Proteomic evaluation of neonatal exposure to 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether.
ABSTRACT: Exposure to the brominated flame retardant 2,2 ,4,4 ,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) during the brain growth spurt disrupts normal brain development in mice and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior in adulthood. The neurodevelopmental toxicity of PBDE-99 has been reported to affect the cholinergic and catecholaminergic systems. In this study we use a proteomics approach to study the early effect of PBDE-99 in two distinct regions of the neonatal mouse brain, the striatum and the hippocampus. A single oral dose of PBDE-99 (12 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle was administered to male NMRI mice on neonatal day 10, and the striatum and the hippocampus were isolated. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), we found 40 and 56 protein spots with significantly (p < 0.01) altered levels in the striatum and the hippocampus, respectively. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) to determine the protein identity of 11 spots from the striatum and 10 from the hippocampus. We found that the levels of proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroplasticity (e.g., Gap-43/neuromodulin, stathmin) were typically altered in the striatum, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy production [e.g., alpha-enolase; gamma-enolase; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta subunit (Atp5b); and alpha-synuclein] were typically altered in the hippocampus. Interestingly, many of the identified proteins have been linked to protein kinase C signaling. In conclusion, we identify responses to early exposure to PBDE-99 that could contribute to persistent neurotoxic effects. This study also shows the usefulness of proteomics to identify potential biomarkers of developmental neurotoxicity of organohalogen compounds.
Project description:Organohalogen compounds are some of the most notorious persistent pollutants disturbing the Earth biosphere. Although human-made, these chemicals are not completely alien to living systems. A large number of natural organohalogens, part of the secondary metabolism, are involved in chemical trophic interactions. Surprisingly, the relationship between organisms' trophic position and synthetic organohalogen biotransformation capability has not been investigated. We studied the case for polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), a group of flame-retardants of widespread use in the recent years, in aquatic food webs from remote mountain lakes. These relatively simple ecosystems only receive pollution by atmospheric transport. A large predominance of the PBDE congener currently in use in Europe, BDE-209, largely dominated the PBDE composition of the basal resources of the food web. In contrast, primary consumers (herbivores and detritivores) showed a low proportion of BDE-209, and dominance of several less brominated congeners (e.g. BDE-100, BDE47). Secondary consumers (predators) showed large biomagnification of BDE-209 compare to other congeners. Finally, top predator fish characterized by low total PBDE concentrations. Examination of the bromine stable isotopic composition indicates that primary consumers showed higher PBDE biotransformation capability than secondary consumers. We suggest that the evolutionary response of primary consumers to feeding deterrents would have pre-adapted them for PBDE biotransformation. The observed few exceptions, some insect taxa, can be interpreted in the light of the trophic history of the evolutionary lineage of the organisms. Bromine isotopic composition in fish indicates that low PBDE values are due to not only biotransformation but also to some other process likely related to transport. Our finding illustrates that organohalogen compounds may strongly disturb ecosystems even at low concentrations, since the species lacking or having scarce biotransformation capability may be selectively more exposed to these halogenated hydrophobic semi-volatile organic pollutants due to their high bioaccumulation potential.
Project description:The gut microbiome is a novel frontier in xenobiotic metabolism. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially BDE-47 (2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) and BDE-99 (2, 2', 4, 4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether), are among the most abundant and persistent environmental contaminants that produce a variety of toxicities. Little is known about how the gut microbiome affects the hepatic metabolism of PBDEs and the PBDE-mediated regulation of drug-processing genes (DPGs) in vivo. The goal of this study was to determine the role of gut microbiome in modulating the hepatic biotransformation of PBDEs. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J conventional (CV) or germ-free (GF) mice were treated with vehicle, BDE-47 or BDE-99 (100 ?mol/kg) for 4 days. Following BDE-47 treatment, GF mice had higher levels of 5-OH-BDE-47 but lower levels of four other metabolites in liver than CV mice; whereas following BDE-99 treatment GF mice had lower levels of four minor metabolites in liver than CV mice. RNA sequencing demonstrated that the hepatic expression of DPGs was regulated by both PBDEs and enterotypes. Under basal conditions, the lack of gut microbiome upregulated the Cyp2c subfamily but downregulated the Cyp3a subfamily. Following PBDE exposure, certain DPGs were differentially regulated by PBDEs in a gut microbiome-dependent manner. Interestingly, the lack of gut microbiome augmented PBDE-mediated upregulation of many DPGs, such as Cyp1a2 and Cyp3a11 in mouse liver, which was further confirmed by targeted metabolomics. The lack of gut microbiome also augmented the Cyp3a enzyme activity in liver. In conclusion, our study has unveiled a novel interaction between gut microbiome and the hepatic biotransformation of PBDEs.
Project description:Human exposure to pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture (DE-71) and its PBDE-47 congener can occur both in utero and during lactation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PBDE-induced neonatal hepatic transcriptomic alterations in Wistar Han rat pups can inform on potential toxicity and carcinogenicity after longer term PBDE exposures. Wistar Han rat dams were exposed to either DE-71 or PBDE-47 daily from gestation day (GD 6) through postnatal day 4 (PND 4). Total plasma thyroxine (T4) was decreased in PND 4 pups. In liver, transcripts for CYPs and conjugation enzymes, Nrf2, and ABC transporters were upregulated. In general, the hepatic transcriptomic alterations after exposure to DE-71 or PBDE-47 were similar and provided early indicators of oxidative stress and metabolic alterations, key characteristics of toxicity processes. The transcriptional benchmark dose lower confidence limits of the most sensitive biological processes were lower for PBDE-47 than for the PBDE mixture. Neonatal rat liver transcriptomic data provide early indicators on molecular pathway alterations that may lead to toxicity and/or carcinogenicity if the exposures continue for longer durations. These early toxicogenomic indicators may be used to help prioritize chemicals for a more complete toxicity and cancer risk evaluation.
Project description:Pentabromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE) are found in human tissue, in household dust, and in the environment, and a particular concern is the potential for the induction of cancer pathways from these fat-soluble persistent organic pollutants. Only one PBDE cancer study has been conducted and that was for a PBDE mixture (DE-71). Because it is not feasible to test all PBDE congeners in the environment for cancer potential, it is important to develop a set of biological endpoints that can be used in short-term toxicity studies to predict disease outcome after long-term exposures. In this study, PBDE-47 was selected as the test PBDE congener to evaluate and compare toxicity to that of the carcinogenic PBDE mixture. The toxicities of PBDE-47 and the PBDE mixture were evaluated at PND 22 in Wistar Han rat (Crl: WI (Han)) pups after in utero/postnatal exposure (0, 0.1, 15, or 50 mg/kg; dams, GD6-21; pups, PND 12-PND 21; oral gavage daily dosing). By PND 22, PBDE-47 caused centrilobular hypertrophy and fatty change in liver, and reduced serum thyroxin (T4) levels; similar effects were also observed after PBDE mixture exposure. Transcriptomic changes in the liver included induction of cytochrome p450 transcripts and up-regulation of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway transcripts and ABC membrane transport transcripts. Decreases in other transport transcripts (ABCG5 & 8) provided a plausible mechanism for lipid accumulation, characterized by a treatment-related liver fatty change after PBDE-47 and PBDE mixture exposure. The benchmark dose calculation based on liver transcriptomic data was generally lower for PBDE-47 than for the PBDE mixture. The up-regulation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and changes in metabolic transcripts after PBDE-47 and PBDE mixture exposure suggest that PBDE-47, like the PBDE mixture (NTP 2016, TR 589), could be a liver toxin/carcinogen after long-term exposure.
Project description:Test articles used: DE-71 (Pentabromodiphenyl Ether Mixture [Technical Grade), CAS Number 32534-81-9, DTXSID2024246); PBDE-47 (CAS Number 5436-43-1); PB (Phenobarbital, CAS Number 50-06-6 ); PCB (PCB126, CAS Number 57465-28-8) Overall design: PBDE-47 and the PBDE mixture were evaluated at PND 22 in Wistar Han rat (Crl: WI (Han)) pups after in utero/postnatal exposure (0, 0.1, 15, or 50 mg/kg; dams, GD6-21; pups, PND 12-PND 21; oral gavage daily dosing) contributor: National Toxicology Program
Project description:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and on a global basis, North American populations are exposed to the highest doses of PBDEs. In response to the exponential increase in human exposure to PBDEs during the late 1990s, some PBDE formulations were phased out from production in the early 2000s. The effectiveness of the phase-out of commercial penta-BDE and octa-BDE mixtures in 2004 in the U.S. on human exposure levels is not known. Dried blood spots (DBSs), collected for the newborn screening program (NSP) in the U.S., are a valuable resource for the elucidation of trends in exposure to environmental pollutants in newborns. In this study, seven PBDE congeners were determined by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) in archived DBS samples (in total, 51 blood spot composites from 1224 newborns) collected from newborns in New York State (NYS) from 1997 to 2011. The most frequently detected PBDE congener was BDE-47, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%, followed by BDE-99 (DR: 45%) and BDE-100 (DR: 43%). The mean concentrations determined during 1997 through 2011 in the whole blood of newborns were 0.128, 0.040, and 0.012 ng/mL for BDE-47, -99, and -100, respectively. A significant correlation was found among the concentrations of three major congeners (p < 0.001). PBDE concentrations were similar during 1997 through 2002 and, thereafter, decreased significantly, which was similar to the trends observed for perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in DBS samples. Occurrence of PBDEs in the whole blood of newborns confirms that these compounds do cross the placental barrier.
Project description:Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal midpregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring ASD outcome. We report the first large-scale maternal and fetal genetic study of the midpregnancy serum levels of a set of 21 organohalogens in a subset of 790 genotyped women and 764 children collected in California by the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Project. Levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether) congeners showed high maternal and fetal estimated SNP-based heritability (h2g ) accounting for 39-99% of the total variance. Genome-wide association analyses identified significant maternal loci for p,p'-DDE (P = 7.8 × 10-11) in the CYP2B6 gene and for BDE-28 (P = 3.2 × 10-8) near the SH3GL2 gene, both involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. Fetal genetic loci contributed to the levels of BDE-100 (P = 4.6 × 10-8) and PCB187 (P = 2.8 × 10-8), near the potential metabolic genes LOXHD1 and PTPRD, previously implicated in neurodevelopment. Negative associations were observed for BDE-100, BDE153, and the sum of PBDEs with ASD, partly explained by genome-wide additive genetic effects that predicted PBDE levels. Our results support genetic control of midgestational biomarkers for environmental exposures by nonoverlapping maternal and fetal genetic determinants, suggesting that future studies of environmental risk factors should take genetic variation into consideration. The independent influence of fetal genetics supports previous hypotheses that fetal genotypes expressed in placenta can influence maternal physiology and the transplacental transfer of organohalogens.
Project description:A substantial body of evidence has correlated the human body burdens of some polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants with cognitive and other behavioral deficits. Adult zebrafish exhibit testable learning and memory, making them an increasingly attractive model for neurotoxicology. Our goal was to develop a rapid throughput means of identifying the cognitive impact of developmental exposure to flame retardants in the zebrafish model. We exposed embryos from 6h post fertilization to 5 days post fertilization to either PBDE 47 (0.1?M), PBDE 99 (0.1?M) or PBDE 153 (0.1?M), vehicle (0.1% DMSO), or embryo medium (EM). The larvae were grown to adulthood and evaluated for the rate at which they learned an active-avoidance response in an automated shuttle box array. Zebrafish developmentally exposed to PBDE 47 learned the active avoidance paradigm significantly faster than the 0.1% DMSO control fish (P<0.0001), but exhibited significantly poorer performance when retested suggestive of impaired memory retention or altered neuromotor activity. Learning in the PBDE 153 group was not significantly different from the DMSO group. Developmental exposure to 0.1% DMSO impaired adult active avoidance learning relative to the sham group (n=39; P<0.0001). PBDE 99 prevented the DMSO effect, yielding a learning rate not significantly different from the sham group (n=36; P>0.9). Our results underscore the importance of vehicle choice in accurately assessing chemical effects on behavior. Active avoidance response in zebrafish is an effective model of learning that, combined with automated shuttle box testing, will provide a highly efficient platform for evaluating persistent neurotoxic hazard from many chemicals.
Project description:Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to separate protein samples solubilized from the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus of alcohol-naïve, adult, male inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (iNP) rats. Several protein spots were excised from the gel, destained, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. In the hippocampus, 1629 protein spots were matched to the reference pattern, and in the nucleus accumbens, 1390 protein spots were matched. Approximately 70 proteins were identified in both regions. In the hippocampus, only 8 of the 1629 matched protein spots differed in abundance between the iP and iNP rats. In the nucleus accumbens, 32 of the 1390 matched protein spots differed in abundance between the iP and iNP rats. In the hippocampus, the abundances of all 8 proteins were higher in the iNP than iP rat. In the nucleus accumbens, the abundances of 31 of 32 proteins were higher in the iNP than iP rat. In the hippocampus, only 2 of the 8 proteins that differed could be identified, whereas in the nucleus accumbens 21 of the 32 proteins that differed were identified. Higher abundances of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 and a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (both of which are involved in cellular signaling pathways) were found in both regions of the iNP than iP rat. In the nucleus accumbens, additional differences in the abundances of proteins involved in (i) metabolism (e.g., calpain, parkin, glucokinase, apolipoprotein E, sorbitol dehydrogenase), (ii) cyto-skeletal and intracellular protein transport (e.g., beta-actin), (iii) molecular chaperoning (e.g., grp 78, hsc70, hsc 60, grp75, prohibitin), (iv) cellular signaling pathways (e.g., protein kinase C-binding protein), (v) synaptic function (e.g., complexin I, gamma-enolase, syndapin IIbb), (vi) reduction of oxidative stress (thioredoxin peroxidase), and (vii) growth and differentiation (hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide) were found. The results of this study indicate that selective breeding for disparate alcohol drinking behaviors produced innate alterations in the expression of several proteins that could influence neuronal function within the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus.
Project description:Serum concentrations of PBDEs were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 80 children aged 15-71 months. Demographic and behavioral data were collected on parental questionnaires; a research nurse recorded anthropometric measures and insurance status. For a subset of children (n = 17), PBDEs were measured in house dust and child handwipes sampled during a home visit. In linear and Tobit regression, log-transformed PBDE congeners were modeled as a function of child characteristics, including neighborhood-level socioeconomic indicators. BDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were highly correlated and summed for analysis; BDE-153 was examined individually. PBDE serum concentrations were associated with socioeconomic factors; for example, a $20,000 increase in median household income in a child's ZIP code was associated with a 34% decrease (95%CI = 14-49%) in BDE-153 and a 26% decrease (95%CI = 6-42%) in ?BDE-47,-99,-100. Lower body-mass index (BMI) z-score and household smoking were strong predictors of higher BDE-153 levels. Among children who participated in a home visit, serum PBDE was positively correlated with handwipe PBDE (Spearman r ?BDE-47, -99, -100 = 0.48, p = 0.09), but not dust PBDE. Results indicate socioeconomic factors and BMI are strong predictors of serum PBDE levels among young children. PBDEs measured on handwipes are more predictive of serum PBDE levels than vacuum-collected dust.