Identification of a structural motif that confers specific interaction with the WD40 repeat domain of Arabidopsis COP1.
ABSTRACT: Arabidopsis COP1 is a photomorphogenesis repressor capable of directly interacting with the photomorphogenesis-promoting factor HY5. This interaction between HY5 and COP1 results in targeted deg radation of HY5 by the 26S proteasome. Here we characterized the WD40 repeat domain-mediated interactions of COP1 with HY5 and two new proteins. Mutational analysis of those interactive partners revealed a conserved motif responsible for the interaction with the WD40 domain. This novel motif, with the core sequence V-P-E/D-φ-G (φ = hydrophobic residue) in conjunction with an upstream stretch of 4-5 negatively charged residues, interacts with a defined surface area of the ss-propeller assembly of the COP1 WD40 repeat domain through both hydrophobic and ionic interactions. Several residues in the COP1 WD40 domain that are critical for the interaction with this motif have been revealed. The fact that point mutations either in the COP1 WD40 domain or in the HY5 motif that abolish the interaction between COP1 and HY5 in yeast result in a dramatic reduction of HY5 degradation in transgenic plants validates the biological significance of this defined interaction.
Project description:Arabidopsis COP1 is a constitutive repressor of photomorphogenesis that interacts with photomorphogenesis-promoting factors such as HY5 to promote their proteasome-mediated degradation. SPA1 is a repressor of phytochrome A-mediated responses to far-red light. Here we report that COP1 acts as part of a large protein complex and interacts with SPA1 in a light-dependent manner. We further demonstrate the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of COP1 on HY5 in vitro and the alteration of that activity by SPA1. Thus, the COP1-SPA1 interaction defines a critical step in coordinating COP1-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of HY5 with PHYA signaling.
Project description:The unique member of the calmodulin gene family, Calmodulin7 (CAM7), plays a crucial role as transcriptional regulator to promote Arabidopsis seedling development. CAM7 regulates the expression of HY5, which is intimately involved in the promotion of photomorphogenic growth and light-regulated gene expression. COP1 ubiquitin ligase suppresses photomorphogenesis by degrading multiple photomorphogenesis promoting factors including HY5 in darkness. Genetic interaction studies, in this report, reveal that CAM7 and COP1 co-ordinately work to promote photomorphogenic growth and light-regulated gene expression at lower intensity of light. CAM7 physically interacts with COP1 in the nucleus. Further, in vivo study suggests that CAM7 and COP1 interaction is light intensity dependent. We have also shown that functional COP1 is required for optimum accumulation of CAM7 at lower fluences of light. Taken together, this study demonstrates the coordinated function of CAM7 and COP1 in Arabidopsis seedling development.
Project description:Arabidopsis COP1 acts to repress photomorphogenesis in the absence of light. It was shown that in the dark, COP1 directly interacts with the bZIP transcription factor HY5, a positive regulator of photomorphogenesis, and promotes its proteasome-mediated degradation. Here we identify a novel bZIP protein HYH, as a new target of COP1. We identify a physical and genetic interaction between HYH and COP1 and show that this interaction results in dark-specific degradation of HYH. Genetic analysis indicates that HYH is predominantly involved in blue-light regulation of development and gene expression, and that the function of HYH in part overlaps with that of HY5. The accumulation of HYH protein, not the mRNA, is dependent on the presence of HY5. Our data suggest that HYH and HY5 can, respectively, act as heterodimers and homodimers, thus mediating light-regulated expression of overlapping as well as distinct target genes. We propose that COP1 mediates light control of gene expression through targeted degradation of multiple photomorphogenesis-promoting transcription factors in the nucleus.
Project description:UV-B light initiates photomorphogenic responses in plants. Arabidopsis UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) specifically mediates these responses by functioning as a UV-B photoreceptor. UV-B exposure converts UVR8 from a dimer to a monomer, stimulates the rapid accumulation of UVR8 in the nucleus, where it binds to chromatin, and induces interaction of UVR8 with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), which functions with UVR8 to control photomorphogenic UV-B responses. Although the crystal structure of UVR8 reveals the basis of photoreception, it does not show how UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with COP1. Here we report that a region of 27 amino acids from the C terminus of UVR8 (C27) mediates the interaction with COP1. The C27 region is necessary for UVR8 function in the regulation of gene expression and hypocotyl growth suppression in Arabidopsis. However, UVR8 lacking C27 still undergoes UV-B-induced monomerization in both yeast and plant protein extracts, accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV-B, and interacts with chromatin at the UVR8-regulated ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) gene. The UV-B-dependent interaction of UVR8 and COP1 is reproduced in yeast cells and we show that C27 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of UVR8 with the WD40 domain of COP1. Furthermore, we show that C27 interacts in yeast with the REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS proteins, RUP1 and RUP2, which are negative regulators of UVR8 function. Hence the C27 region has a key role in UVR8 function.
Project description:COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.
Project description:UV-B (280-315 nm) is an integral part of solar radiation and can act either as a stress inducer or as a developmental signal. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the low-fluence UV-B-induced photomorphogenic response and several key players in this response have been identified, which include UVR8 (a UV-B-specific photoreceptor), COP1 (a WD40-repeat-containing RING finger protein), HY5 (a basic zipper transcription factor), and RUP1/2 (two UVR8-interacting proteins). Here we report that Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE (STO/BBX24), a known regulator for light signaling in plants, defines a new signaling component in UV-B-mediated photomorphogenesis. The bbx24 mutant is hypersensitive to UV-B radiation and becomes extremely dwarfed under UV-B treatment. By contrast, BBX24 overexpression transgenic lines respond much more weakly to UV-B than the bbx24 and wild-type plants. BBX24 expression is UV-B-inducible and its accumulation under UV-B requires COP1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that BBX24 interacts with COP1 in planta upon UV-B illumination. Moreover, BBX24 interacts with HY5 and acts antagonistically with HY5 in UV-B-induced inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, BBX24 attenuates UV-B-induced HY5 accumulation and suppresses its transcription-activation activity. Taken together, our results reveal a previously uncharacterized function of the light-regulated BBX24 in UV-B responses and demonstrate that BBX24 functions as a negative regulator of photomorphogenic UV-B responses by interacting with both COP1 and HY5. The UV-B-inducible expression pattern and its suppression of HY5 activity suggest that BBX24 could be a new component of the feedback regulatory module of UV-B signaling in plants.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1) is a RING and WD40 protein that functions as a substrate receptor of CULLIN4-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1)-based E3 ubiquitin ligases in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis, COP1 is a central repressor of photomorphogenesis in the form of COP1-suppressor of PHYA (SPA) complex(es). CUL4-DDB1-COP1-SPA suppresses the photomorphogenic program by targeting the transcription factor elongated hypocotyl 5 for degradation. Intriguingly, under photomorphogenic UV-B light, COP1 reverses its repressive role and promotes photomorphogenesis. However, the mechanism by which COP1 is functionally switched is still obscure. Here, we demonstrate that UV-B triggers the physical and functional disassociation of the COP1-SPA core complex(es) from CUL4-DDB1 and the formation of a unique complex(es) containing the UV-B receptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). The establishment of this UV-B-dependent COP1 complex(es) is associated with its positive modulation of elongated hypocotyl 5 stability and activity, which sheds light on the mechanism of COP1's promotive action in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis.
Project description:COP1 is a highly conserved ubiquitin ligase that regulates diverse cellular processes in plants and metazoans. Tribbles pseudokinases, which only exist in metazoans, act as scaffolds that interact with COP1 and its substrates to facilitate ubiquitination. Here, we report that, in addition to this scaffolding role, TRIB1 promotes nuclear localization of COP1 by disrupting an intramolecular interaction between the WD40 domain and a previously uncharacterized regulatory site within COP1. This site, which we have termed the pseudosubstrate latch (PSL), resembles the consensus COP1-binding motif present in known COP1 substrates. Our findings support a model in which binding of the PSL to the WD40 domain stabilizes a conformation of COP1 that is conducive to CRM1-mediated nuclear export, and TRIB1 displaces this intramolecular interaction to induce nuclear retention of COP1. Coevolution of Tribbles and the PSL in metazoans further underscores the importance of this role of Tribbles in regulating COP1 function.
Project description:COP1 proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate phototropism in plants and target transcription factors for degradation in mammals. The substrate-binding region of COP1 resides within a WD40-repeat domain that also binds to Trib proteins, which are adaptors for C/EBP? degradation. Here we report structures of the human COP1 WD40 domain in isolation, and complexes of the human and Arabidopsis thaliana COP1 WD40 domains with the binding motif of Trib1. The human and Arabidopsis WD40 domains are seven-bladed ? propellers with an inserted loop on the bottom face of the first blade. The Trib1 peptide binds in an extended conformation to a highly conserved surface on the top face of the ? propeller, indicating a general mode for recognition of peptide motifs by COP1. Together, these studies identify the structural basis and key interactions for motif recognition by COP1, and hint at how Trib1 autoinhibition is overcome to target C/EBP? for degradation.
Project description:In the dark, etiolated seedlings display a long hypocotyl, the growth of which is rapidly inhibited when the seedlings are exposed to light. In contrast, the phytohormone ethylene prevents hypocotyl elongation in the dark but enhances its growth in the light. However, the mechanism by which light and ethylene signalling oppositely affect this process at the protein level is unclear. Here, we report that ethylene enhances the movement of constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1) to the nucleus where it mediates the degradation of long hypocotyl 5 (HY5), contributing to hypocotyl growth in the light. Our results indicate that HY5 is required for ethylene-promoted hypocotyl growth in the light, but not in the dark. Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we found that HY5 functions downstream of ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3) for ethylene-promoted hypocotyl growth. Furthermore, the upstream regulation of HY5 stability by ethylene is COP1-dependent, and COP1 is genetically located downstream of EIN3, indicating that the COP1-HY5 complex integrates light and ethylene signalling downstream of EIN3. Importantly, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enriched the nuclear localisation of COP1; however, this effect was dependent on EIN3 only in the presence of light, strongly suggesting that ethylene promotes the effects of light on the movement of COP1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Thus, our investigation demonstrates that the COP1-HY5 complex is a novel integrator that plays an essential role in ethylene-promoted hypocotyl growth in the light.