Physiological importance and identification of novel targets for the N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB.
ABSTRACT: The N-terminal acetyltransferase NatB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of the catalytic subunit Nat3p and the associated subunit Mdm20p. We here extend our present knowledge about the physiological role of NatB by a combined proteomics and phenomics approach. We found that strains deleted for either NAT3 or MDM20 displayed different growth rates and morphologies in specific stress conditions, demonstrating that the two NatB subunits have partly individual functions. Earlier reported phenotypes of the nat3Delta strain have been associated with altered functionality of actin cables. However, we found that point mutants of tropomyosin that suppress the actin cable defect observed in nat3Delta only partially restores wild-type growth and morphology, indicating the existence of functionally important acetylations unrelated to actin cable function. Predicted NatB substrates were dramatically overrepresented in a distinct set of biological processes, mainly related to DNA processing and cell cycle progression. Three of these proteins, Cac2p, Pac10p, and Swc7p, were identified as true NatB substrates. To identify N-terminal acetylations potentially important for protein function, we performed a large-scale comparative phenotypic analysis including nat3Delta and strains deleted for the putative NatB substrates involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA processing. By this procedure we predicted functional importance of the N-terminal acetylation for 31 proteins.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The addition of an acetyl group to protein N-termini is a widespread co-translational modification. NatB is one of the main N-acetyltransferases that targets a subset of proteins possessing an N-terminal methionine, but so far only a handful of substrates have been reported. Using a yeast nat3? strain, deficient for the catalytic subunit of NatB, we employed a quantitative proteomics strategy to identify NatB substrates and to characterize downstream effects in nat3?. RESULTS: Comparing by proteomics WT and nat3? strains, using metabolic 15N isotope labeling, we confidently identified 59 NatB substrates, out of a total of 756 detected acetylated protein N-termini. We acquired in-depth proteome wide measurements of expression levels of about 2580 proteins. Most remarkably, NatB deletion led to a very significant change in protein phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression levels change only marginally in between WT and nat3?. A comparison of the detected NatB substrates with their orthologous revealed remarkably little conservation throughout the phylogenetic tree. We further present evidence of post-translational N-acetylation on protein variants at non-annotated N-termini. Moreover, analysis of downstream effects in nat3? revealed elevated protein phosphorylation levels whereby the kinase Snf1p is likely a key element in this process.
Project description:Protein N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is an important mediator of protein function, stability, sorting, and localization. Although the responsible enzymes are thought to be fairly well characterized, the lack of identified in vivo substrates, the occurrence of Nt-acetylation substrates displaying yet uncharacterized N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) specificities, and emerging evidence of posttranslational Nt-acetylation, necessitate the use of genetic models and quantitative proteomics. NatB, which targets Met-Glu-, Met-Asp-, and Met-Asn-starting protein N termini, is presumed to Nt-acetylate 15% of all yeast and 18% of all human proteins. We here report on the evolutionary traits of NatB from yeast to human and demonstrate that ectopically expressed hNatB in a yNatB-? yeast strain partially complements the natB-? phenotypes and partially restores the yNatB Nt-acetylome. Overall, combining quantitative N-terminomics with yeast studies and knockdown of hNatB in human cell lines, led to the unambiguous identification of 180 human and 110 yeast NatB substrates. Interestingly, these substrates included Met-Gln- N-termini, which are thus now classified as in vivo NatB substrates. We also demonstrate the requirement of hNatB activity for maintaining the structure and function of actomyosin fibers and for proper cellular migration. In addition, expression of tropomyosin-1 restored the altered focal adhesions and cellular migration defects observed in hNatB-depleted HeLa cells, indicative for the conserved link between NatB, tropomyosin, and actin cable function from yeast to human.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved Mdm20 protein (Mdm20p) plays an important role in tropomyosin-F-actin interactions that generate actin filaments and cables in budding yeast. However, Mdm20p is not a structural component of actin filaments or cables, and its exact function in cable stability has remained a mystery. Here, we show that cells lacking Mdm20p fail to N-terminally acetylate Tpm1p, an abundant form of tropomyosin that binds and stabilizes actin filaments and cables. The F-actin-binding activity of unacetylated Tpm1p is reduced severely relative to the acetylated form. These results are complemented by the recent report that Mdm20p copurifies with one of three acetyltransferases in yeast, the NatB complex. We present genetic evidence that Mdm20p functions cooperatively with Nat3p, the catalytic subunit of the NatB acetyltransferase. These combined results strongly suggest that Mdm20p-dependent, N-terminal acetylation of Tpm1p by the NatB complex is required for Tpm1p association with, and stabilization of, actin filaments and cables.
Project description:NatB is an N-terminal acetyltransferase consisting of a catalytic Nat5 subunit and an auxiliary Mdm20 subunit. In yeast, NatB acetylates N-terminal methionines of proteins during de novo protein synthesis and also regulates actin remodeling through N-terminal acetylation of tropomyosin (Trpm), which stabilizes the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with actin. However, in mammalian cells, the biological functions of the Mdm20 and Nat5 subunits are not well understood. In the present study, we show for the first time that Mdm20-knockdown (KD), but not Nat5-KD, in HEK293 and HeLa cells suppresses not only cell growth, but also cellular motility. Although stress fibers were formed in Mdm20-KD cells, and not in control or Nat5-KD cells, the localization of Trpm did not coincide with the formation of stress fibers in Mdm20-KD cells. Notably, knockdown of Mdm20 reduced the expression of Rictor, an mTORC2 complex component, through post-translational regulation. Additionally, PKC?S657 phosphorylation, which regulates the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, was also reduced in Mdm20-KD cells. Our data also suggest that FoxO1 phosphorylation is regulated by the Mdm20-mTORC2-Akt pathway in response to serum starvation and insulin stimulation. Taken together, the present findings suggest that Mdm20 acts as a novel regulator of Rictor, thereby controlling mTORC2 activity, and leading to the activation of PKC?S657 and FoxO1.
Project description:NatB is one of three major N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) complexes (NatA-NatC), which co-translationally acetylate the N-termini of eukaryotic proteins. Its substrates account for about 21% of the human proteome, including well known proteins such as actin, tropomyosin, CDK2, and ?-synuclein (?Syn). Human NatB (hNatB) mediated N-terminal acetylation of ?Syn has been demonstrated to play key roles in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and as a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we report the cryo-EM structure of hNatB bound to a CoA-?Syn conjugate, together with structure-guided analysis of mutational effects on catalysis. This analysis reveals functionally important differences with human NatA and Candida albicans NatB, resolves key hNatB protein determinants for ?Syn N-terminal acetylation, and identifies important residues for substrate-specific recognition and acetylation by NatB enzymes. These studies have implications for developing small molecule NatB probes and for understanding the mode of substrate selection by NAT enzymes.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential metabolite participating in cellular redox chemistry and signaling, and the complex regulation of NAD+ metabolism is not yet fully understood. To investigate this, we established a NAD+-intermediate specific reporter system to identify factors required for salvage of metabolically linked nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinic acid (NA). Mutants lacking components of the NatB complex, NAT3 and MDM20, appeared as hits in this screen. NatB is an Nα-terminal acetyltransferase responsible for acetylation of the N terminus of specific Met-retained peptides. In NatB mutants, increased NA/NAM levels were concomitant with decreased NAD+ We identified the vacuolar pool of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as the source of this increased NA/NAM. This NR pool is increased by nitrogen starvation, suggesting NAD+ and related metabolites may be trafficked to the vacuole for recycling. Supporting this, increased NA/NAM release in NatB mutants was abolished by deleting the autophagy protein ATG14 We next examined Tpm1 (tropomyosin), whose function is regulated by NatB-mediated acetylation, and Tpm1 overexpression (TPM1-oe) was shown to restore some NatB mutant defects. Interestingly, although TPM1-oe largely suppressed NA/NAM release in NatB mutants, it did not restore NAD+ levels. We showed that decreased nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (Nma1/Nma2) levels probably caused the NAD+ defects, and NMA1-oe was sufficient to restore NAD+ NatB-mediated N-terminal acetylation of Nma1 and Nma2 appears essential for maintaining NAD+ levels. In summary, our results support a connection between NatB-mediated protein acetylation and NAD+ homeostasis. Our findings may contribute to understanding the molecular basis and regulation of NAD+ metabolism.
Project description:Mdm20 is an auxiliary subunit of the NatB complex, which includes Nat5, the catalytic subunit for protein N-terminal acetylation. The NatB complex catalyzes N-acetylation during de novo protein synthesis initiation; however, recent evidence from yeast suggests that NatB also affects post-translational modification of tropomyosin, which is involved in intracellular sorting of aggregated proteins. We hypothesized that an acetylation complex such as NatB may contribute to protein clearance and/or proteostasis in mammalian cells. Using a poly glutamine (polyQ) aggregation system, we examined whether the NatB complex or its components affect protein aggregation in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons and HEK293 cells. The number of polyQ aggregates increased in Mdm20 over-expressing (OE) cells, but not in Nat5-OE cells. Conversely, in Mdm20 knockdown (KD) cells, but not in Nat5-KD cells, polyQ aggregation was significantly reduced. Although Mdm20 directly associates with Nat5, the overall cellular localization of the two proteins was slightly distinct, and Mdm20 apparently co-localized with the polyQ aggregates. Furthermore, in Mdm20-KD cells, a punctate appearance of LC3 was evident, suggesting the induction of autophagy. Consistent with this notion, phosphorylation of Akt, most notably at Ser473, was greatly reduced in Mdm20-KD cells. These results demonstrate that Mdm20, the so-called auxiliary subunit of the translation-coupled protein N-acetylation complex, contributes to protein clearance and/or aggregate formation by affecting the phosphorylation level of Akt indepenently from the function of Nat5.
Project description:Two conserved ubiquitin ligases, Hrd1 and Doa10, mediate most endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. Degradation signals (degrons) recognized by these ubiquitin ligases remain poorly characterized. Doa10 recognizes the Deg1 degron from the MAT?2 transcription factor. We previously found that deletion of the gene (NAT3) encoding the catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase weakly stabilized a Deg1-fusion protein. By contrast, a recent analysis of several MAT?2 derivatives suggested that N-terminal acetylation of these proteins by NatB was crucial for recognition by Doa10. We now analyze endogenous MAT?2 degradation in cells lacking NatB and observe minimal perturbation relative to wild-type cells. However, NatB mutation strongly impairs degradation of ER-luminal Hrd1 substrates. This unexpected defect derives from a failure of Der1, a Hrd1 complex subunit, to be N-terminally acetylated in NatB mutant yeast. We retargeted Der1 to another acetyltransferase to show that it is the only ERAD factor requiring N-terminal acetylation. Preventing Der1 acetylation stimulates its proteolysis via the Hrd1 pathway, at least partially accounting for the ERAD defect observed in the absence of NatB. These results reveal an important role for N-terminal acetylation in controlling Hrd1 ligase activity toward a specific class of ERAD substrates.
Project description:The identification of new targets for systemic therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an urgent medical need. Recently, we showed that hNatB catalyzes the N-?-terminal acetylation of 15% of the human proteome and that this action is necessary for proper actin cytoskeleton structure and function. In tumors, cytoskeletal changes influence motility, invasion, survival, cell growth and tumor progression, making the cytoskeleton a very attractive antitumor target. Here, we show that hNatB subunits are upregulated in in over 59% HCC tumors compared to non-tumor tissue and that this upregulation is associated with microscopic vascular invasion. We found that hNatB silencing blocks proliferation and tumor formation in HCC cell lines in association with hampered DNA synthesis and impaired progression through the S and the G2/M phases. Growth inhibition is mediated by the degradation of two hNatB substrates, tropomyosin and CDK2, which occurs when these proteins lack N-?-terminal acetylation. In addition, hNatB inhibition disrupts the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions and tight/adherens junctions, abrogating two proliferative signaling pathways, Hippo/YAP and ERK1/2. Therefore, inhibition of NatB activity represents an interesting new approach to treating HCC by blocking cell proliferation and disrupting actin cytoskeleton function.
Project description:N-terminal acetylation is a major posttranslational modification in eukaryotes catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), NatA through NatF. Although N-terminal acetylation modulates diverse protein functions, little is known about its roles in virus replication. We found that NatB, which comprises NAA20 and NAA25, is involved in the shutoff activity of influenza virus PA-X. The shutoff activity of PA-X was suppressed in NatB-deficient cells, and PA-X mutants that are not acetylated by NatB showed reduced shutoff activities. We also evaluated the importance of N-terminal acetylation of PA, because PA-X shares its N-terminal sequence with PA. Viral polymerase activity was reduced in NatB-deficient cells. Moreover, mutant PAs that are not acetylated by NatB lost their function in the viral polymerase complex. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that N-terminal acetylation is required for the shutoff activity of PA-X and for viral polymerase activity.