Enhanced levels of Pis1p (phosphatidylinositol synthase) improve the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient in Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase.
ABSTRACT: The Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase plays a role in many cellular processes including the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The PIS1 (phosphatidylinositol synthase gene) encoding the enzyme Pis1p which catalyses the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol from CDP-diacyglycerol and inositol, was isolated in a screen for multicopy suppressors of the rsp5 temperature sensitivity phenotype. Suppression was allele non-specific. Interestingly, expression of PIS1 was 2-fold higher in the rsp5 mutant than in wild-type yeast, whereas the introduction of PIS1 in a multicopy plasmid increased the level of Pis1p 6-fold in both backgrounds. We demonstrate concomitantly that the expression of INO1 (inositol phosphate synthase gene) was also elevated approx. 2-fold in the rsp5 mutant as compared with the wild-type, and that inositol added to the medium improved growth of rsp5 mutants at a restrictive temperature. These results suggest that enhanced phosphatidylinositol synthesis may account for PIS1 suppression of rsp5 defects. Analysis of lipid extracts revealed the accumulation of saturated fatty acids in the rsp5 mutant, as a consequence of the prevention of unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Overexpression of PIS1 did not correct the cellular fatty acid content; however, saturated fatty acids (C(16:0)) accumulated preferentially in phosphatidylinositol, and (wild-type)-like fatty acid composition in phosphatidylethanolamine was restored.
Project description:Whereas most of the cellular phosphatidylinositol (PI) contain unsaturated fatty chains and are excluded from rafts, GPI-anchored proteins (APs) unusually contain two saturated fatty chains in their PI moiety, and they are typically found within lipid rafts. However, the origin of the saturated chains and whether they are essential for raft association are unclear. Here, we report that GPI-APs, with two saturated fatty chains, are generated from those bearing an unsaturated chain by fatty acid remodeling that occurs most likely in the Golgi and requires post-GPI-attachment to proteins (PGAP)2 and PGAP3. The surface GPI-APs isolated from the PGAP2 and -3 double-mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells had unsaturated chains, such as oleic, arachidonic, and docosatetraenoic acids in the sn-2 position, whereas those from wild-type CHO cells had exclusively stearic acid, a saturated chain, indicating that the sn-2 chain is exchanged to a saturated chain. We then assessed the association of GPI-APs with lipid rafts. Recovery of unremodeled GPI-APs from the double-mutant cells in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction was very low, indicating that GPI-APs become competent to be incorporated into lipid rafts by PGAP3- and PGAP2-mediated fatty acid remodeling. We also show that the remodeling requires the preceding PGAP1-mediated deacylation from inositol of GPI-APs in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:Depending on the length of their carbon backbone and their saturation status, natural fatty acids have rather distinct biological effects. Thus, longevity of model organisms is increased by extra supply of the most abundant natural cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, but not by that of the most abundant saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Here, we systematically compared the capacity of different saturated, cis-unsaturated and alien (industrial or ruminant) trans-unsaturated fatty acids to provoke cellular stress in vitro, on cultured human cells expressing a battery of distinct biosensors that detect signs of autophagy, Golgi stress and the unfolded protein response. In contrast to cis-unsaturated fatty acids, trans-unsaturated fatty acids failed to stimulate signs of autophagy including the formation of GFP-LC3B-positive puncta, production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, and activation of the transcription factor TFEB. When combined effects were assessed, several trans-unsaturated fatty acids including elaidic acid (the trans-isomer of oleate), linoelaidic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and palmitelaidic acid, were highly efficient in suppressing autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by palmitic, but not by oleic acid. Elaidic acid also inhibited autophagy induction by palmitic acid in vivo, in mouse livers and hearts. We conclude that the well-established, though mechanistically enigmatic toxicity of trans-unsaturated fatty acids may reside in their capacity to abolish cytoprotective stress responses induced by saturated fatty acids.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Fatty acids acutely stimulate GLP-1 secretion from L-cells in vivo. However, a high fat diet has been shown to reduce the density of L-cells in the mouse intestine and a positive correlation has been indicated between L-cell number and GLP-1 secretion. Thus, the mechanism of fatty acid-stimulated GLP-1 secretion, potential effects of long-term exposure to elevated levels of different fatty acid species, and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to determine how long-term exposure to saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids, by direct effects on GLP-1-producing cells, alter function and viability, and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS:GLP-1-secreting GLUTag cells were cultured in the presence/absence of saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids (0.125 mM for 48 h, followed by analyses of viability and apoptosis, as well as involvement of fatty acid oxidation, free fatty acid receptors (FFAR1) and ceramide synthesis. In addition, effects on the expression of proglucagon, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), free fatty acid receptors (FFAR1, FFAR3), sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) and subsequent secretory response were determined. RESULTS:Saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids exerted opposing effects on the induction of apoptosis (1.4-fold increase in DNA fragmentation by palmitate and a 0.5-fold reduction by oleate; p<0.01). Palmitate-induced apoptosis was associated with increased ceramide content and co-incubation with Fumonisin B1 abolished this lipo apoptosis. Oleate, on the other hand, reduced ceramide content, and-unlike palmitate-upregulated FFAR1 and FFAR3, evoking a 2-fold increase in FFAR1-mediated GLP-1 secretion following acute exposure to 0.125 mmol/L palmitate; (p<0.05). CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION:Saturated (16:0), but not unsaturated (18:1), fatty acids induce ceramide-mediated apoptosis of GLP-1-producing cells. Further, unsaturated fatty acids confer lipoprotection, enhancing viability and function of GLP-1-secreting cells. These data provide potential mechanistic insight contributing to reduced L-cell mass following a high fat diet and differential effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on GLP-1 secretion in vivo.
Project description:1. Fatty acid synthesis from [2-(14)C]acetate by Chlorella vulgaris cells grown and incubated in the dark is limited almost entirely to the production of saturated and monoenoic acids. 2. In light-incubated cells, both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are rapidly synthesized. 3. Two groups of lipids can be distinguished in both dark- and light-incubated cells. The first group, consisting of phosphatidyl-glycerol, monogalactosyl diglyceride, lecithin and neutral glyceride, has a very high turnover rate for certain fatty acids. The second group, consisting of digalactosyl diglyceride, sulpholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, has a slow turnover of fatty acids. 4. The lipids with rapid fatty acid turnover may be involved in the sequences of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. A classification of lipids is made on the basis of their suggested functions.
Project description:Recently, we reported that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids trigger autophagy through distinct signal transduction pathways. Saturated fatty acids like palmitate (PA) induce autophagic responses that rely on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3 (PIK3C3, best known as VPS34) and beclin 1 (BECN1). Conversely, unsaturated fatty acids like oleate (OL) promote non-canonical, PIK3C3- and BECN1-independent autophagy. Here, we explored the metabolic effects of autophagy-inducing doses of PA and OL in mice. Mass spectrometry coupled to principal component analysis revealed that PA and OL induce well distinguishable changes in circulating metabolites as well as in the metabolic profile of the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Importantly, PA (but not OL) causes the depletion of multiple autophagy-inhibitory amino acids in the liver. Conversely, OL (but not PA) increased the hepatic levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an obligate co-factor for autophagy-stimulatory enzymes of the sirtuin family. Moreover, PA (but not OL) raised the concentrations of acyl-carnitines in the heart, a phenomenon that perhaps is linked to its cardiotoxicity. PA also depleted the liver from spermine and spermidine, 2 polyamines have been ascribed with lifespan-extending activity. The metabolic changes imposed by unsaturated and saturated fatty acids may contribute to their health-promoting and health-deteriorating effects, respectively.
Project description:Scope: Consumption of industrial trans fatty acids unfavourably alters plasma cholesterol and has been linked to NAFLD. However, the mechanisms underlying these deleterious effects of trans fatty acids are unclear. Here, we aim to investigate the molecular mechanisms of action of industrial trans fatty acids. Methods & Results: Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells were incubated with elaidate, oleate, or palmitate. C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets rich in trans-unsaturated, cis-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids. Transcriptomics analysis of Hepa1-6 cells showed that elaidate but not oleate or palmitate induced expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Induction of cholesterogenesis by elaidate was mediated by increased SREBP2 and dependent on SCAP, yet independent of LXR and UBXD8. Elaidate decreased intracellular free cholesterol levels and repressed the anti-cholesterogenic effect of exogenous cholesterol. In mice, the trans-unsaturated diet increased the ratio of liver to gonadal fat mass, steatosis, hepatic cholesterol levels, ALT activity, and fibrosis markers, suggesting enhanced NAFLD, compared to the cis-unsaturated and saturated diets. Conclusion: Elaidate induces cholesterogenesis in vitro via activation of the SCAP-SREBP axis, likely by lowering intracellular free cholesterol and attenuating cholesterol-dependent repression of SCAP. This pathway potentially underlies the increase in liver cholesterol and NAFLD by industrial trans fatty acids. Overall design: Mice were fed diets enriched in trans-unsaturated, cis-unsaturated or saturated fatty acids for 7 weeks whereafter livers were subjected to gene expression profiling.
Project description:The p53 tumor suppressor is the central component of a complex network of signaling pathways that protect organisms against the propagation of cells carrying oncogenic mutations. Here we report a previously unrecognized role of p53 in membrane phospholipids composition. By repressing the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD, the enzyme that converts saturated to mono-unsaturated fatty acids, p53 causes a shift in the content of phospholipids with mono-unsaturated acyl chains towards more saturated phospholipid species, particularly of the phosphatidylinositol headgroup class. This shift affects levels of phosphatidylinositol phosphates, attenuates the oncogenic AKT pathway, and contributes to the p53-mediated control of cell survival. These findings expand the p53 network to phospholipid metabolism and uncover a new molecular pathway connecting p53 to AKT signaling.
Project description:The incorporation of (14)C-labelled myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids in vitro into the lipids of bovine spermatozoa was measured at intervals from 2min to 2h. All acids were rapidly incorporated into diglycerides, myristic acid being metabolized to the greatest extent. Whereas the low incorporation of acids into total phospholipids reflected the relative stability of the major phospholipid fractions in sperm, the minor phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol, showed comparatively high metabolic activity. Although, in general, saturated acids were incorporated more actively than unsaturated substrates, stearic acid was poorly incorporated into all lipids except phosphatidylinositol. In regard to fatty acid composition of sperm lipids it was notable that diglycerides contained myristic acid as the major component, and this acid was also a prominent moiety of phosphatidylinositol. Docosahexaenoic acid was the principal fatty acid of the major phospholipid classes. These findings have been discussed in relation to the role of lipids in the metabolism of spermatozoa.
Project description:Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a key enzyme that catalyses the conversion of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to oleoyl-ACP, a precursor for the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids. ZmSAD1 (GenBank: KU949326) is a major QTL for stearic acid content in maize seeds. To investigate the biological function and the application potential of maize ZmSAD1 in oil biosynthesis, we isolated the full-length ZmSAD1 cDNA from maize B73 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis and maize.Under seed-specific overexpression of ZmSAD1 in Arabidopsis, the stearic acid content and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in the seeds were significantly decreased relative to those in the control. Conversely, in transgenic ZmSAD1 RNAi Arabidopsis seeds, the contents of stearic acid and long-chain saturated acids and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were significantly increased; in addition, the oleic acid content was significantly decreased. More importantly, transgenic ZmSAD1 maize that expressed high levels of ZmSAD1 in its mature seeds showed reduced stearic acid content (1.57 %) and a lower saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio (20.40 %) relative to those (1.64 % and 20.61 %, respectively) of the control. Conversely, down-regulation of ZmSAD1 in maize resulted in increased levels of stearic acid (1.78 %), long-chain saturated acids (0.85 %) and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids (21.54 %) relative to those (1.64 %, 0.74 %, and 20.61 %, respectively) of the control, whereas the oleic acid (32.01 %) level was significantly decreased relative to that (32.68 %) of the control.Our work demonstrates that the contents of stearic acid, oleic acid, and long-chain saturated acids, and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, are modified in maize seeds by seed-specific overexpression or down-regulation of ZmSAD1. Therefore, the ZmSAD1 gene is a useful tool for engineering the seed oil composition in maize and other crops.
Project description:Studying the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on biological and model (liposomes) membranes could provide insight into the contribution of biophysical effects on the cytotoxicity observed with saturated fatty acids. In vitro experiments suggest that unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleate and linoleate, are less toxic, and have less impact on the membrane fluidity. To understand and assess the biophysical changes in the presence of the different fatty acids, we performed computational analyses of model liposomes with palmitate, oleate, and linoleate. The computational results indicate that the unsaturated fatty acid chain serves as a membrane stabilizer by preventing changes to the membrane fluidity. Based on a Voronoi tessellation analysis, unsaturated fatty acids have structural properties that can reduce the lipid ordering within the model membranes. In addition, hydrogen bond analysis indicates a more uniform level of membrane hydration in the presence of oleate and linoleate as compared to palmitate. Altogether, these observations from the computational studies provide a possible mechanism by which unsaturated fatty acids minimize biophysical changes and protect the cellular membrane and structure. To corroborate our findings, we also performed a liposomal leakage study to assess how the different fatty acids alter the membrane integrity of liposomes. This showed that palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, caused greater destabilization of liposomes (more "leaky") than oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid.