The phosphoinositide-3-OH-kinase-related kinases of Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT: The phosphoinositide-3-OH-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) are atypical protein kinases exclusive to eukaryotes. They mediate the cellular response to a range of stresses, including genome and RNA surveillance and availability of nutrients for growth. Orthologues of five out of the six PIKK family members are present in plant genomes. Recent studies in plant PIKKs have revealed features unique to, and in common with, other PIKKs. This review summarizes the basic knowledge of these proteins in mammals and yeast in comparison with what is known for Arabidopsis and other plants.
Project description:PIKKs are a family of kinases that control fundamental processes, including cell growth, DNA damage repair, and gene expression. Although their regulation and activities are well characterized, little is known about how PIKKs fold and assemble into active complexes. Previous work identified an Hsp90 cochaperone, the TTT complex, which specifically stabilizes PIKKs. Here we describe a mechanism by which TTT promotes their de novo maturation in fission yeast. We show that TTT recognizes newly synthesized PIKKs during translation. Although PIKKs form multimeric complexes, we found that they do not engage in cotranslational assembly with their partners. Rather, we accumulated evidence that TTT protects nascent PIKK polypeptides from misfolding and degradation and that PIKKs acquire their native state after translation is terminated. Thus, PIKK maturation and assembly are temporally segregated, suggesting that the biogenesis of large complexes requires both dedicated chaperones and cotranslational interactions between subunits. Overall design: mRNA profiles from S. pombe strains of various genotypes were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, in one lane of an Illumina HiSeq 4000, with 1x 50bp single reads.
Project description:PI3K-related kinases (PIKKs) are large Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr)-protein kinases central to the regulation of many fundamental cellular processes. PIKK family member SMG1 orchestrates progression of an RNA quality control pathway, termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), by phosphorylating the NMD factor UPF1. Phosphorylation of UPF1 occurs in its unstructured N- and C-terminal regions at Serine/Threonine-Glutamine (SQ) motifs. How SMG1 and other PIKKs specifically recognize SQ motifs has remained unclear. Here, we present a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction of a human SMG1-8-9 kinase complex bound to a UPF1 phosphorylation site at an overall resolution of 2.9 Å. This structure provides the first snapshot of a human PIKK with a substrate-bound active site. Together with biochemical assays, it rationalizes how SMG1 and perhaps other PIKKs specifically phosphorylate Ser/Thr-containing motifs with a glutamine residue at position +1 and a hydrophobic residue at position -1, thus elucidating the molecular basis for phosphorylation site recognition.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) play vital roles in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, and consequently metabolism, as well as in the cellular response to stresses such as ionizing radiation or redox changes. In humans six family members are known to date, namely mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia- and Rad3-related (ATR), DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), suppressor of morphogenesis in genitalia-1 (SMG-1), and transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). All fulfill rather diverse functions and most of them have been detected in different cellular compartments including various cellular membranes. It has been suggested that the regulation of the localization of signaling proteins allows for generating a locally specific output. Moreover, spatial partitioning is expected to improve the reliability of biochemical signaling. Since these assumptions may also be true for the regulation of PIKK function, the current knowledge about the regulation of the localization of PIKKs at different cellular (membrane) compartments by a network of interactions is reviewed. Membrane targeting can involve direct lipid-/membrane interactions as well as interactions with membrane-anchored regulatory proteins, such as, for example, small GTPases, or a combination of both.
Project description:We reported previously that the stability of all mammalian phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs) depends on their interaction with Tel2, the ortholog of yeast Tel2 and Caenorhabditis elegans Clk-2. Here we provide evidence that Tel2 acts with Hsp90 in the maturation of PIKK complexes. Quantitative immunoblotting showed that the abundance of Tel2 is low compared with the PIKKs, and Tel2 preferentially bound newly synthesized ATM, ATR, mTOR, and DNA-PKcs. Tel2 complexes contained, in addition to Tti1-Tti2, the Hsp90 chaperone, and inhibition of Hsp90 interfered with the interaction of Tel2 with the PIKKs. Analysis of in vivo labeled nascent protein complexes showed that Tel2 and Hsp90 mediate the formation of the mTOR TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and the association of ATR with ATRIP. The structure of yeast Tel2, reported here, shows that Tel2 consists of HEAT-like helical repeats that assemble into two separate ?-solenoids. Through mutagenesis, we identify a surface patch of conserved residues involved in binding to the Tti1-Tti2 complex in vitro. In vivo, mutation of this conserved patch affects cell growth, levels of PIKKs, and ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling, highlighting the importance of Tti1-Tti2 binding to the function of Tel2. Taken together, our data suggest that the Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 complex is a PIKK-specific cochaperone for Hsp90.
Project description:The human IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaR, CD89) triggers several important physiological functions, including phagocytosis, NADPH oxidase activation and antigen presentation. Efforts are underway to delineate FcalphaR signal-transduction pathways that control these functions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that cross-linking of FcalphaR increased its partitioning into membrane glycolipid rafts and was accompanied by gamma-chain-dependent recruitment and phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases Lck/Yes-related novel protein tyrosine kinase (Lyn) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Here we have performed a more extensive characterization of signalling effectors recruited to rafts on FcalphaR cross-linking. We demonstrate that in addition to tyrosine kinases Lyn and Btk, FcalphaR cross-linking also recruits B-lymphocyte kinase (Blk) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to rafts. We show recruitment of phosphoinositide kinases, including 3-phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phospholipase Cgamma2, and serine/threonine kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) alpha, PKCepsilon, and protein kinase B (PKB) alpha. This suggests that lipid rafts serve as sites for FcalphaR-triggered recruitment of multiple classes of signalling effectors. We further demonstrate that tyrosine kinases and PKCalpha have a sustained association with rafts, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase and its downstream effectors have a transient association with rafts. This is consistent with temporally regulated divergence of FcalphaR signalling pathways in rafts. Furthermore, we suggest the spatial separation of signalling effectors by transport of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1, PKBalpha and PKCepsilon to endocytic compartments containing internalized FcalphaR.
Project description:The FATC domain is shared by all members of the family of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinases (PIKKs). It has been shown that the FATC domain plays an important role for the regulation of each PIKK. However, other than an involvement in protein-protein interactions, a common principle for the action of the FATC domain has not been detected. A detailed characterization of the structure and lipid binding properties of the FATC domain of the Ser/Thr kinase target of rapamycin (TOR) revealed that it contains a redox-sensitive membrane anchor in its C terminus. Because the C-terminal regions of the FATC domains of all known PIKKs are rather hydrophobic and especially rich in aromatic residues, we examined whether the ability to interact with lipids and membranes might be a general property. Here, we present the characterization of the interactions with lipids and different membrane mimetics for the FATC domains of human DNA-PKcs, human ATM, human ATR, human SMG-1, and human TRRAP by NMR and CD spectroscopy. The data indicate that all of these can interact with different membrane mimetics and may have different preferences only for membrane properties such as surface charge, curvature, and lipid packing. The oxidized form of the TOR FATC domain is well structured overall and forms an ?-helix that is followed by a disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast, the FATC domains of the other PIKKs are rather unstructured in the isolated form and only significantly populate ?-helical secondary structure upon interaction with membrane mimetics.
Project description:Senescence of cancer cells is an important outcome of treatment of many cancer types. Cell senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest induced by stress conditions, including DNA damage. DNA damage activates DNA damage response (DDR), which involves members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) superfamily: protein kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. The so-far collected data indicate that ATM, with its downstream targets CHK2, p53, and p21, is the key protein involved in DDR-dependent senescence. It was also documented that the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype-SASP relies on ATM/CHK2, and not on p53 signaling. Moreover, genotoxic agents used in cancer treatment can activate NF-?B, which also induces transcription of SASP genes. In this paper, we have studied the involvement of three PIKK family members in colon cancer cell senescence and connection between DNA-damage-induced senescence and NF-?B-regulated SASP in p53-proficient and p53-deficient colon cancer cells treated with doxorubicin. We showed that doxorubicin induced cell senescence in both p53+/+ and p53-/- HCT116 cells, proving that this process is p53-independent. Senescence was successfully abrogated by a PIKK inhibitor, caffeine, or by simultaneous silencing of three PIKKs by specific siRNAs. By silencing individual members of PIKK family and analyzing common markers of senescence, the level of p21 and SA-?-Gal activity, we came to the conclusion that ATR kinase is crucial for the onset of senescence as, in contrast to ATM and DNA-PKsc, it could not be fully substituted by other PIKKs. Moreover, we showed that in case of silencing the three PIKKs, there was no SASP reduction accompanying the decrease in the level of p21 and SA-?-Gal (Senescence-Associated-?-Galactosidase) activity; whereas knocking down the NF-?B component, p65, abrogated SASP, but did not affect other markers of senescence, proving that DNA damage regulated senescence independently and NF-?B evoked SASP.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, cells activate a complex signal transduction network called the DNA damage response (DDR). To enhance our current understanding of the DDR network, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes required for resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). Along with a number of known DDR genes, we discovered a large set of novel genes whose depletion leads to cellular sensitivity to IR. Here we describe TTI1 (Tel two-interacting protein 1) and TTI2 as highly conserved regulators of the DDR in mammals. TTI1 and TTI2 protect cells from spontaneous DNA damage, and are required for the establishment of the intra-S and G2/M checkpoints. TTI1 and TTI2 exist in multiple complexes, including a 2-MDa complex with TEL2 (telomere maintenance 2), called the Triple T complex, and phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs) such as ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM). The components of the TTT complex are mutually dependent on each other, and act as critical regulators of PIKK abundance and checkpoint signaling.
Project description:Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that regulate cell growth. One of these kinases, PI3Kalpha, is frequently mutated in diverse tumour types. The recently determined structure of PI3Kalpha reveals features that distinguish this enzyme from related lipid kinases. In addition, wild-type PI3Kgamma differs from PI3Kalpha by a substitution identical to a PI3Kalpha oncogenic mutant (His1047Arg) that might explain the differences in the enzymatic activities of the normal and mutant PI3Kalpha. Comparison of the PI3K structures also identified structural features that could potentially be exploited for the design of isoform-specific inhibitors.
Project description:The proteins encoded by TELO2, TTI1, and TTI2 interact to form the TTT complex, a co-chaperone for maturation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs). Here we report six affected individuals from four families with intellectual disability (ID) and neurological and other congenital abnormalities associated with compound heterozygous variants in TELO2. Although their fibroblasts showed reduced steady-state levels of TELO2 and the other components of the TTT complex, PIKK functions were normal in cellular assays. Our results suggest that these TELO2 missense variants result in loss of function, perturb TTT complex stability, and cause an autosomal-recessive syndromic form of ID.