Analysis of sequence-specific binding of RNA to Hsp70 and its various homologs indicates the involvement of N- and C-terminal interactions.
ABSTRACT: Members of the 70-kDa family of molecular chaperones assist in a number of molecular interactions that are essential under both normal and stress conditions. These functions require ATP and co-chaperone molecules and are associated with a cyclic transition of intramolecular conformational changes. As a new putative function, we have previously shown that mammalian Hsp/Hsc70 as well as a distant relative, Hsp110, selectively bind certain RNA sequences via their N-terminal ATP-binding domain. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail, here we examined RNA-binding affinity and specificity of various deletion mutants of human Hsp70. We demonstrate, that, although the N-terminal ATPase domain alone is sufficient for RNA binding, its binding affinity is considerably reduced when compared to that of the full-length protein. Additionally, we provide evidence that binding of RNA to a membrane-immobilized protein partner results in complete loss of RNA sequence specificity. Using various Hsp70 homologs, we show distinct RNA-binding properties of these proteins judged by sequence specificity, ribopolymer sensitivity, and northwestern analysis. Finally, we present data disclosing that RNA binding by DnaK, the Escherichia coli homolog, is influenced by the activity of its co-chaperones, DnaJ and GrpE. We conclude that the RNA-binding capability of this class of molecular chaperones is a conserved feature and it is strongly influenced by the structural and conformational properties. Furthermore, the notion that RNA binding of some Hsp70 family members is influenced by co-chaperones suggests an RNA-binding cycle resembling the protein-binding property of the chaperones.
Project description:SSE1 and SSE2 encode the essential yeast members of the Hsp70-related Hsp110 molecular chaperone family. Both mammalian Hsp110 and the Sse proteins functionally interact with cognate cytosolic Hsp70s as nucleotide exchange factors. We demonstrate here that Sse1 forms high-affinity (Kd approximately 10-8 M) heterodimeric complexes with both yeast Ssa and mammalian Hsp70 chaperones and that binding of ATP to Sse1 is required for binding to Hsp70s. Sse1.Hsp70 heterodimerization confers resistance to exogenously added protease, indicative of conformational changes in Sse1 resulting in a more compact structure. The nucleotide binding domains of both Sse1/2 and the Hsp70s dictate interaction specificity and are sufficient for mediating heterodimerization with no discernible contribution from the peptide binding domains. In support of a strongly conserved functional interaction between Hsp110 and Hsp70, Sse1 is shown to associate with and promote nucleotide exchange on human Hsp70. Nucleotide exchange activity by Sse1 is physiologically significant, as deletion of both SSE1 and the Ssa ATPase stimulatory protein YDJ1 is synthetically lethal. The Hsp110 family must therefore be considered an essential component of Hsp70 chaperone biology in the eukaryotic cell.
Project description:Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones play an important role in regulating cellular processes that involve protein folding and stabilization, which are essential for the integrity of signaling networks. Although many aspects of allosteric regulatory mechanisms in Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones have been extensively studied and significantly advanced in recent experimental studies, the atomistic picture of signal propagation and energetics of dynamics-based communication still remain unresolved. In this work, we have combined molecular dynamics simulations and protein stability analysis of the chaperone structures with the network modeling of residue interaction networks to characterize molecular determinants of allosteric mechanisms. We have shown that allosteric mechanisms of Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones may be primarily determined by nucleotide-induced redistribution of local conformational ensembles in the inter-domain regions and the substrate binding domain. Conformational dynamics and energetics of the peptide substrate binding with the Hsp70 structures has been analyzed using free energy calculations, revealing allosteric hotspots that control negative cooperativity between regulatory sites. The results have indicated that cooperative interactions may promote a population-shift mechanism in Hsp70, in which functional residues are organized in a broad and robust allosteric network that can link the nucleotide-binding site and the substrate-binding regions. A smaller allosteric network in Hsp110 structures may elicit an entropy-driven allostery that occurs in the absence of global structural changes. We have found that global mediating residues with high network centrality may be organized in stable local communities that are indispensable for structural stability and efficient allosteric communications. The network-centric analysis of allosteric interactions has also established that centrality of functional residues could correlate with their sensitivity to mutations across diverse chaperone functions. This study reconciles a wide spectrum of structural and functional experiments by demonstrating how integration of molecular simulations and network-centric modeling may explain thermodynamic and mechanistic aspects of allosteric regulation in chaperones.
Project description:Investigating ligand-regulated allosteric coupling between protein domains is fundamental to understand cell-life regulation. The Hsp70 family of chaperones represents an example of proteins in which ATP binding and hydrolysis at the Nucleotide Binding Domain (NBD) modulate substrate recognition at the Substrate Binding Domain (SBD). Herein, a comparative analysis of an allosteric (Hsp70-DnaK) and a non-allosteric structural homolog (Hsp110-Sse1) of the Hsp70 family is carried out through molecular dynamics simulations, starting from different conformations and ligand-states. Analysis of ligand-dependent modulation of internal fluctuations and local deformation patterns highlights the structural and dynamical changes occurring at residue level upon ATP-ADP exchange, which are connected to the conformational transition between closed and open structures. By identifying the dynamically responsive protein regions and specific cross-domain hydrogen-bonding patterns that differentiate Hsp70 from Hsp110 as a function of the nucleotide, we propose a molecular mechanism for the allosteric signal propagation of the ATP-encoded conformational signal.
Project description:Molecular chaperones of the Hsp70 family form an important hub in the cellular protein folding networks in bacteria and eukaryotes, connecting translation with the downstream machineries of protein folding and degradation. The Hsp70 folding cycle is driven by two types of cochaperones: J-domain proteins stimulate ATP hydrolysis by Hsp70, while nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) promote replacement of Hsp70-bound ADP with ATP. Bacteria and organelles of bacterial origin have only one known NEF type for Hsp70, GrpE. In contrast, a large diversity of Hsp70 NEFs has been discovered in the eukaryotic cell. These NEFs belong to the Hsp110/Grp170, HspBP1/Sil1, and BAG domain protein families. In this short review we compare the structures and molecular mechanisms of nucleotide exchange factors for Hsp70 and discuss how these cochaperones contribute to protein folding and quality control in the cell.
Project description:Hsp70 molecular chaperones function in protein folding in a manner dependent on regulation by co-chaperones. Hsp40s increase the low intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsp70, and nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) remove ADP after ATP hydrolysis, enabling a new Hsp70 interaction cycle with non-native protein substrate. Here, we show that members of the Hsp70-related Hsp110 family cooperate with Hsp70 in protein folding in the eukaryotic cytosol. Mammalian Hsp110 and the yeast homologues Sse1p/2p catalyze efficient nucleotide exchange on Hsp70 and its orthologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ssa1p, respectively. Moreover, Sse1p has the same effect on Ssb1p, a ribosome-associated isoform of Hsp70 in yeast. Mutational analysis revealed that the N-terminal ATPase domain and the ultimate C-terminus of Sse1p are required for nucleotide exchange activity. The Hsp110 homologues significantly increase the rate and yield of Hsp70-mediated re-folding of thermally denatured firefly luciferase in vitro. Similarly, deletion of SSE1 causes a firefly luciferase folding defect in yeast cells under heat stress in vivo. Our data indicate that Hsp110 proteins are important components of the eukaryotic Hsp70 machinery of protein folding.
Project description:Hsp70 chaperones comprise two domains, the nucleotide-binding domain (Hsp70NBD), responsible for structural and functional changes in the chaperone, and the substrate-binding domain (Hsp70SBD), involved in substrate interaction. Substrate binding and release in Hsp70 is controlled by the nucleotide state of DnaKNBD, with ATP inducing the open, substrate-receptive DnaKSBD conformation, whereas ADP forces its closure. DnaK cycles between the two conformations through interaction with two cofactors, the Hsp40 co-chaperones (DnaJ in Escherichia coli) induce the ADP state, and the nucleotide exchange factors (GrpE in E. coli) induce the ATP state. X-ray crystallography showed that the GrpE dimer is a nucleotide exchange factor that works by interaction of one of its monomers with DnaKNBD. DnaKSBD location in this complex is debated; there is evidence that it interacts with the GrpE N-terminal disordered region, far from DnaKNBD. Although we confirmed this interaction using biochemical and biophysical techniques, our EM-based three-dimensional reconstruction of the DnaK-GrpE complex located DnaKSBD near DnaKNBD. This apparent discrepancy between the functional and structural results is explained by our finding that the tail region of the GrpE dimer in the DnaK-GrpE complex bends and its tip contacts DnaKSBD, whereas the DnaKNBD-DnaKSBD linker contacts the GrpE helical region. We suggest that these interactions define a more complex role for GrpE in the control of DnaK function.
Project description:The conserved, ATP-dependent bacterial DnaK chaperones process client substrates with the aid of the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. However, in the absence of structural information, how these proteins communicate with each other cannot be fully delineated. For the study reported here, we solved the crystal structure of a full-length Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 GrpE homodimer in complex with a nearly full-length G. kaustophilus HTA426 DnaK that contains the interdomain linker (acting as a pseudo-substrate), and the N-terminal nucleotide-binding and C-terminal substrate-binding domains at 4.1-Å resolution. Each complex contains two DnaKs and two GrpEs, which is a stoichiometry that has not been found before. The long N-terminal GrpE α-helices stabilize the linker of DnaK in the complex. Furthermore, interactions between the DnaK substrate-binding domain and the N-terminal disordered region of GrpE may accelerate substrate release from DnaK. These findings provide molecular mechanisms for substrate binding, processing, and release during the Hsp70 chaperone cycle.
Project description:Systematic affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry analysis of N- and C-tagged cytoplasmic Hsp70/Hsp110 chaperones was used to identify new roles of Hsp70/Hsp110 in the cell. This allowed the mapping of a chaperone-protein network consisting of 1,227 unique interactions between the 9 chaperones and 473 proteins and highlighted roles for Hsp70/Hsp110 in 14 broad biological processes. Using this information, we uncovered an essential role for Hsp110 in spindle assembly and, more specifically, in modulating the activity of the widely conserved kinesin-5 motor Cin8. The role of Hsp110 Sse1 as a nucleotide exchange factor for the Hsp70 chaperones Ssa1/Ssa2 was found to be required for maintaining the proper distribution of kinesin-5 motors within the spindle, which was subsequently required for bipolar spindle assembly in S phase. These data suggest a model whereby the Hsp70-Hsp110 chaperone complex antagonizes Cin8 plus-end motility and prevents premature spindle elongation in S phase.
Project description:Hsp110 proteins are relatives of canonical Hsp70 chaperones and are expressed abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. Recently, it has become clear that Hsp110 proteins are essential nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) for Hsp70 chaperones. Here, we report the architecture of the complex between the yeast Hsp110, Sse1, and its cognate Hsp70 partner, Ssa1, as revealed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis and site-specific cross-linking. The two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of Sse1 and Ssa1 are positioned to face each other and form extensive contacts between opposite lobes of their NBDs. A second contact with the periphery of the Ssa1 NBD lobe II is likely mediated via the protruding C-terminal alpha-helical subdomain of Sse1. To address the mechanism of catalyzed nucleotide exchange, we have compared the hydrogen exchange characteristics of the Ssa1 NBD in complex with either Sse1 or the yeast homologs of the NEFs HspBP1 and Bag-1. We find that Sse1 exploits a Bag-1-like mechanism to catalyze nucleotide release, which involves opening of the Ssa1 NBD by tilting lobe II. Thus, Hsp110 proteins use a unique binding mode to catalyze nucleotide release from Hsp70s by a functionally convergent mechanism.
Project description:The molecular chaperone 70-kDa heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s) play essential roles in maintaining protein homeostasis. Hsp110, an Hsp70 homolog, is highly efficient in preventing protein aggregation but lacks the hallmark folding activity seen in Hsp70s. To understand the mechanistic differences between these two chaperones, we first characterized the distinct peptide substrate binding properties of Hsp110s. In contrast to Hsp70s, Hsp110s prefer aromatic residues in their substrates, and the substrate binding and release exhibit remarkably fast kinetics. Sequence and structure comparison revealed significant differences in the two peptide-binding loops: the length and properties are switched. When we swapped these two loops in an Hsp70, the peptide binding properties of this mutant Hsp70 were converted to Hsp110-like, and more impressively, it functionally behaved like an Hsp110. Thus, the peptide substrate binding properties implemented in the peptide-binding loops may determine the chaperone activity differences between Hsp70s and Hsp110s.