Precise genetic mapping and haplotype analysis of the familial dysautonomia gene on human chromosome 9q31.
ABSTRACT: Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental arrest in the sensory and autonomic nervous systems and by Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. We previously had mapped the defective gene (DYS) to an 11-cM segment of chromosome 9q31-33, flanked by D9S53 and D9S105. By using 11 new polymorphic loci, we now have narrowed the location of DYS to <0.5 cM between the markers 43B1GAGT and 157A3. Two markers in this interval, 164D1 and D9S1677, show no recombination with the disease. Haplotype analysis confirmed this candidate region and revealed a major haplotype shared by 435 of 441 FD chromosomes, indicating a striking founder effect. Three other haplotypes, found on the remaining 6 FD chromosomes, might represent independent mutations. The frequency of the major FD haplotype in the Ashkenazim (5 in 324 control chromosomes) was consistent with the estimated DYS carrier frequency of 1 in 32, and none of the four haplotypes associated with FD was observed on 492 non-FD chromosomes from obligatory carriers. It is now possible to provide accurate genetic testing both for families with FD and for carriers, on the basis of close flanking markers and the capacity to identify >98% of FD chromosomes by their haplotype.
Project description:The defective gene DYS, which is responsible for familial dysautonomia (FD) and has been mapped to a 0.5-cM region on chromosome 9q31, has eluded identification. We identified and characterized the RNAs encoded by this region of chromosome 9 in cell lines derived from individuals homozygous for the major FD haplotype, and we observed that the RNA encoding the IkappaB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP) lacks exon 20 and, as a result of a frameshift, encodes a truncated protein. Sequence analysis reveals a T-->C transition in the donor splice site of intron 20. In individuals bearing a minor FD haplotype, a missense mutation in exon 19 disrupts a consensus serine/threonine kinase phosphorylation site. This mutation results in defective phosphorylation of IKAP. These mutations were observed to be present in a random sample of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, at approximately the predicted carrier frequency of FD. These findings demonstrate that mutations in the gene encoding IKAP are responsible for FD.
Project description:Familial dysautonomia (FD; also known as "Riley-Day syndrome"), an Ashkenazi Jewish disorder, is the best known and most frequent of a group of congenital sensory neuropathies and is characterized by widespread sensory and variable autonomic dysfunction. Previously, we had mapped the FD gene, DYS, to a 0.5-cM region on chromosome 9q31 and had shown that the ethnic bias is due to a founder effect, with >99.5% of disease alleles sharing a common ancestral haplotype. To investigate the molecular basis of FD, we sequenced the minimal candidate region and cloned and characterized its five genes. One of these, IKBKAP, harbors two mutations that can cause FD. The major haplotype mutation is located in the donor splice site of intron 20. This mutation can result in skipping of exon 20 in the mRNA of patients with FD, although they continue to express varying levels of wild-type message in a tissue-specific manner. RNA isolated from lymphoblasts of patients is primarily wild-type, whereas only the deleted message is seen in RNA isolated from brain. The mutation associated with the minor haplotype in four patients is a missense (R696P) mutation in exon 19, which is predicted to disrupt a potential phosphorylation site. Our findings indicate that almost all cases of FD are caused by an unusual splice defect that displays tissue-specific expression; and they also provide the basis for rapid carrier screening in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.
Project description:Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterised by the absence of ganglia along variable lengths of the intestine. The RET gene is the major HSCR gene. Reduced penetrance of RET mutations and phenotypic variability suggest the involvement of additional modifying genes in the disease. A RET-dependent modifier locus was mapped to 9q31 in families bearing no coding sequence (CDS) RET mutations. Yet, the 9q31 causative locus is to be identified. To fine-map the 9q31 region, we genotyped 301 tag-SNPs spanning 7 Mb on 137 HSCR Dutch trios. This revealed two HSCR-associated regions that were further investigated in 173 Chinese HSCR patients and 436 controls using the genotype data obtained from a genome-wide association study recently conducted. Within one of the two identified regions SVEP1 SNPs were found associated with Dutch HSCR patients in the absence of RET mutations. This ratifies the reported linkage to the 9q31 region in HSCR families with no RET CDS mutations. However, this finding could not be replicated. In Chinese, HSCR was found associated with IKBKAP. In contrast, this association was stronger in patients carrying RET CDS mutations with p = 5.10 x 10(-6) [OR = 3.32 (1.99, 5.59)] after replication. The HSCR-association found for IKBKAP in Chinese suggests population specificity and implies that RET mutation carriers may have an additional risk. Our finding is supported by the role of IKBKAP in the development of the nervous system.
Project description:Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), a non-neuronopathic lysosomal storage disorder, results from the deficient activity of acid beta-glucosidase (GBA). Type 1 disease is panethnic but is more prevalent in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent. Of the causative GBA mutations, N370S is particularly frequent in the AJ population, (q approximately .03), whereas the 84GG insertion (q approximately .003) occurs exclusively in the Ashkenazim. To investigate the genetic history of these mutations in the AJ population, short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used to map a 9.3-cM region containing the GBA locus and to genotype 261 AJ N370S chromosomes, 60 European non-Jewish N370S chromosomes, and 62 AJ 84GG chromosomes. A highly conserved haplotype at four markers flanking GBA (PKLR, D1S1595, D1S2721, and D1S2777) was observed on both the AJ chromosomes and the non-Jewish N370S chromosomes, suggesting the occurrence of a founder common to both populations. Of note, the presence of different divergent haplotypes suggested the occurrence of de novo, recurrent N370S mutations. In contrast, a different conserved haplotype at these markers was identified on the 84GG chromosomes, which was unique to the AJ population. On the basis of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) delta values, the non-Jewish European N370S chromosomes had greater haplotype diversity and less LD at the markers flanking the conserved haplotype than did the AJ N370S chromosomes. This finding is consistent with the presence of the N370S mutation in the non-Jewish European population prior to the founding of the AJ population. Coalescence analyses for the N370S and 84GG mutations estimated similar coalescence times, of 48 and 55.5 generations ago, respectively. The results of these studies are consistent with a significant bottleneck occurring in the AJ population during the first millennium, when the population became established in Europe.
Project description:Reduced penetrance in genetic disorders may be either dependent or independent of the genetic background of gene carriers. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) demonstrates a complex pattern of inheritance with approximately 50% of familial cases being heterozygous for mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. Even when identified, the penetrance of RET mutations is only 50-70%, gender-dependent, and varies with the extent of aganglionosis. We searched for additional susceptibility genes which, in conjunction with RET, lead to phenotypic expression by studying 12 multiplex HSCR families. Haplotype analysis and extensive mutation screening demonstrated three types of families: six families harboring severe RET mutations (group I); and the six remaining families, five of which are RET-linked families with no sequence alterations and one RET-unlinked family (group II). Although the presence of RET mutations in group I families is sufficient to explain HSCR inheritance, a genome scan reveals a new susceptibility locus on 9q31 exclusively in group II families. As such, the gene at 9q31 is a modifier of HSCR penetrance. These observations imply that identification of new susceptibility factors in a complex disease may depend on classification of families by mutational type at known susceptibility genes.
Project description:Hypertensive nephropathy (HN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are significant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but no genes or loci have been associated with this phenotype among African Americans, a group at high risk. We performed a genomewide linkage scan with approximately 400 microsatellite markers on 23 individuals of a large four-generation African American family with 18 affected individuals (7 with ESRD), in which the 13-year-old proband (also with ESRD) presented with hypertension and proteinuria (2-4 g/day) and underwent a kidney biopsy that revealed FSGS-like lesions with arteriolar thickening. A genomewide scan revealed LOD scores of >2.5 for markers on chromosomes 3 and 9, and fine mapping was performed on 5 additional members (total 28 members) that showed a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.4 in the 9q31-q32 region, under an autosomal dominant model with 99% penetrance. This 8-cM (6-Mb) region is flanked by markers D9S172 and D9S105, and further candidate gene sequencing studies excluded the coding regions of three genes (ACTL7A, ACTL7B, and CTNNAL1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of a locus, denoted as "HNP1," for the HN/FSGS phenotype in a large African American family with dominantly inherited nephropathy characterized by ESRD, hypertension, and some features of FSGS.
Project description:The N370S mutation at the GBA locus on human chromosome 1q21, which causes Gaucher disease (GD), has a high frequency in the Ashkenazim and is the second-most-widespread GD mutation in the European non-Jewish population. A common ancient origin for the N370S mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish and Spanish populations has been proposed on the basis of both a similar haplotype for associated markers and an age estimate that suggests that this mutation appeared several thousand years ago. However, a reappraisal of haplotype data, using the Risch formula properly along with a Luria-Delbrück setting of the genetic clock, allows identification of the likely origin of the N370S mutation in Ashkenazi Jews between the 11th and 13th centuries. This result is consistent with the estimated ages of other mutations that are frequent among Ashkenazim, with the exception of type II (Glu117Stop) factor XI deficiency, which is deemed to be >3000 years old, predating the separation of the Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jews. The present finding supports the hypothesis of a more recent origin for the N370S mutation and is consistent with both a founder chromosome transfer from Ashkenazim who assimilated in some European populations and a non-Jewish origin of the European N370S-bearing chromosomes.
Project description:The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ~2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5?MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ~5?MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750-1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ~650 years ago, and into the Iraqi-Jewish community ~450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews.
Project description:Characterized by proximal muscle weakness and wasting, limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders. Previous reports have documented either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive modes of inheritance, with genetic linkage studies providing evidence for the existence of at least 12 distinct loci. Gene products have been identified for five genes responsible for autosomal recessive forms of the disorder. We performed a genome scan using pooled DNA from a large Hutterite kindred in which the affected members display a mild form of autosomal recessive LGMD. A total of 200 markers were used to screen pools of DNA from patients and their siblings. Linkage between the LGMD locus and D9S302 (maximum LOD score 5.99 at recombination fraction .03) was established. Since this marker resides within the chromosomal region known to harbor the gene causing Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), we expanded our investigations, to include additional markers in chromosome region 9q31-q34.1. Haplotype analysis revealed five recombinations that place the LGMD locus distal to the FCMD locus. The LGMD locus maps close to D9S934 (maximum multipoint LOD score 7.61) in a region that is estimated to be approximately 4.4 Mb (Genetic Location Database composite map). On the basis of an inferred ancestral recombination, the gene may lie in a 300-kb region between D9S302 and D9S934. Our results provide compelling evidence that yet another gene is involved in LGMD; we suggest that it be named "LGMD2H."
Project description:Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common form of muscular dystrophy in Japan, is an autosomal recessive severe muscular dystrophy associated with brain anomalies. After our initial mapping of the FCMD locus to chromosome 9q31-33, we have further defined the locus within a approximately 5-cM region between D9S127 and D9S2111 and have found linkage disequilibrium between FCMD and D9S306 in this candidate region on 9q31. The high prevalence of FCMD among the Japanese, who are a relatively isolated population, provides an opportunity to utilize linkage-disequilibrium mapping. We developed three new microsatellites, near D9S306, from the FCMD YAC contig, determined their positions on YACs, and performed linkage-disequilibrium mapping with these markers and other newly published loci. The maximum value of p(excess), which represents the strength of linkage disequilibrium, was obtained at D9S2107; and this value showed a relatively steady rise and fall across the region that is likely to contain FCMD. Distances between FCMD and each marker were presumed to be approximately 1 Mb, approximately 350 kb, approximately 140 kb, approximately 20 kb, approximately 280 kb, approximately 450 kb, and approximately 740 kb for D9S306, A107XF9, D9S2105, D9S2107, D9S172, D9S299, and D9S2109, respectively. Haplotype analysis using the three closest markers D9S2105, D9S2107, and D9S172 indicated that most FCMD-bearing chromosomes are derived from a single ancestral founder and suggested that these markers can be used for the diagnosis of sporadic FCMD. Thus, the FCMD gene is most likely to lie within a region of <100 kb containing D9S2107.