Complete thermodynamic characterization of the multiple protonation equilibria of the aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin: a calorimetric and natural abundance 15N NMR study.
ABSTRACT: The binding of aminoglycoside antibiotics to a broad range of macromolecular targets is coupled to protonation of one or more of the amino groups that typify this class of drugs. Determining how and to what extent this linkage influences the energetics of the aminoglycoside-macromolecule binding reaction requires a detailed understanding of the thermodynamics associated with the protonation equilibria of the aminoglycoside amino groups. In recognition of this need, a calorimetric- and NMR-based approach for obtaining the requisite thermodynamic information is presented using paromomycin as the model aminoglycoside. Temperature- and pH-dependent 15N NMR studies provide pK(a) values for the five paromomycin amino groups, as well as the temperature dependence of these pK(a) values. These studies also indicate that the observed pK(a) values associated with the free base form of paromomycin are lower in magnitude than the corresponding values associated with the sulfate salt form of the drug. This difference in pK(a) is due to drug interactions with the sulfate counterions at the high drug concentrations (> or = 812 mM) used in the 15N NMR studies. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies conducted at drug concentrations < or = 45 microM reveal that the extent of paromomycin protonation linked to the binding of the drug to its pharmacologically relevant target, the 16 S rRNA A-site, is consistent with the pK(a) values of the free base and not the sulfate salt form of the drug. Temperature- and pH-dependent isothermal titration calorimetry studies yield exothermic enthalpy changes (deltaH) for protonation of the five paromomycin amino groups, as well as positive heat capacity changes (deltaC(p)) for three of the five amino groups. Regarded as a whole, the results presented here represent an important first step toward establishing a thermodynamic database that can be used to predict how aminoglycoside-macromolecule binding energetics will be influenced by conditions such as temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Such a predictive capability is a critical component of any drug design strategy.
Project description:A synthetic riboswitch N1, inserted into the 5'-untranslated mRNA region of yeast, regulates gene expression upon binding ribostamycin and neomycin. Interestingly, a similar aminoglycoside, paromomycin, differing from neomycin by only one substituent (amino versus hydroxyl), also binds to the N1 riboswitch, but without affecting gene expression, despite NMR evidence that the N1 riboswitch binds all aminoglycosides in a similar way. Here, to explore the details of structural dynamics of the aminoglycoside-N1 riboswitch complexes, we applied all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) and temperature replica-exchange MD simulations in explicit solvent. Indeed, we found that ribostamycin and neomycin affect riboswitch dynamics similarly but paromomycin allows for more flexibility because its complex lacks the contact between the distinctive 6' hydroxyl group and the G9 phosphate. Instead, a transient hydrogen bond of 6'-OH with A17 is formed, which partially diminishes interactions between the bulge and apical loop of the riboswitch, likely contributing to riboswitch inactivity. In many ways, the paromomycin complex mimics the conformations, interactions, and Na+ distribution of the free riboswitch. The MD-derived interaction network helps understand why riboswitch activity depends on aminoglycoside type, whereas for another aminoglycoside-binding site, aminoacyl-tRNA site in 16S rRNA, activity is not discriminatory.
Project description:The bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit is a primary antibiotic target. Despite decades of discovery, the mechanisms by which antibiotic binding induces ribosomal dysfunction are not fully understood. Ambient temperature crystallographic techniques allow more biologically relevant investigation of how local antibiotic binding site interactions trigger global subunit rearrangements that perturb protein synthesis. Here, the structural effects of 2-deoxystreptamine (paromomycin and sisomicin), a novel sisomicin derivative, N1-methyl sulfonyl sisomicin (N1MS) and the non-deoxystreptamine (streptomycin) aminoglycosides on the ribosome at ambient and cryogenic temperatures were examined. Comparative studies led to three main observations. First, individual aminoglycoside-ribosome interactions in the decoding center were similar for cryogenic versus ambient temperature structures. Second, analysis of a highly conserved GGAA tetraloop of h45 revealed aminoglycoside-specific conformational changes, which are affected by temperature only for N1MS. We report the h44-h45 interface in varying states, i.e. engaged, disengaged and in equilibrium. Third, we observe aminoglycoside-induced effects on 30S domain closure, including a novel intermediary closure state, which is also sensitive to temperature. Analysis of three ambient and five cryogenic crystallography datasets reveal a correlation between h44-h45 engagement and domain closure. These observations illustrate the role of ambient temperature crystallography in identifying dynamic mechanisms of ribosomal dysfunction induced by local drug-binding site interactions. Together, these data identify tertiary ribosomal structural changes induced by aminoglycoside binding that provides functional insight and targets for drug design.
Project description:The Rv2416c gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) protein that enhances intracellular survival of the pathogen in host macrophages during infection. The Mtb Eis protein is released into the cytoplasm of the phagocyte during intracellular infection and modulates the host immune response. It also contributes to drug resistance by acetylating multiple amine groups of aminoglycosides. Interestingly, the nonpathogenic M. smegmatis (Msm) contains a homologous eis gene (MSMEG_3513). The overall structures of Mtb Eis and Msm Eis are highly similar to each other, reflecting the high level (58%) of amino-acid sequence identity between them. Both Mtb Eis and Msm Eis are active as aminoglycoside acetyltransferases, while only Mtb Eis functions as an N(ℇ)-acetyltransferase to acetylate Lys55 of dual-specificity protein phosphatase 16 (DUSP16)/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 7 (MKP-7), leading to the suppression of host immune responses. Here, the crystal structure of Msm Eis in the paromomycin-bound form is reported, revealing detailed interactions between an aminoglycoside antibiotic and Msm Eis. The crystal structure of Msm Eis in the paromomycin-bound form has been determined at 3.3 Å resolution. This work provides potentially useful information for structure-guided discovery of Eis inhibitors as a novel antituberculosis drug against drug-resistant Mtb.
Project description:Calorimetric and fluorescence techniques were used to characterize the binding of aminoglycosides-neomycin, paromomycin, and ribostamycin, with 5'-dA(12)-x-dT(12)-x-dT(12)-3' intramolecular DNA triplex (x = hexaethylene glycol) and poly(dA).2poly(dT) triplex. Our results demonstrate the following features: (1) UV thermal analysis reveals that the T(m) for triplex decreases with increasing pH value in the presence of neomycin, while the T(m) for the duplex remains unchanged. (2) The binding affinity of neomycin decreases with increased pH, although there is an increase in observed binding enthalpy. (3) ITC studies conducted in two buffers (sodium cacodylate and MOPS) yield the number of protonated drug amino groups (Deltan) as 0.29 and 0.40 for neomycin and paromomycin interaction with 5'-dA(12)-x-dT(12)-x-dT(12)-3', respectively. (4) The specific heat capacity change (DeltaC(p)) determined by ITC studies is negative, with more negative values at lower salt concentrations. From 100 mM to 250 mM KCl, the DeltaC(p) ranges from -402 to -60 cal/(mol K) for neomycin. At pH 5.5, a more positive DeltaC(p) is observed, with a value of -98 cal/(mol K) at 100 mM KCl. DeltaC(p) is not significantly affected by ionic strength. (5) Salt dependence studies reveal that there are at least three amino groups of neomycin participating in the electrostatic interactions with the triplex. (6) FID studies using thiazole orange were used to derive the AC(50) (aminoglycoside concentration needed to displace 50% of the dye from the triplex) values. Neomycin shows a seven fold higher affinity than paromomycin and eleven fold higher affinity than ribostamycin at pH 6.8. (7) Modeling studies, consistent with UV and ITC results, show the importance of an additional positive charge in triplex recognition by neomycin. The modeling and thermodynamic studies indicate that neomycin binding to the DNA triplex depends upon significant contributions from charge as well as shape complementarity of the drug to the DNA triplex Watson-Hoogsteen groove.
Project description:Cryptosporidium parvum, which causes intractable diarrhea and lethal wasting in people with AIDS, occupies an unusual intracellular but extracytoplasmic niche. No reliable therapy for cryptosporidiosis exists, though the aminoglycoside paromomycin is somewhat effective. We report that paromomycin and the related compound geneticin manifest their major in vitro anti-C. parvum activity against intracellular parasites via a mechanism that does not require drug trafficking through the host cell cytoplasm. We used both normal and transformed aminoglycoside-resistant Caco-2 or MDBK cells in these studies. Timed-exposure experiments demonstrated that these drugs inhibit intracellular but not extracellular parasites. Apical but not basolateral exposure of infected cells to these drugs led to very significant parasite inhibition, indicating an apical topological restriction of action. We estimated intracytoplasmic concentrations of paromomycin, using an intracellular bacterial killing assay, and found that C. parvum infection did not lead to increased paromomycin concentrations compared to those in uninfected cells. Global [3H]paromomycin uptake by Caco-2 cells was approximately 200-fold higher than the estimated intracytoplasmic paromomycin concentration, suggestive of host cell vesicular uptake and concentration (as has been reported with other cell lines). However, preinfection exposure of Caco-2 cells to paromomycin did not result in subsequent inhibition of parasite development, indicating that if exogenous paromomycin enters the infected host cell vesicular compartment, it does not effectively communicate with the parasite. Thus, the apical membranes overlying the parasite and parasitophorous vacuole may be the unsuspected major route of entry for paromomycin and may be of importance in the design and discovery of novel drug therapies for the otherwise untreatable C. parvum.
Project description:Several N-alkyl and N,N-dialkylaminomethanesulfonic acids were synthesized (as zwitterions and/or sodium salts) to be tested for utility as biological buffers at lower pH levels than existing Good buffer compounds (aminoalkanesulfonates with a minimum of two carbons between amine and sulfonic acid groups as originally described by Norman Good, and in common use as biological buffers). Our hypothesis was that a shorter carbon chain (one carbon) between the amino and sulfonic acid groups should lower the ammonium ion pK(a) values. The alkylaminomethanesulfonate compounds were synthesized in aqueous solution by reaction of primary or secondary amines with formaldehyde/sodium hydrogensulfite addition compound. The pK(a) values of the ammonium ions of this series of compounds (compared to existing Good buffers) was found to correlate well with the length of the carbon chain between the amino and sulfonate moeties, with a significant decrease in amine basicity in the aminomethanesulfonate compounds (pK(a) decrease of 2 units or more compared to existing Good buffers). An exception was found for the 2-hydroxypiperazine series which shows only a small pK(a) decrease, probably due to the site of protonation in this compound (as confirmed by X-ray crystal structure). X-ray crystallographic structures of two members of the series are reported. Several of these compounds have pK(a) values that would indicate potential utility for buffering at pH levels below the normal physiological range (pK(a) values in the range of 3 to 6 without aqueous solubility problems) - a range that is problematic for currently available Good buffers. Unfortunately, the alkylaminomethanesulfonates were found to degrade (with loss of their buffering ability) at pH levels below the pK(a) value and were unstable at elevated temperature (as when autoclaving) - thus limiting their utility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Response surface methodology (RSM) employing Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the environmental factors for the production of paromomycin, a 2 deoxystreptamine aminocyclitol aminoglycoside antibiotic, (2DOS-ACAGA) from Streptomyces (S.) rimosus NRRL 2455. Emergence of bacterial resistance caught our attention to consider the combination of antimicrobial agents. The effect of paromomycin combination with other antimicrobial agents was tested on some multiple drug resistant isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on optimization of paromomycin production from S. rimosus NRRL 2455. A Quadratic model and response surface method were used by choosing three model factors; pH, incubation time and inoculum size. A total of 17 experiments were done and the response of each experiment was recorded. Concerning the effect of combining paromomycin with different antimicrobial agents, it was tested using the checkerboard assay against six multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens including; Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa (2 isolates), Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae, Escherichia (E.) coli, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Paromomycin was tested in combination with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, azithromycin, clindamycin and doxycycline. RESULTS:The optimum conditions for paromomycin production were a pH of 6, an incubation time of 8.5?days and an inoculum size of 5.5% v/v using the optimized media (soybean meal 30?g/L, NH4CL 4?g/L, CaCO3 5?g/L and glycerol 40?ml/L), 28?°C incubation temperature, and 200?rpm agitation rate that resulted in 14 fold increase in paromomycin production as compared to preliminary fermentation level using the basal medium. The tested antibiotic combinations showed either synergistic effect on paromomycin activity on most of the tested MDR pathogens (45.83%), additive effect in 41.67% or indifferent effect in 12.5%. CONCLUSION:RSM using multifactorial design was a helpful and a reliable method for paromomycin production. Paromomycin combination with ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, azithromycin, clindamycin or doxycycline showed mostly synergistic effect on certain selected clinically important MDR pathogens.
Project description:The preparation of a series of four analogues of the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin and paromomycin is described in which ring I, involved in critical binding interactions with the ribosomal target, is replaced by an apramycin-like dioxabicyclo[4.4.0]octane system. The effect of this modification is to lock the hydroxymethyl side chain of the neomycin or paromomycin ring I, as part of the dioxabicyclooctane ring, into either the gauche-gauche or the gauche-trans conformation (respectively, axial or equatorial to the bicyclic system). The antiribosomal activity of these compounds is investigated with cell-free translation assays using both bacterial ribosomes and recombinant hybrid ribosomes carrying eukaryotic decoding A site cassettes. Compounds substituted with an equatorial hydroxyl or amino group in the newly formed ring are considerably more active than their axial diastereomers, lending strong support to crystallographically derived models of aminoglycoside-ribosome interactions. One such bicyclic compound carrying an equatorial hydroxyl group has activity equal to that of the parent yet displays better ribosomal selectivity, predictive of an enhanced therapeutic index. A paromomycin analog lacking the hydroxymethyl ring I side chain is considerably less active than the parent. Antibacterial activity against model Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria is reported for selected compounds, as is activity against ESKAPE pathogens and recombinant bacteria carrying specific resistance determinants. Analogues with a bicyclic ring I carrying equatorial amino or hydroxyl groups mimicking the bound side chains of neomycin and paromomycin, respectively, show excellent activity and, by virtue of their novel structure, retain this activity in strains that are insensitive to the parent compounds.
Project description:Paromomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic approved in 2006 for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in Southeast Asia. Although this drug is not approved for the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, it is urgent and necessary to evaluate the potential of this drug as alternative for the treatment against species responsible for these clinical forms of the disease. In Brazil, Leishmania amazonensis is responsible for cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The diffuse cutaneous form of the disease is difficult to treat and frequent relapses are reported, mainly when the treatment is interrupted. Here, we evaluated paromomycin susceptibility in vitro of a L. amazonensis clinical isolate from a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the reference strain L. amazonensis M2269, as well as its in vivo efficacy in a murine experimental model. Although never exposed to paromomycin, a significant differential susceptibility between these two lines was found. Paromomycin was highly active in vitro against the clinical isolate in both forms of the parasite, while its activity against the reference strain was less active. In vivo studies in mice infected with each one of these lines demonstrated that paromomycin reduces lesion size and parasite burden and a direct correlation between the susceptibility in vitro and the effectiveness of this drug in vivo was found. Our findings indicate that paromomycin efficacy in vivo is dependent on intrinsic susceptibility of the parasite. Beyond that, this study contributes for the evaluation of the potential use of paromomycin in chemotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil caused by L. amazonensis.
Project description:A successful approach to deliver paromomycin, a poorly absorbed aminoglycoside antibiotic, to parasite cells is reported, based on selective protection of amino and hydroxyl groups followed by conjugation to a fluorolabeled, PEG-functionalized cell-penetrating Tat(48-60) peptide. The resulting construct is efficiently internalized into Leishmania cells, evidencing the fitness of cell-penetrating peptides as vectors for efficiently transporting low-bioavailability drugs into cells.