AtNAP1 represents an atypical SufB protein in Arabidopsis plastids.
ABSTRACT: The assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters involves several pathways and in prokaryotes the mobilization of the sulfur (SUF) system is paramount for Fe-S biogenesis and repair during oxidative stress. The prokaryotic SUF system consists of six proteins: SufC is an ABC/ATPase that forms a complex with SufB and SufD, SufA acts as a scaffold protein, and SufE and SufS are involved in sulfur mobilization from cysteine. Despite the importance of Fe-S proteins in higher plant plastids, little is known regarding plastidic Fe-S cluster assembly. We have recently shown that Arabidopsis harbors an evolutionary conserved plastidic SufC protein (AtNAP7) capable of hydrolyzing ATP and interacting with the SufD homolog AtNAP6. Based on this and the prokaryotic SUF system we speculated that a SufB-like protein may exist in plastids. Here we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis plastid-localized SufB homolog AtNAP1 can complement SufB deficiency in Escherichia coli during oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AtNAP1 can interact with AtNAP7 inside living chloroplasts suggesting the presence of a plastidic AtNAP1.AtNAP6.AtNAP7 complex and remarkable evolutionary conservation of the SUF system. However, in contrast to prokaryotic SufB proteins with no associated ATPase activity we show that AtNAP1 is an iron-stimulated ATPase and that AtNAP1 is capable of forming homodimers. Our results suggest that AtNAP1 represents an atypical plastidic SufB-like protein important for Fe-S cluster assembly and for regulating iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis.
Project description:In vivo biogenesis of Fe-S cluster cofactors requires complex biosynthetic machinery to limit release of iron and sulfide, to protect the Fe-S cluster from oxidation, and to target the Fe-S cluster to the correct apoenzyme. The SufABCDSE pathway for Fe-S cluster assembly in Escherichia coli accomplishes these tasks under iron starvation and oxidative stress conditions that disrupt Fe-S cluster metabolism. Although SufB, SufC, and SufD are all required for in vivo Suf function, their exact roles are unclear. Here we show that SufB, SufC, and SufD, coexpressed with the SufS-SufE sulfur transfer pair, purify as two distinct complexes (SufBC(2)D and SufB(2)C(2)) that contain Fe-S clusters and FADH(2). These studies also show that SufC and SufD are required for in vivo Fe-S cluster formation on SufB. Furthermore, while SufD is dispensable for in vivo sulfur transfer, it is absolutely required for in vivo iron acquisition. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that the ATPase activity of SufC is necessary for in vivo iron acquisition during Fe-S cluster assembly.
Project description:In bacteria, yeast, and mammals, iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing proteins are involved in numerous processes including electron transfer, metabolic reactions, sensing, signaling, and regulation of gene expression. In humans, iron-storage diseases such as X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia are caused by defects in Fe-S cluster availability. The biogenesis of Fe-S clusters involves several pathways, and in bacteria, the SufABCDSE operon has been shown to play a vital role in Fe-S biogenesis and repair during oxidative stress. Although Fe-S proteins play vital roles in plants, Fe-S cluster biogenesis and maintenance and physiological consequences of dysfunctional Fe-S cluster assembly remains obscure. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants deficient for the SufC homolog AtNAP7 show lethality at the globular stage of embryogenesis. AtNAP7 is expressed in developing embryos and in apical, root, and floral meristems and encodes an ATP-binding cassette/ATPase that can partially rescue growth defects in an Escherichia coli SufC mutant during oxidative stress. AtNAP7 is plastid-localized, and mutant embryos contain abnormal developing plastids with disorganized thylakoid structures. We found that AtNAP7 can interact with AtNAP6, a plastidic Arabidopsis SufD homolog, and because Arabidopsis plastids also harbor SufA, SufB, SufS, and SufE homologs, plastids probably contain a complete SUF system. Our results imply that AtNAP7 represents a conserved SufC protein involved in the biogenesis and/or repair of oxidatively damaged Fe-S clusters and suggest an important role for plastidic Fe-S cluster maintenance and repair during Arabidopsis embryogenesis.
Project description:Maturation of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins is achieved by the SUF machinery in a wide number of eubacteria and archaea, as well as eukaryotic chloroplasts. This machinery is encoded in Escherichia coli by the sufABCDSE operon, where three Suf components, SufB, SufC, and SufD, form a complex and appear to provide an intermediary site for the Fe-S cluster assembly. Here, we report the quaternary structure of the SufC(2)-SufD(2) complex in which SufC is bound to the C-terminal domain of SufD. Comparison with the monomeric structure of SufC revealed conformational change of the active-site residues: SufC becomes competent for ATP binding and hydrolysis upon association with SufD. The two SufC subunits were spatially separated in the SufC(2)-SufD(2) complex, whereas cross-linking experiments in solution have indicated that two SufC molecules associate with each other in the presence of Mg(2+) and ATP. Such dimer formation of SufC may lead to a gross structural change of the SufC(2)-SufD(2) complex. Furthermore, genetic analysis of SufD revealed an essential histidine residue buried inside the dimer interface, suggesting that conformational change may expose this crucial residue. These findings, together with biochemical characterization of the SufB-SufC-SufD complex, have led us to propose a model for the Fe-S cluster biosynthesis in the complex.
Project description:Biogenesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters is an indispensable process in living cells. In Escherichia coli, the SUF biosynthetic system consists of six proteins among which SufB, SufC and SufD form the SufBCD complex, which serves as a scaffold for the assembly of nascent Fe-S cluster. Despite recent progress in biochemical and structural studies, little is known about the specific regions providing the scaffold. Here we present a systematic mutational analysis of SufB and SufD and map their critical residues in two distinct regions. One region is located on the N-terminal side of the ?-helix core domain of SufB, where biochemical studies revealed that Cys254 of SufB (SufBC254) is essential for sulfur-transfer from SufE. Another functional region resides at an interface between SufB and SufD, where three residues (SufBC405, SufBE434, and SufDH360) appear to comprise the site for de novo cluster formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate a plausible tunnel in the ?-helix core domain of SufB through which the sulfur species may be transferred from SufBC254 to SufBC405. In contrast, a canonical Fe-S cluster binding motif (CxxCxxxC) of SufB is dispensable. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of Fe-S cluster assembly by the SufBCD complex.
Project description:Fe-S clusters play critical roles in cellular function throughout all three kingdoms of life. Consequently, Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems are present in most organisms. The Suf (sulfur formation) system is the most ancient of the three characterized Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways, which also include the Isc and Nif systems. Much of the first work on the Suf system took place in Gram-negative Proteobacteria used as model organisms. These early studies led to a wealth of biochemical, genetic, and physiological information on Suf function. From those studies we have learned that SufB functions as an Fe-S scaffold in conjunction with SufC (and in some cases SufD). SufS and SufE together mobilize sulfur for cluster assembly and SufA traffics the complete Fe-S cluster from SufB to target apo-proteins. However, recent progress on the Suf system in other organisms has opened up new avenues of research and new hypotheses about Suf function. This review focuses primarily on the most recent discoveries about the Suf pathway and where those new models may lead the field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.
Project description:The biosynthesis of iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters in Bacillus subtilis is mediated by a SUF-type gene cluster, consisting of the cysteine desulfurase SufS, the scaffold protein SufU, and the putative chaperone complex SufB/SufC/SufD. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of the SufS homodimer in its product-bound state (i.e., in complex with pyrodoxal-5'-phosphate, alanine, Cys361-persulfide). By performing hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) experiments, we characterized the interaction of SufS with SufU and demonstrate that SufU induces an opening of the active site pocket of SufS. Recent data indicate that frataxin could be involved in Fe-S cluster biosynthesis by facilitating iron incorporation. H/DX experiments show that frataxin indeed interacts with the SufS/SufU complex at the active site. Our findings deepen the current understanding of Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, a complex yet essential process, in the model organism B. subtilis.
Project description:Assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and maturation of Fe-S proteins in vivo require complex machineries. In Escherichia coli, under adverse stress conditions, this process is achieved by the SUF system that contains six proteins as follows: SufA, SufB, SufC, SufD, SufS, and SufE. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the SufBCD complex whose function was so far unknown. Using biochemical and spectroscopic analyses, we demonstrate the following: (i) the complex as isolated exists mainly in a 1:2:1 (B:C:D) stoichiometry; (ii) the complex can assemble a [4Fe-4S] cluster in vitro and transfer it to target proteins; and (iii) the complex binds one molecule of flavin adenine nucleotide per SufBC(2)D complex, only in its reduced form (FADH(2)), which has the ability to reduce ferric iron. These results suggest that the SufBC(2)D complex functions as a novel type of scaffold protein that assembles an Fe-S cluster through the mobilization of sulfur from the SufSE cysteine desulfurase and the FADH(2)-dependent reductive mobilization of iron.
Project description:Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster metalloproteins conduct essential functions in nearly all contemporary forms of life. The nearly ubiquitous presence of Fe-S clusters and the fundamental requirement for Fe-S clusters in both aerobic and anaerobic Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya suggest that these clusters were likely integrated into central metabolic pathways early in the evolution of life prior to the widespread oxidation of Earth's atmosphere. Intriguingly, Fe-S cluster-dependent metabolism is sensitive to disruption by oxygen because of the decreased bioavailability of ferric iron as well as direct oxidation of sulfur trafficking intermediates and Fe-S clusters by reactive oxygen species. This fact, coupled with the ubiquity of Fe-S clusters in aerobic organisms, suggests that organisms evolved with mechanisms that facilitate the biogenesis and use of these essential cofactors in the presence of oxygen, which gradually began to accumulate around 2.5 billion years ago as oxygenic photosynthesis proliferated and reduced minerals that buffered against oxidation were depleted. This review highlights the most ancient of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways, the Suf system, which likely was present in early anaerobic forms of life. Herein, we use the evolution of the Suf pathway to assess the relationships between the biochemical functions and physiological roles of Suf proteins, with an emphasis on the selective pressure of oxygen toxicity. Our analysis suggests that diversification into oxygen-containing environments disrupted iron and sulfur metabolism and was a main driving force in the acquisition of accessory Suf proteins (such as SufD, SufE, and SufS) by the core SufB-SufC scaffold complex. This analysis provides a new framework for the study of Fe-S cluster biogenesis pathways and Fe-S cluster-containing metalloenzymes and their complicated patterns of divergence in response to oxygen.
Project description:Iron/sulfur cluster (ISC)-containing proteins are essential components of cells. In most eukaryotes, Fe/S clusters are synthesized by the mitochondrial ISC machinery, the cytosolic iron/sulfur assembly system, and, in photosynthetic species, a plastid sulfur-mobilization (SUF) system. Here we show that the anaerobic human protozoan parasite Blastocystis, in addition to possessing ISC and iron/sulfur assembly systems, expresses a fused version of the SufC and SufB proteins of prokaryotes that it has acquired by lateral transfer from an archaeon related to the Methanomicrobiales, an important lineage represented in the human gastrointestinal tract microbiome. Although components of the Blastocystis ISC system function within its anaerobic mitochondrion-related organelles and can functionally replace homologues in Trypanosoma brucei, its SufCB protein has similar biochemical properties to its prokaryotic homologues, functions within the parasite's cytosol, and is up-regulated under oxygen stress. Blastocystis is unique among eukaryotic pathogens in having adapted to its parasitic lifestyle by acquiring a SUF system from nonpathogenic Archaea to synthesize Fe/S clusters under oxygen stress.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type ATPases are chemomechanical engines involved in diverse biological pathways. Recent genomic information reveals that ABC ATPase domains/subunits act not only in ABC transporters and structural maintenance of chromosome proteins, but also in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis. A novel type of ABC protein, the SufBCD complex, functions in the biosynthesis of nascent Fe-S clusters in almost all Eubacteria and Archaea, as well as eukaryotic chloroplasts. In this study, we determined the first crystal structure of the Escherichia coli SufBCD complex, which exhibits the common architecture of ABC proteins: two ABC ATPase components (SufC) with function-specific components (SufB-SufD protomers). Biochemical and physiological analyses based on this structure provided critical insights into Fe-S cluster assembly and revealed a dynamic conformational change driven by ABC ATPase activity. We propose a molecular mechanism for the biogenesis of the Fe-S cluster in the SufBCD complex.