Analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes by PCR amplification and scanning by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis identifies only COL1A1 mutations in 15 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I: identification of common sequences of null-allele mutations.
ABSTRACT: Although >90% of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been estimated to have mutations in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes for type I procollagen, mutations have been difficult to detect in all patients with the mildest forms of the disease (i.e., type I). In this study, we first searched for mutations in type I procollagen by analyses of protein and mRNA in fibroblasts from 10 patients with mild OI; no evidence of a mutation was found in 2 of the patients by the protein analyses, and no evidence of a mutation was found in 5 of the patients by the RNA analyses. We then searched for mutations in the original 10 patients and in 5 additional patients with mild OI, by analysis of genomic DNA. To assay the genomic DNA, we established a consensus sequence for the first 12 kb of the COL1A1 gene and for 30 kb of new sequences of the 38-kb COL1A2 gene. The sequences were then used to develop primers for PCR for the 103 exons and exon boundaries of the two genes. The PCR products were first scanned for heteroduplexes by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis, and then products containing heteroduplexes were sequenced. The results detected disease-causing mutations in 13 of the 15 patients and detected two additional probable disease-causing mutations in the remaining 2 patients. Analysis of the data developed in this study and elsewhere revealed common sequences for mutations causing null alleles.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen ?1 and ?2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile of 100% of OI families in the country.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed mutational analysis of peripheral blood gDNA of 30 unrelated Estonian OI patients using Sanger sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, including all intron-exon junctions and 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions, to identify causative OI mutations.<h4>Results</h4>We identified COL1A1/2 mutations in 86.67% of patients (26/30). 76.92% of discovered mutations were located in the COL1A1 (n = 20) and 23.08% in the COL1A2 (n = 6) gene. Half of the COL1A1/2 mutations appeared to be novel. The percentage of quantitative COL1A1/2 mutations was 69.23%. Glycine substitution with serine was the most prevalent among missense mutations. All qualitative mutations were situated in the chain domain of pro-?1/2 chains.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study shows that among the Estonian OI population, the range of collagen I mutations is quite high, which agrees with other described OI cohorts of Northern Europe. The Estonian OI cohort differs due to the high number of quantitative variants and simple missense variants, which are mostly Gly to Ser substitutions and do not extend the chain domain of COL1A1/2 products.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The majority of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) cases are caused by mutations in one of the two genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding for the two chains that trimerize to form the procollagen 1 molecule. However, alterations in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for the regulation of cell fate determination and may be evolved in OI phenotype. METHODS: In this work, we analyzed the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes by sequence analysis using an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer and Big Dye Terminator Sequencing protocol. COL1A1 and miR-29b expression were also evaluated during the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) by qRT-PCR using an ABI7500 Sequence Detection System. RESULTS: We have identified eight novel mutations, where of four may be responsible for OI phenotype. COL1A1 and miR-29b showed lower expression values in OI type I and type III samples. Interestingly, one type III OI sample from a patient with Bruck Syndrome showed COL1A1 and miR-29b expressions alike those from normal samples. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the miR-29b mechanism directed to regulate collagen protein accumulation during mineralization is dependent upon the amount of COL1A1 mRNA. Taken together, results indicate that the lower levels observed in OI samples were not sufficient for the induction of miR-29b.
Project description:Approximately 90% of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) exhibit dominant COL1A1 or COL1A2 mutations; however, molecular analysis is difficult because these genes span 51 and 52 exons, respectively. We devised a PCR-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) procedure to analyze the COL1A1 or COL1A2 coding regions and validated it using 130 DNA samples from individuals without OI, 25 DNA samples from two cells to investigate the procedure's potential for preimplantation diagnosis, and DNA samples from 10 patients with OI. Three novel intronic variants in vitro were expressed using a minigene assay to assess their effects on splicing. The procedure is rapid, inexpensive, and reproducible. Analysis of samples from individuals without OI revealed six novel and some known polymorphisms useful for linkage diagnosis because of high heterozygosity. Analysis of two-cell samples confirmed the known genotype in 24 of 25 experiments; DNA failed to amplify in only one case. No incidence of allele dropout was recorded. DHPLC revealed six novel mutations, three of which were intronic, in all patients with OI, and these results were confirmed by means of COL1A1 and COL1A2 direct sequencing. Expression of intronic mutations demonstrated that variant 804 + 2_804 + 3delTG in intron 11 disrupts normal splicing, thereby leading to formation of two alternative products. Variants c.3046-4_3046-5dupCT (COL1A1) and c.891 + 77A>T (COL1A2) did not affect splicing. The described DHPLC protocol combined with the minigene assay may contribute to molecular diagnosis in OI. Moreover, this protocol will aid in counseling about prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis.
Project description:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in the type I procollagen genes (COL1A1/COL1A2). We identified two children with substitutions in the type I procollagen C-propeptide cleavage site, which disrupt a unique processing step in collagen maturation and define a novel phenotype within OI. The patients have mild OI caused by mutations in COL1A1 (Patient 1: p.Asp1219Asn) or COL1A2 (Patient 2: p.Ala1119Thr), respectively. Patient 1 L1-L4 DXA Z-score was +3.9 and pQCT vBMD was+3.1; Patient 2 had L1-L4 DXA Z-score of 0.0 and pQCT vBMD of -1.8. Patient BMD contrasts with radiographic osteopenia and histomorphometry without osteosclerosis. Mutant procollagen processing is impaired in pericellular and in vitro assays. Patient dermal collagen fibrils have irregular borders. Incorporation of pC-collagen into matrix leads to increased bone mineralization. FTIR imaging confirms elevated mineral/matrix ratios in both patients, along with increased collagen maturation in trabecular bone, compared to normal or OI controls. Bone mineralization density distribution revealed a marked shift toward increased mineralization density for both patients. Patient 1 has areas of higher and lower bone mineralization than controls; Patient 2's bone matrix has a mineral content exceeding even classical OI bone. These patients define a new phenotype of high BMD OI and demonstrate that procollagen C-propeptide cleavage is crucial to normal bone mineralization.
Project description:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a family of genetic disorders associated with bone loss and fragility. Mutations associated with OI have been found in genes encoding the type I collagen chains. People with OI type I often produce insufficient ?1-chain type I collagen because of frameshift, nonsense, or splice site mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. This report is of a Chinese daughter and mother who had both experienced two bone fractures. Because skeletal fragility is predominantly inherited, we focused on identifying mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes. A novel mutation in COL1A1, c.700delG, was detected by genomic DNA sequencing in the mother and daughter, but not in their relatives. The identification of this mutation led to the conclusion that they were affected by mild OI type I. Open reading frame analysis indicated that this frameshift mutation would truncate ?1-chain type I collagen at residue p263 (p.E234KfsX264), while the wild-type protein would contain 1,464 residues. The clinical data were consistent with the patients' diagnosis of mild OI type I caused by haploinsufficiency of ?1-chain type I collagen. Combined with previous reports, identification of the novel mutation COL1A1-c.700delG in these patients suggests that additional genetic and environmental factors may influence the severity of OI.
Project description:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous brittle bone disorder. Whereas dominant OI is mostly due to heterozygous mutations in either COL1A1 or COL1A2, encoding type I procollagen, recessive OI is caused by biallelic mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in type I procollagen processing or chaperoning. Hitherto, some OI cases remain molecularly unexplained. We detected a homozygous genomic deletion of CREB3L1 in a family with severe OI. CREB3L1 encodes OASIS, an endoplasmic reticulum-stress transducer that regulates type I procollagen expression during murine bone formation. This is the first report linking CREB3L1 to human recessive OI, thereby expanding the OI gene spectrum.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare group of disorders characterized by increased susceptibility to fractures due to genetically determined bone fragility. About 90% of cases are due to mutations in COL1A1 (17q21.33) or COL1A2 (7q21.3) resulting in quantitative or qualitative defects in type I collagen, a key structural constituent of bone. OI due to complete COL1A1 deletion is rare. METHODS:We present a case of OI type I in a Caucasian female referred at 10 months of age for investigation of multiple fractures associated with minimal or no known trauma, small stature, and blue sclera. Her father has four to five lifetime fractures, blue sclera, normal stature, and a 14.5 kilobase (kb) deletion of COL1A1 detected by targeted array performed at an outside institution. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization was performed on the proband and all members of the family. RESULTS:A previously unreported 235 kb deletion at 17q21.33 encompassing COL1A1, ITGA3, PDK2, SGCA, and HILS1 was detected in the proband. Also identified in both the proband and sibling is a maternally inherited 283 kb gain at 8p21.3 encompassing CSGALNACT1 and a 163 kb loss at 10q21.3 encompassing CTNNA3. Analysis in the father revealed the same size deletion at 17q21.33 as in the proband. CONCLUSION:Together with previously reported cases of COL1A1 deletions, this case report emphasizes the importance of a whole-genome DNA copy number assessment in patients suspected for OI, which will elucidate the presence of precise COL1A1 deletions and any pathogenic secondary copy number variations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by an increased tendency for fractures throughout life. Autosomal dominant (AD) mutations in COL1A1 and COL1A2 are causative in approximately 85% of cases. In recent years, recessive variants in genes involved in collagen processing have been found. Hypodontia (<?6 missing permanent teeth) and oligodontia (? 6 missing permanent teeth) have previously been reported in individuals with OI. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether children and adolescents with OI and oligodontia and hypodontia also present with variants in other genes with potential effects on tooth development. The cohort comprised 10 individuals (7.7-19.9?years of age) with known COL1A1/A2 variants who we clinically and radiographically examined and further genetically evaluated by whole-genome sequencing. All study participants were treated at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden's national multidisciplinary pediatric OI team). We evaluated a panel of genes that were associated with nonsyndromic and syndromic hypodontia or oligodontia as well as that had been found to be involved in tooth development in animal models. RESULTS:We detected a homozygous nonsense variant in CREB3L1, p.Tyr428*, c.1284C?>?A in one boy previously diagnosed with OI type III. COL1A1 and COL1A2 were the only two genes among 9 individuals which carried a pathogenic mutation. We found rare variants with unknown significance in several other genes related to tooth development. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that mutations in COL1A1, COL1A2, and CREB3L1 may cause hypodontia and oligodontia in OI. The findings cannot exclude additive effects from other modifying or interacting genes that may contribute to the severity of the expressed phenotype. Larger cohorts and further functional studies are needed.
Project description:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous disorder that is characterized by bone fragility and systemic complications, and is mainly caused by gene mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. A novel COL1A1 splicing mutation, c.750+2T>A, was identified in a Japanese OI family. Only the proband in this family showed various complications, such as heart valve diseases and severe scoliosis. The clinical heterogeneity in the family is discussed in this study.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult cells with the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types, including bone, fat, cartilage, and muscle cells. In order to effectively utilize autologous MSCs in cell-based therapies, precise genetic manipulations are required to eliminate the effects of disease-causing mutations. We previously used adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to target and inactivate mutant COL1A1 genes in MSCs from individuals with the brittle bone disorder, osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Here we have used AAV vectors to inactivate mutant COL1A2 genes in OI MSCs, thereby demonstrating that both type I collagen genes responsible for OI can be successfully targeted. We incorporated improved vector designs so as to minimize the consequences of random integration, facilitate the removal of potential antigens, and avoid unwanted exon skipping. MSCs targeted at mutant COL1A2 alleles produced normal type I procollagen and formed bone, thereby demonstrating their therapeutic potential.