The structure of the TRAPP subunit TPC6 suggests a model for a TRAPP subcomplex.
ABSTRACT: The TRAPP (transport protein particle) complexes are tethering complexes that have an important role at the different steps of vesicle transport. Recently, the crystal structures of the TRAPP subunits SEDL and BET3 have been determined, and we present here the 1.7 Angstroms crystal structure of human TPC6, a third TRAPP subunit. The protein adopts an alpha/beta-plait topology and forms a dimer. In spite of low sequence similarity, the structure of TPC6 strikingly resembles that of BET3. The similarity is especially prominent at the dimerization interfaces of the proteins. This suggests heterodimerization of TPC6 and BET3, which is shown by in vitro and in vivo association studies. Together with TPC5, another TRAPP subunit, TPC6 and BET3 are supposed to constitute a family of paralogous proteins with closely similar three-dimensional structures but little sequence similarity among its members.
Project description:BET3 is a component of TRAPP, a complex involved in the tethering of transport vesicles to the cis-Golgi membrane. The crystal structure of human BET3 has been determined to 1.55-A resolution. BET3 adopts an alpha/beta-plait fold and forms dimers in the crystal and in solution, which predetermines the architecture of TRAPP where subunits are present in equimolar stoichiometry. A hydrophobic pocket within BET3 buries a palmitate bound through a thioester linkage to cysteine 68. BET3 and yeast Bet3p are palmitoylated in recombinant yeast cells, the mutant proteins BET3 C68S and Bet3p C80S remain unmodified. Both BET3 and BET3 C68S are found in membrane and cytosolic fractions of these cells; in membrane extractions, they behave like tightly membrane-associated proteins. In a deletion strain, both Bet3p and Bet3p C80S rescue cell viability. Thus, palmitoylation is neither required for viability nor sufficient for membrane association of BET3, which may depend on protein-protein contacts within TRAPP or additional, yet unidentified modifications of BET3. A conformational change may facilitate palmitoyl extrusion from BET3 and allow the fatty acid chain to engage in intermolecular hydrophobic interactions.
Project description:The modular TRAPP complexes act as nucleotide exchangers to activate the Golgi Ypt/Rab GTPases, Ypt1 and Ypt31/Ypt32. In yeast, TRAPP I acts at the cis-Golgi and its assembly and structure are well characterized. In contrast, TRAPP II acts at the trans-Golgi and is poorly understood. Especially puzzling is the role of Trs20, an essential TRAPP I/II subunit required neither for the assembly of TRAPP I nor for its Ypt1-exchange activity. Mutations in Sedlin, the human functional ortholog of Trs20, cause the cartilage-specific disorder SEDT. Here we show that Trs20 interacts with the TRAPP II-specific subunit Trs120. Furthermore, the Trs20-Trs120 interaction is required for assembly of TRAPP II and for its Ypt32-exchange activity. Finally, Trs20-D46Y, with a single-residue substitution equivalent to a SEDT-causing mutation in Sedlin, interacts with TRAPP I, but the resulting TRAPP complex cannot interact with Trs120 and TRAPP II cannot be assembled. These results indicate that Trs20 is crucial for assembly of TRAPP II, and the defective assembly caused by a SEDT-linked mutation suggests that this role is conserved.
Project description:We previously identified BET3 by its genetic interactions with BET1, a gene whose SNARE-like product acts in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport. To gain insight into the function of Bet3p, we added three c-myc tags to its C-terminus and immunopurified this protein from a clarified detergent extract. Here we report that Bet3p is a member of a large complex ( approximately 800 kDa) that we call TRAPP (transport protein particle). We propose that TRAPP plays a key role in the targeting and/or fusion of ER-to-Golgi transport vesicles with their acceptor compartment. The localization of Bet3p to the cis-Golgi complex, as well as biochemical studies showing that Bet3p functions on this compartment, support this hypothesis. TRAPP contains at least nine other constituents, five of which have been identified and shown to be highly conserved novel proteins.
Project description:TRAPP is a multi-subunit complex that acts as a Ypt/Rab activator at the Golgi apparatus. TRAPP exists in two forms: TRAPP I is comprised of five essential and conserved subunits and TRAPP II contains two additional essential and conserved subunits, Trs120 and Trs130. Previously, we have shown that Trs65, a nonessential fungi-specific TRAPP subunit, plays a role in TRAPP II assembly. TRS33 encodes another nonessential but conserved TRAPP subunit whose function is not known. Here, we show that one of these two subunits, nonessential individually, is required for TRAPP II assembly. Trs33 and Trs65 share sequence, intracellular localization and interaction similarities. Specifically, Trs33 interacts genetically with both Trs120 and Trs130 and physically with Trs120. In addition, trs33 mutant cells contain lower levels of TRAPP II and exhibit aberrant localization of the Golgi Ypts. Together, our results indicate that in yeast, TRAPP II assembly is an essential process that can be accomplished by either of two related TRAPP subunits. Moreover, because humans express two Trs33 homologues, we propose that the requirement of Trs33 for TRAPP II assembly is conserved from yeast to humans.
Project description:Trs20p is a subunit of the evolutionarily conserved TRAPP (TRAnsport Protein Particle) complex that mediates various aspects of membrane trafficking. Three TRAPP complexes have been identified in yeast with roles in ER-to-Golgi trafficking, post-Golgi and endosomal-to-Golgi transport and in autophagy. The role of Trs20p, which is essential for viability and a component of all three complexes, and how it might function within each TRAPP complex, has not been clarified to date. To begin to address the role of Trs20p we generated different mutants by random mutagenesis but, surprisingly, no defects were observed in diverse anterograde transport pathways or general secretion in Trs20 temperature-sensitive mutants. Instead, mutation of Trs20 led to defects in endocytic recycling and a block in sporulation/meiosis. The phenotypes of different mutants appear to be separable suggesting that the mutations affect the function of Trs20 in different TRAPP complexes.
Project description:Vesicle-mediated transport is a process carried out by virtually every cell and is required for the proper targeting and secretion of proteins. As such, there are numerous players involved to ensure that the proteins are properly localized. Overall, transport requires vesicle budding, recognition of the vesicle by the target membrane and fusion of the vesicle with the target membrane resulting in delivery of its contents. The initial interaction between the vesicle and the target membrane has been referred to as tethering. Because this is the first contact between the two membranes, tethering is critical to ensuring that specificity is achieved. It is therefore not surprising that there are numerous 'tethering factors' involved ranging from multisubunit complexes, coiled-coil proteins and Rab guanosine triphosphatases. Of the multisubunit tethering complexes, one of the best studied at the molecular level is the evolutionarily conserved TRAPP complex. There are two forms of this complex: TRAPP I and TRAPP II. In yeast, these complexes function in a number of processes including endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport (TRAPP I) and an ill-defined step at the trans Golgi (TRAPP II). Because the complex was first reported in 1998 (1), there has been a decade of studies that have clarified some aspects of its function but have also raised further questions. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of yeast and mammalian TRAPP at the structural and functional levels and its role in disease while trying to resolve some apparent discrepancies and highlighting areas for future study.
Project description:Originally identified in yeast, transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes are Rab GTPase exchange factors that share a core set of subunits. TRAPPs were initially found to act on Ypt1, the yeast orthologue of Rab1, but recent studies have found that yeast TRAPPII can also activate the Rab11 orthologues Ypt31/32. Mammals have two TRAPP complexes, but their role is less clear, and they contain subunits that are not found in the yeast complexes but are essential for cell growth. To investigate TRAPP function in metazoans, we show that Drosophila melanogaster have two TRAPP complexes similar to those in mammals and that both activate Rab1, whereas one, TRAPPII, also activates Rab11. TRAPPII is not essential but becomes so in the absence of the gene parcas that encodes the Drosophila orthologue of the SH3BP5 family of Rab11 guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Thus, in metazoans, Rab1 activation requires TRAPP subunits not found in yeast, and Rab11 activation is shared by TRAPPII and an unrelated GEF that is metazoan specific.
Project description:Macroautophagy requires membrane trafficking and remodelling to form the autophagosome and deliver its contents to lysosomes for degradation. We have previously identified the TBC domain-containing protein, TBC1D14, as a negative regulator of autophagy that controls delivery of membranes from RAB11-positive recycling endosomes to forming autophagosomes. In this study, we identify the TRAPP complex, a multi-subunit tethering complex and GEF for RAB1, as an interactor of TBC1D14. TBC1D14 binds to the TRAPP complex via an N-terminal 103 amino acid region, and overexpression of this region inhibits both autophagy and secretory traffic. TRAPPC8, the mammalian orthologue of a yeast autophagy-specific TRAPP subunit, forms part of a mammalian TRAPPIII-like complex and both this complex and TBC1D14 are needed for RAB1 activation. TRAPPC8 modulates autophagy and secretory trafficking and is required for TBC1D14 to bind TRAPPIII. Importantly, TBC1D14 and TRAPPIII regulate ATG9 trafficking independently of ULK1. We propose a model whereby TBC1D14 and TRAPPIII regulate a constitutive trafficking step from peripheral recycling endosomes to the early Golgi, maintaining the cycling pool of ATG9 required for initiation of autophagy.
Project description:TRAPP complexes, which are large multimeric assemblies that function in membrane traffic, are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate the Rab GTPase Ypt1p. Here we measured rate and equilibrium constants that define the interaction of Ypt1p with guanine nucleotide (guanosine 5'-diphosphate and guanosine 5'-triphosphate/guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate) and the core TRAPP subunits required for GEF activity. These parameters allowed us to identify the kinetic and thermodynamic bases by which TRAPP catalyzes nucleotide exchange from Ypt1p. Nucleotide dissociation from Ypt1p is slow (approximately 10(-4) s(-1)) and accelerated >1000-fold by TRAPP. Acceleration of nucleotide exchange by TRAPP occurs via a predominantly Mg(2+)-independent pathway. Thermodynamic linkage analysis indicates that TRAPP weakens nucleotide affinity by <80-fold and vice versa, in contrast to most other characterized GEF systems that weaken nucleotide binding affinities by 4-6 orders of magnitude. The overall net changes in nucleotide binding affinities are small because TRAPP accelerates both nucleotide binding and dissociation from Ypt1p. Weak thermodynamic coupling allows TRAPP, Ypt1p, and nucleotide to exist as a stable ternary complex, analogous to strain-sensing cytoskeleton motors. These results illustrate a novel strategy of guanine nucleotide exchange by TRAPP that is particularly suited for a multifunctional GEF involved in membrane traffic.
Project description:TRAPP is a multisubunit tethering complex implicated in multiple vesicle trafficking steps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and conserved throughout eukarya, including humans. Here we confirm the role of TRAPPC2L as a stable component of mammalian TRAPP and report the identification of four novel components of the complex: C4orf41, TTC-15, KIAA1012, and Bet3L. Two of the components, KIAA1012 and Bet3L, are mammalian homologues of Trs85p and Bet3p, respectively. The remaining two novel TRAPP components, C4orf41 and TTC-15, have no homologues in S. cerevisiae. With this work, human homologues of all the S. cerevisiae TRAPP proteins, with the exception of the Saccharomycotina-specific subunit Trs65p, have now been reported. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that the novel proteins are bona fide components of human TRAPP and implicate C4orf41 and TTC-15 (which we call TRAPPC11 and TRAPPC12, respectively) in ER-to-Golgi trafficking at a very early stage. We further present a binary interaction map for all known mammalian TRAPP components and evidence that TRAPP oligomerizes. Our data are consistent with the absence of a TRAPP I-equivalent complex in mammalian cells, suggesting that the fundamental unit of mammalian TRAPP is distinct from that characterized in S. cerevisiae.