Microarray profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from obese vs non-obese Pima Indians: increased expression of inflammation-related genes.
ABSTRACT: Obesity increases the risk of developing major diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue, particularly adipocytes, may play a major role in the development of obesity and its comorbidities. The aim of this study was to characterise, in adipocytes from obese people, the most differentially expressed genes that might be relevant to the development of obesity.We carried out microarray gene profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from 20 non-obese (BMI 25+/-3 kg/m2) and 19 obese (BMI 55+/-8 kg/m2) non-diabetic Pima Indians using Affymetrix HG-U95 GeneChip arrays. After data analyses, we measured the transcript levels of selected genes based on their biological functions and chromosomal positions using quantitative real-time PCR.The most differentially expressed genes in adipocytes of obese individuals consisted of 433 upregulated and 244 downregulated genes. Of these, 410 genes could be classified into 20 functional Gene Ontology categories. The analyses indicated that the inflammation/immune response category was over-represented, and that most inflammation-related genes were upregulated in adipocytes of obese subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the transcriptional upregulation of representative inflammation-related genes (CCL2 and CCL3) encoding the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha. The differential expression levels of eight positional candidate genes, including inflammation-related THY1 and C1QTNF5, were also confirmed. These genes are located on chromosome 11q22-q24, a region with linkage to obesity in the Pima Indians.This study provides evidence supporting the active role of mature adipocytes in obesity-related inflammation. It also provides potential candidate genes for susceptibility to obesity.
Project description:Microarray analysis comparing gene expression profiles of adipocytes from non-diabetic lean vs non-diabetic obese Pima Indian subjects to identify differentially expressed adipocyte genes with obesity. RNA samples of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from 20 lean (10 Males / 10 Females, aged 31±6 year, Body Mass Index 25±3 kg/m2 ) and 19 obese (9M/10F, 29±5y, 55±8 kg/m2 ) subjects were hybridized individually to Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays HG-U95A, B, C, D, and E.
Project description:The specific contributions made by the various cell types in adipose tissue to obesity, particularly obesity-related inflammation, need to be clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential role of adipocyte precursor cells (preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells [SVC]).We performed Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray expression profiling of cultured abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes/SVC isolated from the adipose tissue of 14 non-obese (BMI 25+/-4 kg/m2) and 14 obese (55+/-8 kg/m2) non-diabetic Pima Indian subjects. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to verify the differential expression of several genes in an independent group of subjects.We identified 218 differentially expressed genes with p values less than 0.01. Microarray expression profiling revealed that the expression of inflammation-related genes was significantly upregulated in preadipocytes/SVC of obese individuals. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of IL8, CTSS, ITGB2, HLA-DRA, CD53, PLA2G7 and MMP9 in preadipocytes/SVC of obese subjects.The upregulation of inflammation-related genes in preadipocytes/SVC of obese subjects may increase the recruitment of immune cells into adipose tissue and may also result in changes in the extracellular matrix (tissue remodelling) to accommodate adipose tissue expansion in obesity.
Project description:Haploinsufficiency of SIM1 is a cause of rare monogenic obesity. To assess the role of SIM1 in polygenic obesity, this gene was analyzed in the Pima Indian population, which has a high prevalence of obesity.SIM1 was sequenced in 96 individuals. Variants (n = 46) were genotyped in a population-based sample of 3,250 full-heritage Pima Indians and in a separate replication sample of 2,944 predominately non-full-heritage subjects from the same community.Variants spanning the upstream region of SIM1 through intron 8 were associated with BMI in the full-heritage Pima Indians, where the strongest associations (P approximately 10(-4) to 10(-6)) were with common variants (risk allele frequency 0.61-0.67). The difference in mean BMI between individuals homozygous for the major allele compared with homozygotes for the minor allele was approximately 2.2 kg/m(2) (P = 2 x 10(-5) for rs3213541). These associations replicated in the separate sample of subjects from the same community (P = 5 x 10(-3) for rs3213541). The strongest associations (P = 4 x 10(-7), controlled for age, sex, birth year, and heritage) were seen in the combined sample (n = 6,194). The risk allele for obesity was more common in full-heritage Pimas than in the mixed-heritage subjects. Two variants (rs3734353 and rs3213541) were also genotyped in 1,275 severely obese and 1,395 lean control subjects of French European ancestry. The Pima risk alleles were the minor alleles in the European samples, and these variants did not display any significant association (P > 0.05).Common variation in SIM1 is associated with BMI on a population level in Pima Indians where the risk allele is the major allele.
Project description:Microarray analysis comparing gene expression profiles of primary cultured preadipocytes from non-diabetic lean vs non-diabetic obese Pima Indian subjects (a subset of the subjects from the adipocyte genechip project, GSE2508). Primary cultured abdominal subcutaneous preadipocytes from 14 lean (7 Males / 7 Females) and 14 obese (7M/7F) subjects were hybridized individually to Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays HG-U133A and B.
Project description:Angiopoietin-like protein 2 has been proposed to be a key mediator linking obesity and insulin resistance. However, no detailed study of ANGPTL2 expression in human adipose tissues has yet been reported. To investigate the pattern and regulation of ANGPTL2 expression in human adipose tissues in obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 32 non-diabetic and 13 type 2 diabetic obese women and 32 normal-weight women. ANGPTL2 mRNA was expressed at a similar level in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Adipose tissue ANGPTL2 mRNA was much higher in obese patients. Adipose tissue ANGPTL2 mRNA and serum ANGPTL2 levels showed strong associations with metabolic parameters associated with insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, ANGPTL2 mRNA was closely correlated with the expression of genes involved in inflammation and ER stress. ANGPTL2 mRNA was principally expressed in adipocytes, and its expression was markedly higher in the adipocyte but non-adipocyte fraction of obese adipose tissues. Culture of human adipocytes under conditions mimicking the microenvironment of obese adipose tissue (especially, increased ER stress) stimulated ANGPTL2 gene expression and secretion. In addition, co-culture of adipocytes and macrophages suggested that ANGPTL2 excessively produced by adipocytes, may contribute inflammation and remodeling in obese adipose tissues, thereby promoting insulin resistance.
Project description:Central obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation that promotes type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in obese individuals. The 12- and 5-lipoxygenase (12-LO and 5-LO) enzymes have been linked to inflammatory changes, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. 12-LO has also been linked recently to inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes. We analyzed the expression of LO and proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and adipocytes in obese Zucker rats, a widely studied genetic model of obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. mRNA expression of 12-LO, 5-LO, and 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) was upregulated in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese Zucker rats compared with those from lean rats. Concomitant with increased LO gene expression, the 12-LO product 12-HETE and the 5-LO products 5-HETE and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were also increased in adipocytes. Furthermore, upregulation of key proinflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, TNF?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were observed in adipocytes isolated from obese Zucker rats. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the positive 12-LO staining in adipose tissue represents cells in addition to adipocytes. This was confirmed by Western blotting in stromal vascular fractions. These changes were in part reversed by the novel anti-inflammatory drug lisofylline (LSF). LSF also reduced p-STAT4 in visceral adipose tissue from obese Zucker rats and improved the metabolic profile, reducing fasting plasma glucose and increasing insulin sensitivity in obese Zucker rats. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, LSF abrogated the inflammatory response induced by LO products. Thus, therapeutic agents reducing LO or STAT4 activation may provide novel tools to reduce obesity-induced inflammation.
Project description:Peptide YY (PYY) and Y2 receptor (Y2R) may be important in the central regulation of body weight and food intake. To determine whether genetic variation in PYY and/or Y2R may contribute to morbid obesity in humans, these genes were sequenced in 83 extremely obese Pima Indians (BMI > or = 50 kg/m2). Sequencing of PYY identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the untranslated region. Sequencing of the Y2R coding region identified one missense (Ala172Thr) substitution and two silent substitutions. Eight additional SNPs in the 5' untranslated region of Y2R were identified from public databases. These SNPs were genotyped in 489 full-heritage adult Pimas (362 severely obese and 127 nondiabetic, nonobese subjects), who are not first-degree relatives, for association analysis. The PYY variants were not associated with obesity, whereas four variants from two haplotype blocks in Y2R were marginally associated (P = 0.054-0.067) with obesity. However, if the analysis was restricted to men (n = 167, 100 obese and 67 lean), the PYY variants and two SNPs in Y2R that were in complete linkage disequilibrium were significantly associated with severe obesity (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Our data suggest that the PYY-Y2R pathway may influence body weight through a sex-specific mechanism, but this finding requires confirmation in other populations.
Project description:Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Metabolic disease and insulin resistance shift the balance between numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators of macrophages and create a feed-forward loop of increasing inflammatory macrophage activation and worsening adipocyte dysfunction. This ultimately leads to adipose tissue fibrosis and diabetes. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes have therapeutic implications for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.
Project description:Obesity induces white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction characterized by unremitting inflammation and fibrosis, impaired adaptive thermogenesis and increased lipolysis. Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful lipid mediators that influence the homeostasis of several organs and tissues. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory actions of PGs in human omental WAT collected from obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to adipocyte hypertrophy, obese WAT showed remarkable inflammation and total and pericellular fibrosis. In this tissue, a unique molecular signature characterized by altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and WAT browning was identified by microarray analysis. Targeted LC-MS/MS lipidomic analysis identified increased PGE2 levels in obese fat in the context of a remarkable COX-2 induction and in the absence of changes in the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (i.e. mPGES-1, mPGES-2 and cPGES). IPA analysis established PGE2 as a common top regulator of the fibrogenic/inflammatory process present in this tissue. Exogenous addition of PGE2 significantly reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes in human WAT explants and significantly down-regulated Col1?1, Col1?2 and ?SMA in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes exposed to TGF-?. In addition, PGE2 inhibited the expression of inflammatory genes (i.e. IL-6 and MCP-1) in WAT explants as well as in adipocytes challenged with LPS. PGE2 anti-inflammatory actions were confirmed by microarray analysis of human pre-adipocytes incubated with this prostanoid. Moreover, PGE2 induced expression of brown markers (UCP1 and PRDM16) in WAT and adipocytes, but not in pre-adipocytes, suggesting that PGE2 might induce the trans-differentiation of adipocytes towards beige/brite cells. Finally, PGE2 inhibited isoproterenol-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Taken together, these findings identify PGE2 as a regulator of the complex network of interactions driving uncontrolled inflammation and fibrosis and impaired adaptive thermogenesis and lipolysis in human obese visceral WAT.
Project description:Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women. Regardless of the presence of diabetes, obese patients had significantly higher biglycan mRNA in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Biglycan mRNA was noticeably higher in non-adipocytes than adipocytes and significantly decreased during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue biglycan mRNA positively correlated with adiposity indices and insulin resistance parameters; however, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for BMI. In both fat depots, biglycan mRNA strongly correlated with the expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, culture of human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes under conditions mimicking the local microenvironments of obese adipose tissues significantly increased biglycan mRNA expression. Our data indicate that biglycan gene expression is increased in obese adipose tissues by altered local conditions.