On the effects of cycloheximide on cell motility and polarisation in Dictyostelium discoideum.
ABSTRACT: Cycloheximide is a protein synthesis inhibitor that acts specifically on the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It has previously been shown that a short incubation of Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae in cycloheximide eliminates fluid phase endocytosis.We found that treatment with cycloheximide also causes the amoebae to retract their pseudopodia, round up and cease movement. Furthermore, fluid phase endocytosis, phagocytosis and capping cease in the presence of 2 mM cycloheximide, although membrane uptake, as measured using FM1-43, is unaffected. In the presence of cycloheximide, aggregation-competent amoebae sensitive to cAMP, although round, can still localise CRAC, ABP120, PI3K and actin polymerisation in response to a micropipette filled with cAMP. The behaviour of wild-type amoebae in the presence of cycloheximide is surprisingly similar to that of amoebae having a temperature-sensitive version of NSF at the restrictive temperature.Our results may suggest that, upon cycloheximide treatment, either a labile protein required for polarised membrane recycling is lost, or a control mechanism linking protein synthesis to membrane recycling is activated.
Project description:This study examines the relationship between insulin-stimulated glucose transport and insulin-induced translocation of glucose transporters in isolated rat adipocytes. Adipose cells were incubated with or without cycloheximide, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis, for 60 min and then for an additional 30 min with or without insulin. After the incubation we measured 3-O-methylglucose transport in the adipose cells, and subcellular membrane fractions were prepared. The numbers of glucose transporters in the various membrane fractions were determined by the cytochalasin B binding assay. Basal and insulin-stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptakes were not affected by cycloheximide. Furthermore, cycloheximide affected neither Vmax. nor Km of insulin-stimulated 3-O-methylglucose transport. In contrast, the number of glucose transporters in plasma membranes derived from cells preincubated with cycloheximide and insulin was markedly decreased compared with those from cells incubated with insulin alone (10.5 +/- 0.8 and 22.2 +/- 1.8 pmol/mg of protein respectively; P less than 0.005). The number of glucose transporters in cells incubated with cycloheximide alone was not significantly different compared with control cells. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis of [3H]cytochalasin-B-photolabelled plasma-membrane fractions revealed that cycloheximide decreases the amount of labelled glucose transporters in insulin-stimulated membranes. However, the apparent molecular mass of the protein was not changed by cycloheximide treatment. The effect of cycloheximide on the two-dimensional electrophoretic profile of the glucose transporter in insulin-stimulated low-density microsomal membranes revealed a decrease in the pI-6.4 glucose-transporter isoform, whereas the insulin-translocatable isoform (pI 5.6) was decreased. Thus the observed discrepancy between insulin-stimulated glucose transport and insulin-induced translocation of glucose transporters strongly suggests that a still unknown protein-synthesis-dependent mechanism is involved in insulin activation of glucose transport.
Project description:Mouse MA-10 Leydig tumor cells synthesize and secrete progesterone in response to human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone, and cAMP but may not synthesize androgens. Maximal doses of human chorionic gonadotropin, ovine luteinizing hormone, forskolin, or 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, stimulated cytochrome P450scc mRNA accumulation 1.5- to 3-fold and progesterone secretion 10- to 100-fold in MA-10 cells. P450scc mRNA increased by 2 hr and was maximal by 8 hr; polymerase run-on experiments showed this was due to increased P450scc gene transcription. MA-10 cells are a hormonally homogeneous population, as all cells expressed P450scc mRNA and responded to cAMP equally. cAMP-stimulated accumulation of P450scc mRNA continued in the presence of cycloheximide. Gonadotropins stimulated testicular steroidogenesis by coordinate cAMP-induced increases in P450scc gene transcription, mRNA accumulation, and P450scc activity. We cloned rat P450c17 cDNA and showed it detected no P450c17 mRNA in control or cAMP-stimulated MA-10 cells by RNA transfer blots or RNase protection assays. Similarly, HPLC detected no 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone or testosterone synthesis in MA-10 cells. Thus MA-10 cells, unlike untransformed Leydig cells, do not express detectable amounts of P450c17 mRNA or P450c17 activity.
Project description:1. As shown by a double-radioisotope technique in vivo, at a non-lethal dose of cycloheximide, a stimulation of nuclear RNA synthesis occurred by 12 h after the treatment; the stimulation lasted over 48 h. Analysis of radioactive nuclear RNA by gel electrophoresis demonstrated that most of the cycloheximide-stimulated synthesis could be accounted for by known rRNA precursors (45 S, 41 S, 32 S and 28 S). 2. During the inhibitory phase of protein synthesis, 2 h after cycloheximide treatment, synthesis of the poly(A)-containing mRNA isolated from the cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes with an oligo(dT)-cellulose column was stimulated, whereas the synthesis of rRNA was slightly inhibited. However, during the stimulatory phase of protein synthesis, 24 h after cycloheximide treatment, the syntheses of both poly(A)-containing mRNA and rRNA were enhanced. 3. Kinetic studies revealed that the newly synthesized RNA species were transported from the nuclei, integrated into the ribonucleoprotein complexes, and associated with both free and membrane-bound polyribosomes. 4. These data corroborate our proposal that the stimulated protein synthesis after cycloheximide administration involves gene transcription.
Project description:Ribosomes, after one round of translation, must be recycled so that the next round of translation can occur. Complete disassembly of post-termination ribosomal complex (PoTC) in yeast for the recycling consists of three reactions: release of tRNA, release of mRNA and splitting of ribosomes, catalyzed by eukaryotic elongation factor 3 (eEF3) and ATP. Here, we show that translocation inhibitors cycloheximide and lactimidomycin inhibited all three reactions. Cycloheximide is a non-competitive inhibitor of both eEF3 and ATP. The inhibition was observed regardless of the way PoTC was prepared with either release factors or puromycin. Paromomycin not only inhibited all three reactions but also re-associated yeast ribosomal subunits. On the other hand, sordarin or fusidic acid, when applied together with eEF2/GTP, specifically inhibited ribosome splitting without blocking of tRNA/mRNA release. From these inhibitor studies, we propose that, in accordance with eEF3's known function in elongation, the release of tRNA via exit site occurs first, then mRNA is released, followed by the splitting of ribosomes during the disassembly of post-termination complexes catalyzed by eEF3 and ATP.
Project description:Fibrinogen synthesis in the intact rat was perturbed by treatment with cycloheximide. Specific radioactivities of fibrinogen in plasma and liver both decreased at 2 h after treatment and increased over 2-fold by 18 h. Labelled-antibody--polyribosome binding experiments showed that more polyribosomes were engaged in fibrinogen synthesis at 18 h after treatment. Radioactivity of plasma fibrinogen chains from untreated control rats showed a constant ratio of A alpha--B beta/gamma = 1.03. At 2 h after cycloheximide treatment the A alpha- and B beta-chains showed the greatest decrease in labelling (A alpha--B beta/gamma = 0.66) and at 18 h all chains were much more labelled (the A alpha--B beta/gamma ratio chainged to 1.39). The observed imbalance in fibrinogen-chain synthesis suggests that cycloheximide has a selective effect on gene expression.
Project description:1. The liver ribosomes of rats given cycloheximide by intraperitoneal injection incorporate less amino acid into protein than ribosomes from control rat liver when they are incubated in vitro with excess of Sephadex-treated cell sap. The effect is rapid, marked and persistent. 2. Cell sap from liver of cycloheximide-treated animals is inhibitory but the inhibition can be relieved almost entirely by treating the cell sap with Sephadex. No damage has been done to the cell-sap factors: it is suggested that the dissolved cycloheximide in the cell sap causes the inhibition. 3. Cycloheximide added in vitro inhibits amino acid incorporation into protein in the presence or absence of polyuridylic acid. The inhibition is lessened by addition of excess of cell sap but is not abolished. 4. The differences between these results and those obtained with mouse liver (Trakatellis, Montjar & Axelrod, 1965) might arise because of species differences in sensitivity to the drug.
Project description:1. Cycloheximide inhibited immediately the incorporation of L-[4,5-3H]leucine and D-]2-3H]mannose into mammary proteins, suggesting that the mannosylation of mammary glycoproteins requires the continued supply of newly synthesized polypeptides. 2. The incorporation of radioactivity from N-acetyl-D-[1-14C] glucosamine into protein was not inhibited until approx. 30 min after cycloheximide addition. Much (greater than 90%) of this radioactivity was present as N-acetylgalactosamine. 3. N-Glycosylation appears to be inhibited immediately by cycloheximide due to a lack of newly synthesized acceptor polypeptides, whereas O-glycosylation continues for 30 min, the time taken for acceptor peptides to move from their site of synthesis to the Golgi region and for completion of glycosylation. 4. There was a transient increase in the incorporation of mannose into lipid-linked oligosaccharide in the presence of cycloheximide, followed by a decrease in the radioactivity in this fraction. 5. The major lipid-linked oligosaccharide extracted from explants incubated for 2h in the presence of cycloheximide (6-7 monosaccharide units) was smaller than that extracted from control explants (10-12 monosaccharide units).
Project description:After each round of protein biosynthesis, the posttermination complex (PoTC) consisting of a ribosome, mRNA, and tRNA must be disassembled into its components for a new round of translation. Here, we show that a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model PoTC was disassembled by ATP and eukaryotic elongation factor 3 (eEF3). GTP or ITP functioned with less efficiency and adenosine 5gamma'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate did not function at all. The k(cat) of eEF3 was 1.12 min(-1), which is comparable to that of the in vitro initiation step. The disassembly reaction was inhibited by aminoglycosides and cycloheximide. The subunits formed from the yeast model PoTC remained separated under ionic conditions close to those existing in vivo, suggesting that they are ready to enter the initiation process. Based on our experimental techniques used in this paper, the release of mRNA and tRNA and ribosome dissociation took place simultaneously. No 40S*mRNA complex was observed, indicating that eEF3 action promotes ribosome recycling, not reinitiation.
Project description:1. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulates the transformation into blast cells of human lymphocytes incubated in vitro. This transformation is accompanied by an increase in the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into protein and [(3)H]uridine into RNA. 2. The incorporation of [(14)C]leucine by cultures grown in the presence or absence of phytohaemagglutinin is inhibited to the same extent by cycloheximide, a known inhibitor of protein synthesis. 3. Lymphocytes grown without phytohaemagglutin synthesize mainly non-ribosomal RNA. [(3)H]Uridine incorporation by these cells was increased by cycloheximide. 4. Lymphocytes incubated with phytohaemagglutinin begin to synthesize substantial quantities of ribosomal RNA. Under these conditions [(3)H]uridine incorporation was partially inhibited by cycloheximide. This inhibition is shown to be largely a result of inhibition of the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
Project description:1. The loss of liver protein occurring in rats starved for 24 h was largely prevented by the administration of repeated doses of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. Similar effects were produced on tubulin, a 'fixed' liver protein. 2. Starvation accelerated, whereas cycloheximide markedly lowered, the rate of protein radioactivity decay after labelling with [3H]valine or [14C]bicarbonate, indicating that changes in catabolic rates played an important role in the above regulations of liver protein mass. 3. The total activity of several lysosomal hydrolases showed little change in livers of starved rats, but a marked progressive decline developed after the administration of cycloheximide, particularly in the activities of cathepsins B, D and L as well as acid ribonuclease. There was no evidence that these changes might be due to endogenous inhibitors (at least for cathepsin B activity, which fell to less than 30% of the control values) or enzyme leakage into the bloodstream; rather, plasma beta-galactosidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities fell progressively during the cycloheximide treatment. 4. Endogenous proteolytic rates, measured in vitro by incubating subcellular preparations from livers prelabelled in vivo with [3H]valine, were markedly decreased in cycloheximide-treated animals. 5. The osmotic fragility of hepatic lysosomes, appreciably enhanced in starved animals, after cycloheximide treatment was found to be even lower than in fed controls. 6. The present data are consistent with the view that in starved animals the loss of liver protein is mostly accounted for by increased breakdown, due, in part at least, to enhanced autophagocytosis. 7. Cycloheximide largely counteracted these effects of starvation, altering the liver from being 'poised' in a proteolytic direction to a protein-sparing condition. The present data suggest that, besides suppression of the autophagic processes, a decrease in the lysosomal proteolytic enzyme system may also play a role in this regulation, and they seem to provide further circumstantial evidence for the existence of co-ordinating mechanisms between protein synthesis and degradation.