Streptococcal modulation of cellular invasion via TGF-beta1 signaling.
ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and other bacterial pathogens are known to interact with integrins as an initial step in a complex pathway of bacterial ingestion by host cells. Efficient GAS invasion depends on the interaction of bound fibronectin (Fn) with integrins and activation of integrin signaling. TGF-beta1 regulates expression of integrins, Fn, and other extracellular matrix proteins, and positively controls the integrin signaling pathway. Therefore, we postulated that TGF-beta1 levels could influence streptococcal invasion of mammalian cells. Pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with TGF-beta1 increased their capacity to ingest GAS when the bacteria expressed fibronectin-binding proteins (M1 or PrtF1). Western blots revealed significant induction of alpha5 integrin and Fn expression by HEp-2 cells in response to TGF-beta1. Increased ingestion of streptococci by these cells was blocked by a specific inhibitor of the TGF-beta1 receptor I and antibodies directed against alpha5 integrin and Fn, indicating that increased invasion depends on TGF-beta1 up-regulation of both the alpha5 integrin and Fn. The capacity of TGF-beta1 to up-regulate integrin expression and intracellular invasion by GAS was reproduced in primary human tonsil fibroblasts, which could be a source of TGF-beta1 in chronically infected tonsils. The relationship between TGF-beta1 and GAS invasion was strengthened by the observation that TGF-beta1 production was stimulated in GAS-infected primary human tonsil fibroblasts. These findings suggest a mechanism by which GAS induce a cascade of changes in mammalian tissue leading to elevated expression of the alpha5beta1 receptor, enhanced invasion, and increased opportunity for survival and persistence in their human host.
Project description:Efficient attachment and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultured epithelial cells requires the expression of a fibronectin (FN) attachment protein homologue (FAP-P) which mediates FN binding by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Invasion of Peyer's patches by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occurs through M cells, which, unlike other intestinal epithelial cells, express integrins on their luminal faces. We sought to determine if the interaction between FAP-P of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and soluble FN enabled targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vivo via these surface integrins. Wild-type and antisense FAP-P mutant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were injected alone or coinjected with blocking peptides or antibodies into murine gut loops, and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to assess targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Nonopsonized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis preferentially invaded M cells in murine gut loops. M-cell invasion was enhanced 2.6-fold when M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was pretreated with FN. Invasion of M cells by the antisense FAP-P mutant of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was reduced by 77 to 90% relative to that observed for the control strains. Peptides corresponding to the RGD and synergy site integrin recognition regions of FN blocked M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis invasion of M cells by 75 and 45%, respectively, whereas the connecting segment 1 peptide was noninhibitory. Antibodies against the alpha5, alphaV, beta1, and beta3 integrin subunits inhibited M-cell invasion by 52 to 73%. The results indicate that targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vivo is mediated primarily by the formation of an FN bridge formed between FAP-P of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and integrins on M cells.
Project description:Regulation of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by different extracellular matrices (ECMs) on human endothelial cells (ECs) has been investigated. First, MT1-MMP is found at the intercellular contacts of confluent ECs grown on beta1 integrin-dependent matrix such as type 1 collagen (COL I), fibronectin (FN), or fibrinogen (FG), but not on gelatin (GEL) or vitronectin (VN). The novel localization of MT1-MMP at cell-cell contacts is assessed by confocal videomicroscopy of MT1-MMP-GFP-transfected ECs. Moreover, MT1-MMP colocalizes with beta1 integrins at the intercellular contacts, whereas it is preferentially found with alphavbeta3 integrin at motility-associated structures on migrating ECs. In addition, clustered integrins recruit MT1-MMP and neutralizing anti-beta1 or anti-alphav integrin mAb displace MT1-MMP from its specific sites, pointing to a biochemical association that is finally demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation assays. On the other hand, COL I, FN, or FG up-regulate cell surface MT1-MMP on confluent ECs by an impairment of its internalization, whereas expression and internalization are not modified on GEL or VN. In addition, MT1-MMP activity is diminished in confluent ECs on COL I, FN, or FG. Finally, MT1-MMP participates and cooperates with beta1 and alphavbeta3 integrins in the migration of ECs on different ECM. These data show a novel mechanism by which ECM regulates MT1-MMP association with beta1 or alphavbeta3 integrins at distinct cellular compartments, thus modulating its internalization, activity, and function on human ECs.
Project description:Myelin-derived Nogo-A protein limits axonal growth after CNS injury. One domain binds to the Nogo-66 receptor to inhibit axonal outgrowth, whereas a second domain, Amino-Nogo, inhibits axonal outgrowth and cell adhesion through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that Amino-Nogo inhibition depends strictly on the composition of the extracellular matrix, suggesting that Amino-Nogo inhibits the function of certain integrins. Amino-Nogo inhibition can be partially overcome by antibodies that activate integrin beta1 or by the addition of Mn2+, an integrin activator. Furthermore, Amino-Nogo reduces focal adhesion kinase activation by fibronectin. Analysis of various cell lines reveals that alpha(v)beta3, alpha5, and alpha4 integrins are sensitive to Amino-Nogo, but alpha6 integrin is not. Both alpha(v) and alpha5 integrins have widespread expression in adult brain and are found in axonal growth cones. Thus, inhibition of integrin signaling by Amino-Nogo contributes to the failure of CNS axon regeneration.
Project description:Signalling by integrin-mediated cell anchorage to extracellular matrix proteins is co-operative with other receptor-mediated signalling pathways to regulate cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, survival, migration, differentiation and gene expression. It was observed that an anchorage-independent gastric carcinoma cell line (SNU16) became adherent on TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor beta1) treatment. To understand how a signal cross-talk between integrin and TGF-beta1 pathways forms the basis for TGF-beta1 effects, cell adhesion and signalling activities were studied using an adherent subline (SNU16Ad, an adherent variant cell line derived from SNU16) derived from the SNU16 cells. SNU16 and SNU16Ad cells, but not integrin alpha5-expressing SNU16 cells, showed an increase in adhesion on extracellular matrix proteins after TGF-beta1 treatment. This increase was shown to be mediated by an integrin alpha3 subunit, which was up-regulated in adherent SNU16Ad cells and in TGF-beta1-treated SNU16 cells, compared with the parental SNU16 cells. After TGF-beta1 treatment of SNU16Ad cells on fibronectin, Tyr-416 phosphorylation of c-Src was increased, but Ras-GTP loading and ERK1/ERK2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2) activity were decreased, which showed a dependence on c-Src family kinase activity. Studies on adhesion and signalling activities using pharmacological inhibitors or by transient-transfection approaches showed that inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 activity increased TGF-beta1-mediated cell adhesion slightly, but not the basal cell adhesion significantly, and that c-Src family kinase activity and decrease in Ras/ERKs cascade activity were required for the TGF-beta1 effects. Altogether, the present study indicates that TGF-beta1 treatment causes anchorage-independent gastric carcinoma cells to adhere by an increase in integrin alpha3 level and a c-Src family kinase activity-dependent decrease in Ras/ERKs cascade activity.
Project description:Fibronectin (FN) is secreted as a disulfide-bonded FN dimer. Each subunit contains three types of repeating modules: FN-I, FN-II, and FN-III. The interactions of alpha5beta1 or alphav integrins with the RGD motif of FN-III repeat 10 (FN-III10) are considered an essential step in the assembly of FN fibrils. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we replaced the RGD motif with the inactive RGE in mice. FN-RGE homozygous embryos die at embryonic day 10 with shortened posterior trunk, absent tail bud-derived somites, and severe vascular defects resembling the phenotype of alpha5 integrin-deficient mice. Surprisingly, the absence of a functional RGD motif in FN did not compromise assembly of an FN matrix in mutant embryos or on mutant cells. Matrix assembly assays and solid-phase binding assays reveal that alphavbeta3 integrin assembles FN-RGE by binding an isoDGR motif in FN-I5, which is generated by the nonenzymatic rearrangement of asparagines (N) into an iso-aspartate (iso-D). Our findings demonstrate that FN contains a novel motif for integrin binding and fibril formation whose activity is controlled by amino acid modification.
Project description:Integrin cell adhesion receptors and fibronectin, one of their extracellular matrix ligands, have been demonstrated to be important for angiogenesis using functional perturbation studies and complete knockout mouse models. Here, we report on the roles of the alpha5 and alphav integrins, which are the major endothelial fibronectin receptors, in developmental angiogenesis. We generated an integrin alpha5-floxed mouse line and ablated alpha5 integrin in endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, endothelial-specific knockout of integrin alpha5 has no obvious effect on developmental angiogenesis. We provide evidence for genetic interaction between mutations in integrin alpha5 and alphav and for overlapping functions and compensation between these integrins and perhaps others. Nonetheless, in embryos lacking both alpha5 and alphav integrins in their endothelial cells, initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis proceed normally, at least up to E11.5, including the formation of apparently normal embryonic vasculature and development of the branchial arches. However, in the absence of endothelial alpha5 and alphav integrins, but not of either alone, there are extensive defects in remodeling of the great vessels and heart resulting in death at ~E14.5. We also found that fibronectin assembly is somewhat affected in integrin alpha5 knockout endothelial cells and markedly reduced in integrin alpha5/alphav double-knockout endothelial cell lines. Therefore, neither alpha5 nor alphav integrins are required in endothelial cells for initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, although they are required for remodeling of the heart and great vessels. These integrins on other cells, and/or other integrins on endothelial cells, might contribute to fibronectin assembly and vascular development.
Project description:Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is over-expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and is associated with adverse prognosis, but the molecular mechanisms linking CAV1 expression to disease progression are poorly understood. Extensive gene expression correlation analysis, quantitative multiplex imaging of clinical samples, and analysis of the CAV1-dependent transcriptome, supported that CAV1 re-programmes TGF? signalling from tumour suppressive to oncogenic (i.e. induction of SLUG, PAI-1 and suppression of CDH1, DSP, CDKN1A). Supporting such a role, CAV1 knockdown led to growth arrest and inhibition of cell invasion in prostate cancer cell lines. Rationalized RNAi screening and high-content microscopy in search for CAV1 upstream regulators revealed integrin beta1 (ITGB1) and integrin associated proteins as CAV1 regulators. Our work suggests TGF? signalling and beta1 integrins as potential therapeutic targets in PCa over-expressing CAV1, and contributes to better understand the paradoxical dual role of TGF? in tumour biology.
Project description:We have examined the mechanism by which collagen-binding integrins co-operate with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors (IGF-IR) to regulate chondrocyte phenotype and differentiation. Adhesion of chondrocytes to anti-beta1 integrin antibodies or collagen type II leads to phosphorylation of cytoskeletal and signalling proteins localized at focal adhesions, including alpha-actinin, vinculin, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). These stimulate docking proteins such as Shc (Src-homology collagen). Moreover, exposure of collagen type II-cultured chondrocytes to IGF-I leads to co-immunoprecipitation of Shc protein with the IGF-IR and with beta1, alpha1 and alpha5 integrins, but not with alpha3 integrin. Shc then associates with growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), an adaptor protein and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The expression of the docking protein Shc occurs only when chondrocytes are bound to collagen type II or integrin antibodies and increases when IGF-I is added, suggesting a collaboration between integrins and growth factors in a common/shared biochemical signalling pathway. Furthermore, these results indicate that focal adhesion assembly may facilitate signalling via Shc, a potential common target for signal integration between integrin and growth-factor signalling regulatory pathways. Thus, the collagen-binding integrins and IGF-IR co-operate to regulate focal adhesion components and these signalling pathways have common targets (Shc-Grb2 complex) in subcellular compartments, thereby linking to the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway. These events may play a role during chondrocyte differentiation.
Project description:Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the primary causative agent of urinary tract infections, typically express filamentous adhesive organelles called type 1 pili that mediate both bacterial attachment to and invasion of bladder urothelial cells. Several host proteins have previously been identified as receptors for type 1 pili, but none have been conclusively shown to promote UPEC entry into host bladder cells. Using overlay assays with FimH, the purified type 1 pilus adhesin, and mass spectroscopy, we have identified beta1 and alpha3 integrins as key host receptors for UPEC. FimH recognizes N-linked oligosaccharides on these receptors, which are expressed throughout the urothelium. In a bladder cell culture system, beta1 and alpha3 integrin receptors co-localize with invading type 1-piliated bacteria and F-actin. FimH-mediated bacterial invasion of host bladder cells is inhibited by beta1 and alpha3 integrin-specific antibodies and by disruption of the beta1 integrin gene in the GD25 fibroblast cell line. Phosphorylation site mutations within the cytoplasmic tail of beta1 integrin that alter integrin signaling also variably affect UPEC entry into host cells, by either attenuating or boosting invasion frequencies. Furthermore, focal adhesion and Src family kinases, which propagate integrin-linked signaling and downstream cytoskeletal rearrangements, are shown to be required for FimH-dependent bacterial invasion of target host cells. Cumulatively, these results indicate that beta1 and alpha3 integrins are functionally important receptors for type 1 pili-expressing bacteria within the urinary tract and possibly at other sites within the host.
Project description:The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is upregulated upon tumor cell invasion and correlates with poor lung cancer survival. Although a cis-interaction with integrins has been ascribed to uPAR, whether this interaction alone is critical to urokinase (uPA)- and uPAR-dependent signaling and tumor promotion is unclear. Here we report the functional consequences of point mutations of uPAR (H249A-D262A) that eliminate beta1 integrin interactions but maintain uPA binding, vitronectin attachment and association with alphaV integrins, caveolin and epidermal growth factor receptor. Disruption of uPAR interactions with beta1 integrins recapitulated previously reported findings with beta1-integrin-derived peptides that attenuated matrix-dependent ERK activation, MMP expression and in vitro migration by human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The uPAR mutant cells acquired enhanced capacity to adhere to vitronectin via uPAR-alphaVbeta5-integrin, rather than through the uPAR-alpha3beta1-integrin complex and they were unable to initiate uPA signaling to activate ERK, Akt or Stat1. In an orthotopic lung cancer model, uPAR mutant cells exhibited reduced tumor size compared with cells expressing wild-type uPAR. Taken together, the results indicate that uPAR-beta1-integrin interactions are essential to signals induced by integrin matrix ligands or uPA that support lung cancer cell invasion in vitro and progression in vivo.