ARE-mRNA degradation requires the 5'-3' decay pathway.
ABSTRACT: As an important mode of suppressing gene expression, messenger RNAs containing an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3' untranslated region are rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm. ARE-mediated mRNA decay (AMD) is initiated by deadenylation, and in vitro studies have indicated that subsequent degradation occurs in the 3'-5' direction through a complex of exonucleases termed the exosome. An alternative pathway of mRNA degradation occurs at processing bodies, cytoplasmic foci that contain decapping enzymes, the 5'-3' exonuclease Xrn1 and the Lsm1-7 heptamer. To determine which of the two pathways is important for AMD in live cells, we targeted components of both pathways using short interfering RNA in human HT1080 cells. We show that Xrn1 and Lsm1 are essential for AMD. On the other side, out of three exosome components tested, only knockdown of PmScl-75 caused a strong inhibition of AMD. Our results show that mammalian cells, similar to yeast, require the 5'-3' Xrn1 pathway to degrade ARE-mRNAs.
Project description:XRN1 is the major cytoplasmic exoribonuclease in eukaryotes, which degrades deadenylated and decapped mRNAs in the last step of the 5'-3' mRNA decay pathway. Metazoan XRN1 interacts with decapping factors coupling the final stages of decay. Here, we reveal a direct interaction between XRN1 and the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex mediated by a low-complexity region in XRN1, which we term the 'C-terminal interacting region' or CIR. The CIR represses reporter mRNA deadenylation in human cells when overexpressed and inhibits CCR4-NOT and isolated CAF1 deadenylase activity in vitro. Through complementation studies in an XRN1-null cell line, we dissect the specific contributions of XRN1 domains and regions toward decay of an mRNA reporter. We observe that XRN1 binding to the decapping activator EDC4 counteracts the dominant negative effect of CIR overexpression on decay. Another decapping activator PatL1 directly interacts with CIR and alleviates the CIR-mediated inhibition of CCR4-NOT activity in vitro. Ribosome profiling revealed that XRN1 loss impacts not only on mRNA levels but also on the translational efficiency of many cellular transcripts likely as a consequence of incomplete decay. Our findings reveal an additional layer of direct interactions in a tightly integrated network of factors mediating deadenylation, decapping and 5'-3' exonucleolytic decay.
Project description:It is commonly appreciated that the mRNA level is determined by the balance between its synthetic and decay kinetics. Yet, little is known about coordination between these distinct processes. A major pathway of the eukaryotic mRNA decay initiates with shortening of the mRNA poly(A) tail (deadenylation), followed by removal of the mRNA 5' cap structure and its subsequent exonucleolytic degradation. Here we report that a subunit of RNA polymerase II, Rpb4p, is required for the decay of a class of mRNAs whose products are involved in protein synthesis. Cells lacking RPB4 are defective in the deadenylation and post-deadenylation steps of representatives of this class of mRNAs. Moreover, Rpb4p interacts with both the mRNP and with subunits of the mRNA decay complex Pat1/Lsm1-7 that enhances decapping. Consistently, a portion of Rpb4p is localized in P bodies, where mRNA decapping and degradation is executed, and mutations in RPB4 increase the number of P bodies per cell. We propose that Rpb4p has a dual function in mRNA decay. It promotes or enhances the deadenylation process of specific mRNAs and recruits Pat1/Lsm1-7 to these mRNAs, thus stimulating their decapping and further decay. In this way, Rpb4p might link the activity of the basal transcription apparatus with that of the mRNA decay machinery.
Project description:Both end structures of eukaryotic mRNAs, namely the 5' cap and 3' poly(A) tail, are necessary for transcript stability, and loss of either is sufficient to stimulate decay. mRNA turnover is classically thought to be initiated by deadenylation, as has been particularly well described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we describe two additional, parallel decay pathways in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. First, in fission yeast mRNA decapping is frequently independent of deadenylation. Second, Cid1-dependent uridylation of polyadenylated mRNAs, such as act1, hcn1 and urg1, seems to stimulate decapping as part of a novel mRNA turnover pathway. Accordingly, urg1 mRNA is stabilized in cid1Delta cells. Uridylation and deadenylation act redundantly to stimulate decapping, and our data suggest that uridylation-dependent decapping is mediated by the Lsm1-7 complex. As human cells contain Cid1 orthologs, uridylation may form the basis of a widespread, conserved mechanism of mRNA decay.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, degradation of many mRNAs is initiated by removal of the poly(A) tail followed by decapping and 5'-3' exonucleolytic decay. Although the order of these events is well established, we are still lacking a mechanistic understanding of how deadenylation and decapping are linked. In this report we identify human Pat1b as a protein that is tightly associated with the Ccr4-Caf1-Not deadenylation complex as well as with the Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping complex. In addition, the RNA helicase Rck and Lsm1 proteins interact with human Pat1b. These interactions are mediated via at least three independent domains within Pat1b, suggesting that Pat1b serves as a scaffold protein. By tethering Pat1b to a reporter mRNA, we further provide evidence that Pat1b is also functionally linked to both deadenylation and decapping. Finally, we report that Pat1b strongly induces the formation of processing (P) bodies, cytoplasmic foci that contain most enzymes of the RNA decay machinery. An amino-terminal region within Pat1b serves as an aggregation-prone domain that nucleates P bodies, whereas an acidic domain controls the size of P bodies. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that human Pat1b is a central component of the RNA decay machinery by physically connecting deadenylation with decapping.
Project description:In this study we identified Pdc2, the fission yeast ortholog of human Pat1b protein, which forms a complex with Lsm1-7 and plays a role in coupling deadenylation and decapping. The involvement of Pdc2 in RNA degradation and P-body function was also determined. We found that Pdc2 interacts with Dcp2 and is required for decapping in vivo. Although not absolutely essential for P-body assembly, overexpression of Pdc2 enhanced P-body formation even in the absence of Pdc1, the fission yeast functional homolog of human Edc4 protein, indicating that Pdc2 also plays a role in P-body formation. Intriguingly, in the absence of Pdc2, Lsm1 was found to accumulate in the nucleus, suggesting that Pdc2 shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm plays a role in decreasing the nuclear concentration of Lsm1 to increase Lsm1 in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, unlike other components of P-bodies, the deadenylase Ccr4 did not accumulate in P-bodies in cells growing under favorable conditions and was only recruited to P-bodies after deprivation of glucose in a Pdc2-Lsm1-dependent manner, indicating a function of Pdc2 in cellular response to environmental stress. In supporting this idea, pdc2 mutants are defective in recovery from glucose starvation with a much longer time to re-enter the cell cycle. In keeping with the notion that Pat1 is a nucleocytoplasmic protein, functioning also in the nucleus, we found that Pdc2 physically and genetically interacts with the nuclear 5'-3' exonuclease Dhp1. A function of Pdc2-Lsm1, in concert with Dhp1, regulating RNA by promoting its decapping/destruction in the nucleus was suggested.
Project description:Decay of mRNA is essential for the efficient regulation of gene expression. A major pathway of mRNA degradation is initiated by the shortening of the poly(A) tail via the CCR4/NOT deadenylase complex. Deadenylation is followed by removal of the 5' cap (i.e., decapping) and then 5' to 3' exonucleolytic decay of the message body. The highly conserved CCR4/NOT deadenylase complex consists of the exonucleases CCR4 and POP2/CAF1, as well as a group of four or five (depending on organism) accessory factors of unknown function, i.e., the NOT proteins. In this study, we find thatSaccharomyces cerevisiaeNot2p, Not3p, and Not5p (close paralogs of each other) are involved in promoting mRNA decapping. Furthermore, we find that Not3p and Not5p bind to the decapping activator protein Pat1p. Together, these data implicate the deadenylase complex in coordinating the downstream decapping reaction via Not2p, Not3p, and Not5p. This suggests that the coupling of deadenylation with decapping is, in part, a direct consequence of coordinated assembly of decay factors.
Project description:The final step of cytoplasmic mRNA degradation proceeds in either a 5'-3' direction catalysed by Xrn1 or in a 3'-5' direction catalysed by the exosome. Dis3/Rrp44, an RNase II family protein, is the catalytic subunit of the exosome. In humans, there are three paralogues of this enzyme: DIS3, DIS3L, and DIS3L2. In this work, we identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe exonuclease belonging to the conserved family of human DIS3L2 and plant SOV. Dis3L2 does not interact with the exosome components and localizes in the cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic foci, which are docked to P-bodies. Deletion of dis3l2(+) is synthetically lethal with xrn1?, while deletion of dis3l2(+) in an lsm1? background results in the accumulation of transcripts and slower mRNA degradation rates. Accumulated transcripts show enhanced uridylation and in vitro Dis3L2 displays a preference for uridylated substrates. Altogether, our results suggest that in S. pombe, and possibly in most other eukaryotes, Dis3L2 is an important factor in mRNA degradation. Therefore, this novel 3'-5' RNA decay pathway represents an alternative to degradation by Xrn1 and the exosome.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNA degradation often occurs in a process whereby translation initiation is inhibited and the mRNA is targeted for decapping. In yeast cells, Pat1, Scd6, Edc3, and Dhh1 all function to promote decapping by an unknown mechanism(s). We demonstrate that purified Scd6 and a region of Pat1 directly repress translation in vitro by limiting the formation of a stable 48S preinitiation complex. Moreover, while Pat1, Edc3, Dhh1, and Scd6 all bind the decapping enzyme, only Pat1 and Edc3 enhance its activity. We also identify numerous direct interactions between Pat1, Dcp1, Dcp2, Dhh1, Scd6, Edc3, Xrn1, and the Lsm1-7 complex. These observations identify three classes of decapping activators that function to directly repress translation initiation and/or stimulate Dcp1/2. Moreover, Pat1 is identified as critical in mRNA decay by first inhibiting translation initiation, then serving as a scaffold to recruit components of the decapping complex, and finally activating Dcp2.
Project description:A major mRNA decay pathway in eukaryotes is initiated by deadenylation followed by decapping of the oligoadenylated mRNAs and subsequent 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation of the capless mRNA. In this pathway, decapping is a rate-limiting step that requires the hetero-octameric Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex to occur at normal rates in vivo. This complex is made up of the seven Sm-like proteins, Lsm1 through Lsm7, and the Pat1 protein. It binds RNA and has a unique binding preference for oligoadenylated RNAs over polyadenylated RNAs. Such binding ability is crucial for its mRNA decay function in vivo. In order to determine the contribution of Pat1 to the function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex, we compared the RNA binding properties of the Lsm1-7 complex purified from pat1? cells and purified Pat1 fragments with that of the wild-type Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. Our studies revealed that both the Lsm1-7 complex and purified Pat1 fragments have very low RNA binding activity and are impaired in the ability to recognize the oligo(A) tail on the RNA. However, reconstitution of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex from these components restored these abilities. We also observed that Pat1 directly contacts RNA in the context of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex. These studies suggest that the unique RNA binding properties and the mRNA decay function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex involve cooperation of residues from both Pat1 and the Lsm1-7 ring. Finally our studies also revealed that the middle domain of Pat1 is essential for the interaction of Pat1 with the Lsm1-7 complex in vivo.
Project description:Retrotransposition of the budding yeast long terminal repeat retrotransposon Ty3 is activated during mating. In this study, proteins that associate with Ty3 Gag3 capsid protein during virus-like particle (VLP) assembly were identified by mass spectrometry and screened for roles in mating-stimulated retrotransposition. Components of RNA processing bodies including DEAD box helicases Dhh1/DDX6 and Ded1/DDX3, Sm-like protein Lsm1, decapping protein Dcp2, and 5' to 3' exonuclease Xrn1 were among the proteins identified. These proteins associated with Ty3 proteins and RNA, and were required for formation of Ty3 VLP retrosome assembly factories and for retrotransposition. Specifically, Dhh1/DDX6 was required for normal levels of Ty3 genomic RNA, and Lsm1 and Xrn1 were required for association of Ty3 protein and RNA into retrosomes. This role for components of RNA processing bodies in promoting VLP assembly and retrotransposition during mating in a yeast that lacks RNA interference, contrasts with roles proposed for orthologous components in animal germ cell ribonucleoprotein granules in turnover and epigenetic suppression of retrotransposon RNAs.