocytes are non-professional immune cells contributing actively to innate immune responses partially by reacting to a wide range of molecular patterns by activating pattern recognition receptors. Cytosolic nucleotide fragments as pathogen- or self-derived trigger factors are activating inflammasomes and inducing anti-viral signal transduction pathways as well as inducing expression of inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to compare the induced inflammatory reactions in three keratinocyte cell types-normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the HaCaT cell line and the HPV-KER cell line-upon exposure to the synthetic RNA and DNA analogues poly(I:C) and poly(dA:dT) to reveal the underlying signaling events. Both agents induced the expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor ? in all cell types; however, notable kinetic and expression level differences were found. Western blot analysis revealed rapid activation of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), mitogen activated protein kinase and signal transducers of activator of transcription (STAT) signal transduction pathways in keratinocytes upon poly(I:C) treatment, while poly(dA:dT) induced slower activation. Inhibition of NF-?B, p38, STAT-1 and STAT-3 signaling resulted in decreased cytokine expression, whereas inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) signaling showed a negative feedback role in both poly(I:C)- and poly(dA:dT)-induced cytokine expression. Based on our in vitro results nucleotide fragments are able to induce inflammatory reactions in keratinocytes, but with different rate and kinetics of cytokine expression, explained by faster activation of signaling routes by poly(I:C) than poly(dA:dT).
Project description:This study explored gender differences in correct response rates and response times on a task involving left or right arrow selection and another involving the transformation of mental rotation of the hand. We recruited 15 healthy, right-handed men (age 24.5 ± 6.4) and 15 healthy, right-handed women (age 21.3 ± 4.9). For the tasks, we used pictures of left and right arrows and 32 hand pictures (left and right, palm and back) placed in cons (each at 45° from 0° to 315°). Hand and arrow pictures alternated and were shown at random. Participants decided as quickly as possible whether each picture was left or right. To compare the time taken for the transformation of mental rotation of the hand, we subtracted the average arrow response time from that for the left and right hand pictures for each participant. Correct response rates did not differ significantly between men and women or left and right for either arrow or hand pictures. Regardless of gender, the response time was longer for the left arrow picture than right arrow picture. The response time for the hand picture was longest for both men and women for pictures at rotation angles that were most difficult to align with participants' hands. While there was no difference between men's responses for left and right hand pictures, the responses of women were longer for left than right hand pictures and also than those of men. These findings suggest that both men and women mainly perform the hand mental rotation task with implicit motor imagery. On the other hand, the gender difference in performance might be explained by the difference in balance with other strategies, such as visual imagery, and by cognitive, neurophysiological, and morphological differences.
Project description:Although, plant hormones play an important role in adjusting growth in response to environmental perturbation, the relative contributions of abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene remain elusive. Using six spring wheat genotypes differing for stress tolerance, we show that young seedlings of the drought-tolerant (DT) group maintained or increased shoot dry weight (SDW) while the drought-susceptible (DS) group decreased SDW in response to mild drought. Both the DT and DS groups increased endogenous ABA and ethylene concentrations under mild drought compared to control. The DT and DS groups exhibited different SDW response trends, whereby the DS group decreased while the DT group increased SDW, to increased concentrations of ABA and ethylene under mild drought, although both groups decreased ABA/ethylene ratio under mild drought albeit at different levels. We concluded that SDW of the DT and DS groups might be distinctly regulated by specific ABA:ethylene ratio. Further, a foliar-spray of low concentrations (0.1 ?M) of ABA increased shoot relative growth rate (RGR) in the DS group while ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ethylene precursor) spray increased RGR in both groups compared to control. Furthermore, the DT group accumulated a significantly higher galactose while a significantly lower maltose in the shoot compared to the DS group. Taken all together, these results suggest an impact of ABA, ethylene, and ABA:ethylene ratio on SDW of wheat seedlings that may partly underlie a genotypic variability of different shoot growth sensitivities to drought among crop species under field conditions. We propose that phenotyping based on hormone accumulation, response and hormonal ratio would be a viable, rapid, and an early-stage selection tool aiding genotype selection for stress tolerance.
Project description:Typical CD spectrum of the right-handed poly[d(A-T)2] was reversed when trans-bis(N-methylpyrimidium-4-yl)diphenyl porphyrin (trans-BMPyP) was bound, suggesting that the helicity of the polynucleotide was reversed to the left-handed form. The formation of the left-handed Z-form poly[d(A-T)2] was confirmed by (31)P NMR, in which a single (31)P peak of B-form poly[d(A-T)2] was split into two peaks, which is similar to the conventional B-Z transition of poly[d(G-C)2] induced by the high ionic strength. The observed B-Z transition is unique for poly[d(A-T)2]. The other polynucleotides, including poly[d(G-C)2], poly(dG)·poly(dC) and poly(dA)·poly(dT) remained as the right-handed form in the presence of the same porphyrin. This observation suggests that the porphyrin array that was formed along the poly[d(A-T)2] provides a template to which left-handed poly[d(A-T)2] is associated with an electrostatic interaction.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Base dependent binding of the cytotoxic alkaloid harmalol to four synthetic polynucleotides, poly(dA).poly(dT), poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT), poly(dG).poly(dC) and poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) was examined by various photophysical and calorimetric studies, and molecular docking.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Binding data obtained from absorbance according to neighbor exclusion model indicated that the binding constant decreased in the order poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC)>poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT)>poly(dA).poly(dT)>poly(dG).poly(dC). The same trend was shown by the competition dialysis, change in fluorescence steady state intensity, stabilization against thermal denaturation, increase in the specific viscosity and perturbations in circular dichroism spectra. Among the polynucleotides, poly(dA).poly(dT) and poly(dG).poly(dC) showed positive cooperativity where as poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) and poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) showed non cooperative binding. Isothermal calorimetric data on the other hand showed enthalpy driven exothermic binding with a hydrophobic contribution to the binding Gibbs energy with poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), and poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) where as harmalol with poly(dA).poly(dT) showed entropy driven endothermic binding and with poly(dG).poly(dC) it was reported to be entropy driven exothermic binding. The study also tested the in vitro chemotherapeutic potential of harmalol in HeLa, MDA-MB-231, A549, and HepG2 cell line by MTT assay.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Studies unequivocally established that harmalol binds strongly with hetero GC polymer by mechanism of intercalation where the alkaloid resists complete overlap to the DNA base pairs inside the intercalation cavity and showed maximum cytotoxicity on HepG2 with IC50 value of 14 µM. The results contribute to the understanding of binding, specificity, energetic, cytotoxicity and docking of harmalol-DNA complexation that will guide synthetic efforts of medicinal chemists for developing better therapeutic agents.
Project description:The interactions of spermine and polyamine analogues with synthetic polynucleotides of various base sequences complexed with ethidium bromide (EB) were investigated using measurements of fluorescence intensity and steady-state fluorescence polarization. Spermine and polyamine analogues displaced some but not all of the EB bound to poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) or poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), suggesting that polyamines may stabilize these polynucleotides in a conformation with reduced affinity for EB. Modifications of the aliphatic backbone of spermine have pronounced effects on its ability to displace EB from poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) but not from poly-(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC). Spermine and some but not all of the polyamine analogues caused fluorescence depolarization when they interacted with the complex of EB and poly(dA-dT).poly-(dA-dT). Neither spermine nor any of the analogues, however, induced fluorescence depolarization in the complex of EB with poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) or poly(dA).poly(dT). This suggests that spermine and some spermine analogues induce structural changes specific to alternating A-T sequences.
Project description:PURPOSE:Running at high speed and sudden change in direction or activity stresses the knee. Surprisingly, not many studies have investigated the effects of sprinting on knee's kinetics and kinematics of soccer players. Hence, this study is aimed to investigate indices of injury risk factors of jumping-landing maneuvers performed immediately after sprinting in male soccer players. METHODS:Twenty-three collegiate male soccer players (22.1±1.7 years) were tested in four conditions; vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump immediately after slow running (VJSR), vertical jump immediately after sprinting (VJFR) and double horizontal jump immediately after sprinting (HJFR). The kinematics and kinetics data were measured using Vicon motion analyzer (100Hz) and two Kistler force platforms (1000Hz), respectively. RESULTS:For knee flexion joint angle, (p = 0.014, ? = 0.15) and knee valgus moment (p = 0.001, ? = 0.71) differences between condition in the landing phase were found. For knee valgus joint angle, a main effect between legs in the jumping phase was found (p = 0.006, ? = 0.31), which suggests bilateral deficit existed between the right and left lower limbs. CONCLUSION:In brief, the important findings were greater knee valgus moment and less knee flexion joint angle proceeding sprint (HJFR & VJFR) rather than no sprint condition (VJ) present an increased risk for knee injuries. These results seem to suggest that running and sudden subsequent jumping-landing activity experienced during playing soccer may negatively change the knee valgus moment. Thus, sprinting preceding a jump task may increase knee risk factors such as moment and knee flexion joint angle.