Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and eIF2 can promote mRNA binding to 40S subunits independently of eIF4G in yeast.
ABSTRACT: Recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2)-GTP-Met-tRNAiMet ternary complex to the 40S ribosome is stimulated by multiple initiation factors in vitro, including eIF3, eIF1, eIF5, and eIF1A. Recruitment of mRNA is thought to require the functions of eIF4F and eIF3, with the latter serving as an adaptor between the ribosome and the 4G subunit of eIF4F. To define the factor requirements for these reactions in vivo, we examined the effects of depleting eIF2, eIF3, eIF5, or eIF4G in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on binding of the ternary complex, other initiation factors, and RPL41A mRNA to native 43S and 48S preinitiation complexes. Depleting eIF2, eIF3, or eIF5 reduced 40S binding of all constituents of the multifactor complex (MFC), comprised of these three factors and eIF1, supporting a mechanism of coupled 40S binding by MFC components. 40S-bound mRNA strongly accumulated in eIF5-depleted cells, even though MFC binding to 40S subunits was reduced by eIF5 depletion. Hence, stimulation of the GTPase activity of the ternary complex, a prerequisite for 60S subunit joining in vitro, is likely the rate-limiting function of eIF5 in vivo. Depleting eIF2 or eIF3 impaired mRNA binding to free 40S subunits, but depleting eIF4G led unexpectedly to accumulation of mRNA on 40S subunits. Thus, it appears that eIF3 and eIF2 are more critically required than eIF4G for stable binding of at least some mRNAs to native preinitiation complexes and that eIF4G has a rate-limiting function at a step downstream of 48S complex assembly in vivo.
Project description:The 40S subunit in 48S complexes formed at the initiation codon of mRNA is bound to eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, eIF1, eIF1A, and an eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAi(Met) ternary complex and can therefore not join a 60S subunit directly to form an 80S ribosome. We report that eIF5-induced hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP in 48S complexes led to release of eIF2-GDP but not eIF3 or eIF1. eIF5B did not influence factor release in the absence of 60S subunits. Therefore eIF3 and eIF1 dissociate from 40S subunits during, rather than before, the eIF5B-mediated subunit joining event. In the absence of eIF1, eIF5-stimulated hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP occurred at the same rate in 43S pre-initiation and 48S initiation complexes. GTP hydrolysis in 43S complexes assembled with eIF1 was much slower than in 43S or 48S complexes assembled without eIF1. Establishment of codon-anticodon base-pairing in 48S complexes relieved eIF1's inhibition. Thus, in addition to its role in initiation codon selection during 48S complex formation, eIF1 also participates in maintaining the fidelity of the initiation process at a later stage, hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP, by inhibiting premature GTP hydrolysis and by linking establishment of codon-anticodon base-pairing with GTP hydrolysis.
Project description:The binding of eIF2-GTP-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC) to 40S subunits is impaired in yeast prt1-1 (eIF3b) mutant extracts, but evidence is lacking that TC recruitment is a critical function of eIF3 in vivo. If TC binding was rate-limiting in prt1-1 cells, overexpressing TC should suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype and GCN4 translation should be strongly derepressed in this mutant, but neither was observed. Rather, GCN4 translation is noninducible in prt1-1 cells, and genetic analysis indicates defective ribosomal scanning between the upstream open reading frames that mediate translational control. prt1-1 cells also show reduced utilization of a near-cognate start codon, implicating eIF3 in AUG selection. Using in vivo cross-linking, we observed accumulation of TC and mRNA/eIF4G on 40S subunits and a 48S 'halfmer' in prt1-1 cells. Genetic evidence suggests that 40S-60S subunit joining is not rate-limiting in the prt1-1 mutant. Thus, eIF3b functions between 48S assembly and subunit joining to influence AUG recognition and reinitiation on GCN4 mRNA. Other mutations that disrupt eIF2-eIF3 contacts in the multifactor complex (MFC) diminished 40S-bound TC, indicating that MFC formation enhances 43S assembly in vivo.
Project description:Translation initiation in eukaryotes begins with the formation of a pre-initiation complex (PIC) containing the 40S ribosomal subunit, eIF1, eIF1A, eIF3, ternary complex (eIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi), and eIF5. The PIC, in an open conformation, attaches to the 5' end of the mRNA and scans to locate the start codon, whereupon it closes to arrest scanning. We present single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of 48S PICs from yeast in these open and closed states, at 6.0 Å and 4.9 Å, respectively. These reconstructions show eIF2? as well as a configuration of eIF3 that appears to encircle the 40S, occupying part of the subunit interface. Comparison of the complexes reveals a large conformational change in the 40S head from an open mRNA latch conformation to a closed one that constricts the mRNA entry channel and narrows the P site to enclose tRNAi, thus elucidating key events in start codon recognition.
Project description:In eukaryotic translation initiation, eIF2GTP-Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC) interacts with eIF3-eIF1-eIF5 complex to form the multifactor complex (MFC), while eIF2GDP associates with eIF2B for guanine nucleotide exchange. Gcn2p phosphorylates eIF2 to inhibit eIF2B. Here we evaluate the abundance of eIFs and their pre-initiation intermediate complexes in gcn2 deletion mutant grown under different conditions. We show that ribosomes are three times as abundant as eIF1, eIF2 and eIF5, while eIF3 is half as abundant as the latter three and hence, the limiting component in MFC formation. By quantitative immunoprecipitation, we estimate that approximately 15% of the cellular eIF2 is found in TC during rapid growth in a complex rich medium. Most of the TC is found in MFC, and important, approximately 40% of the total eIF2 is associated with eIF5 but lacks tRNA(i)(Met). When the gcn2Delta mutant grows less rapidly in a defined complete medium, TC abundance increases threefold without altering the abundance of each individual factor. Interestingly, the TC increase is suppressed by eIF5 overexpression and Gcn2p expression. Thus, eIF2B-catalyzed TC formation appears to be fine-tuned by eIF2 phosphorylation and the novel eIF2/eIF5 complex lacking tRNA(i)(Met).
Project description:The delivery of Met-tRNA(i) to the 40S ribosomal subunit is thought to occur by way of a ternary complex (TC) comprising eIF2, GTP and Met-tRNA(i). We have generated from purified human proteins a stable multifactor complex (MFC) comprising eIF1, eIF2, eIF3 and eIF5, similar to the MFC reported in yeast and plants. A human MFC free of the ribosome also is detected in HeLa cells and rabbit reticulocytes, indicating that it exists in vivo. In vitro, the MFC-GTP binds Met-tRNA(i) and delivers the tRNA to the ribosome at the same rate as the TC. However, MFC-GDP shows a greatly reduced affinity to Met-tRNA(i) compared to that for eIF2-GDP, suggesting that MFC components may play a role in the release of eIF2-GDP from the ribosome following AUG recognition. Since an MFC-Met-tRNA(i) complex is detected in cell lysates, it may be responsible for Met-tRNA(i)-40S ribosome binding in vivo, possibly together with the TC. However, the MFC protein components also bind individually to 40S ribosomes, creating the possibility that Met-tRNA(i) might bind directly to such 40S-factor complexes. Thus, three distinct pathways for Met-tRNA(i) delivery to the 40S ribosomal subunit are identified, but which one predominates in vivo remains to be elucidated.
Project description:In eukaryotic translation initiation, the eIF2.GTP/Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC) binds the eIF3/eIF1/eIF5 complex to form the multifactor complex (MFC), whereas eIF2.GDP binds the pentameric factor eIF2B for guanine nucleotide exchange. eIF5 and the eIF2Bvarepsilon catalytic subunit possess a conserved eIF2-binding site. Nearly half of cellular eIF2 forms a complex with eIF5 lacking Met-tRNA(i)(Met), and here we investigate its physiological significance. eIF5 overexpression increases the abundance of both eIF2/eIF5 and TC/eIF5 complexes, thereby impeding eIF2B reaction and MFC formation, respectively. eIF2Bvarepsilon mutations, but not other eIF2B mutations, enhance the ability of overexpressed eIF5 to compete for eIF2, indicating that interaction of eIF2Bvarepsilon with eIF2 normally disrupts eIF2/eIF5 interaction. Overexpression of the catalytic eIF2Bvarepsilon segment similarly exacerbates eIF5 mutant phenotypes, supporting the ability of eIF2Bvarepsilon to compete with MFC. Moreover, we show that eIF5 overexpression does not generate aberrant MFC lacking tRNA(i)(Met), suggesting that tRNA(i)(Met) is a vital component promoting MFC assembly. We propose that the eIF2/eIF5 complex represents a cytoplasmic reservoir for eIF2 that antagonizes eIF2B-promoted guanine nucleotide exchange, enabling coordinated regulation of translation initiation.
Project description:Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 5 is crucial for the assembly of the eukaryotic preinitiation complex. This activity is mediated by the ability of its C-terminal HEAT domain to interact with eIF1, eIF2, and eIF3 in the multifactor complex and with eIF4G in the 48S complex. However, the binding sites for these factors on eIF5-C-terminal domain (CTD) have not been known. Here we present a homology model for eIF5-CTD based on the HEAT domain of eIF2Bepsilon. We show that the binding site for eIF2beta is located in a surface area containing aromatic and acidic residues (aromatic/acidic boxes), that the binding sites for eIF1 and eIF3c are located in a conserved surface region of basic residues, and that eIF4G binds eIF5-CTD at an interface overlapping with the acidic area. Mutations in these distinct eIF5 surface areas impair GCN4 translational control by disrupting preinitiation complex interactions. These results indicate that the eIF5 HEAT domain is a critical nucleation core for preinitiation complex assembly and function.
Project description:During translation initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an Arg- and Ser-rich segment (RS1 domain) of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the Lys-rich segment (K-boxes) of eIF2? bind three common partners, eIF5, eIF1, and mRNA. Here, we report that both of these segments are involved in mRNA recruitment and AUG recognition by distinct mechanisms. First, the eIF4G-RS1 interaction with the eIF5 C-terminal domain (eIF5-CTD) directly links eIF4G to the preinitiation complex (PIC) and enhances mRNA binding. Second, eIF2?-K-boxes increase mRNA binding to the 40S subunit in vitro in a manner reversed by the eIF5-CTD. Third, mutations altering eIF4G-RS1, eIF2?-K-boxes, and eIF5-CTD restore the accuracy of start codon selection impaired by an eIF2? mutation in vivo, suggesting that the mutual interactions of the eIF segments within the PIC prime the ribosome for initiation in response to start codon selection. We propose that the rearrangement of interactions involving the eIF5-CTD promotes mRNA recruitment through mRNA binding by eIF4G and eIF2? and assists the start codon-induced release of eIF1, the major antagonist of establishing tRNA(i)(Met):mRNA binding to the P site.
Project description:The Simian picornavirus type 9 (SPV9) 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR) has been predicted to contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) with structural elements that resemble domains of hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs. In vitro reconstitution of initiation confirmed that this 5' UTR contains an IRES and revealed that it has both functional similarities and differences compared to HP IRESs. Like HP IRESs, the SPV9 IRES bound directly to 40S subunits and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, depended on the conserved domain IIId for ribosomal binding and consequently for function, and additionally required eIF2/initiator tRNA to yield 48S complexes that formed elongation-competent 80S ribosomes in the presence of eIF5, eIF5B, and 60S subunits. Toeprinting analysis revealed that eIF1A stabilized 48S complexes, whereas eIF1 induced conformational changes in the 40S subunit, likely corresponding to partial opening of the entry latch of the mRNA-binding channel, that were exacerbated by eIF3 and suppressed by eIF1A. The SPV9 IRES differed from HP IRESs in that its function was enhanced by eIF4A/eIF4F when the IRES was adjacent to the wild-type coding sequence, but was less affected by these factors or by a dominant negative eIF4A mutant when potentially less structured coding sequences were present. Exceptionally, this IRES promoted binding of initiator tRNA to the initiation codon in the P site of 40S subunits independently of eIF2. Although these 40S/IRES/tRNA complexes could not form active 80S ribosomes, this constitutes a second difference between the SPV9 and HP IRESs. eIF1 destabilized the eIF2-independent ribosomal binding of initiator tRNA.
Project description:Selection of the AUG start codon is a key step in translation initiation requiring hydrolysis of GTP in the eIF2*GTP*Met-tRNA(i)(Met) ternary complex (TC) and subsequent P(i) release from eIF2*GDP*P(i). It is thought that eIF1 prevents recognition of non-AUGs by promoting scanning and blocking P(i) release at non-AUG codons. We show that Sui(-) mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF1, which increase initiation at UUG codons, reduce interaction of eIF1 with 40S subunits in vitro and in vivo, and both defects are diminished in cells by overexpressing the mutant proteins. Remarkably, Sui(-) mutation ISQLG(93-97)ASQAA (abbreviated 93-97) accelerates eIF1 dissociation and P(i) release from reconstituted preinitiation complexes (PICs), whereas a hyperaccuracy mutation in eIF1A (that suppresses Sui(-) mutations) decreases the eIF1 off-rate. These findings demonstrate that eIF1 dissociation is a critical step in start codon selection, which is modulated by eIF1A. We also describe Gcd(-) mutations in eIF1 that impair TC loading on 40S subunits or destabilize the multifactor complex containing eIF1, eIF3, eIF5, and TC, showing that eIF1 promotes PIC assembly in vivo beyond its important functions in AUG selection.