Memory T and memory B cells share a transcriptional program of self-renewal with long-term hematopoietic stem cells.
ABSTRACT: The only cells of the hematopoietic system that undergo self-renewal for the lifetime of the organism are long-term hematopoietic stem cells and memory T and B cells. To determine whether there is a shared transcriptional program among these self-renewing populations, we first compared the gene-expression profiles of naïve, effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with those of long-term hematopoietic stem cells, short-term hematopoietic stem cells, and lineage-committed progenitors. Transcripts augmented in memory CD8(+) T cells relative to naïve and effector T cells were selectively enriched in long-term hematopoietic stem cells and were progressively lost in their short-term and lineage-committed counterparts. Furthermore, transcripts selectively decreased in memory CD8(+) T cells were selectively down-regulated in long-term hematopoietic stem cells and progressively increased with differentiation. To confirm that this pattern was a general property of immunologic memory, we turned to independently generated gene expression profiles of memory, naïve, germinal center, and plasma B cells. Once again, memory-enriched and -depleted transcripts were also appropriately augmented and diminished in long-term hematopoietic stem cells, and their expression correlated with progressive loss of self-renewal function. Thus, there appears to be a common signature of both up- and down-regulated transcripts shared between memory T cells, memory B cells, and long-term hematopoietic stem cells. This signature was not consistently enriched in neural or embryonic stem cell populations and, therefore, appears to be restricted to the hematopoeitic system. These observations provide evidence that the shared phenotype of self-renewal in the hematopoietic system is linked at the molecular level.
Project description:NK cells have been shown to display adaptive traits such as memory formation akin to T and B lymphocytes. Here we show that Zika virus infection induces memory like NK cells that express CD27. Strikingly, these cells exhibit stem-like features that include expansion capacity, self-renewal pathway, differentiation into effector cells, longer telomeres and gene signature associated with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) progenitors. This subset shared transcriptional and epigenetic changes with memory CD8 T cells, stem cells and stem like T cells. These NK cells with memory and stem cell features, which we term "NK memory stem cells", demonstrated greater antiviral potential than CD27- or naïve CD27+ NK when adoptively transferred to Zika infected mice. Our results also suggest a role for the transcription factor TCF-1 in memory and stemness features of this NK subset. This study defines a unique TCF1hi CD27+ NK subset with memory capacity and stem cell features that play a role in antiviral immunity.
Project description:In order to better understand the factors that regulate B cell differentiation upon exposure to antigen, we compares global gene expression profiles from naive B cells with antigen-specific plasma, germinal center, and memory B cells after immunization with the T-dependent antigen, NP-CGG. The memory B cell-enriched transcripts were then compared with memory T cell-enriched and hematopoietic stem cell-enriched transcripts in order to generate a transcriptional profile of self-renewal within the hematopoietic system.
Project description:Self-renewing cell populations such as hematopoietic stem cells and memory B and T lymphocytes might be regulated by shared signaling pathways. The Wnt-beta-catenin pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that promotes hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and multipotency by limiting stem cell proliferation and differentiation, but its role in the generation and maintenance of memory T cells is unknown. We found that induction of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling by inhibitors of glycogen sythase kinase-3beta or the Wnt protein family member Wnt3a arrested CD8(+) T cell development into effector cells. By blocking T cell differentiation, Wnt signaling promoted the generation of CD44(low)CD62L(high)Sca-1(high)CD122(high)Bcl-2(high) self-renewing multipotent CD8(+) memory stem cells with proliferative and antitumor capacities exceeding those of central and effector memory T cell subsets. These findings reveal a key role for Wnt signaling in the maintenance of 'stemness' in mature memory CD8(+) T cells and have major implications for the design of new vaccination strategies and adoptive immunotherapies.
Project description:Background: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystem disorder with progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and increased cancer susceptibility. Cellular immunodeficiency is based on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a potential to cure immunodeficiency and cancer due to restoration of the lymphopoietic system. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of HSCT on naïve CD4+ as well as CD8+ T-cell numbers in A-T. Methods: We analyzed total numbers of peripheral naïve (CD45RA+CD62L+) and memory (CD45RO+CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of 32 A-T patients. Naïve (CD62LhighCD44low) and memory (CD62LlowCD44high) T-cells were also measured in Atm-deficient mice before and after HSCT with GFP-expressing bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we analyzed T-cells in the peripheral blood of two A-T patients after HLA-identic allogeneic HSCT. Results: Like in humans, naïve CD4+ as well as naïve CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in Atm-deficient mice. HSCT significantly inhibited thymic lymphomas and increased survival time in these animals. Donor cell chimerism increased up to more than 50% 6 months after HSCT accompanied by a significant increase of naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cell subpopulations, but not of memory T-cells. This finding was also identified in the blood of the A-T patients after HSCT. Conclusion: HSCT seems to be a feasible strategy to overcome immunodeficiency and might be a conceivable strategy to avoid T-cell driven cancer in A-T at higher risk for malignancy. Naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cells counts are suitable markers for monitoring immune reconstitution post-HSCT. However, risks and benefits of HSCT in A-T have to be properly weighted.
Project description:During the ontogeny of the mammalian immune system, distinct lineages of cells arise from fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during specific stages of development. However, in some cases, the same immune cell type is produced by both HSC populations, resulting in the generation of phenotypically similar cells with distinct origins and divergent functional properties. In this report, we demonstrate that neonatal CD8+ T cells preferentially become short-lived effectors and adult CD8+ T cells selectively form long-lived memory cells after infection because they are derived from distinct progenitor cells. Notably, we find that naïve neonatal CD8+ T cells originate from a progenitor cell that is distinguished by expression of Lin28b. Remarkably, ectopic expression of Lin28b enables adult progenitors to give rise to CD8+ T cells that are phenotypically and functionally analogous to those found in neonates. These findings suggest that neonatal and adult CD8+ T cells belong to separate lineages of CD8+ T cells, and potentially explain why it is challenging to elicit memory CD8+ T cells in early life.
Project description:Human epidemiological and animal studies suggest that developmental exposure to contaminants that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) lead to suppression of immune system function throughout life. The persistence of immune deficiency throughout life suggests that the cellular target of AHR activation is a fetal hematopoietic progenitor or stem cell.The aim of this study was to identify the effects of transplacental exposure to an AHR agonist on long-term self-renewal of fetal hematopoietic stem cells.Pregnant C57BL/6 or AHR+/- mice were exposed to the AHR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetra-?chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). On day 14 of gestation, hematopoietic progenitors from wild-type or AHR-deficient fetuses were placed into in vitro T-lymphocyte differentiation cultures to identify the effects of transplacental TCDD on AHR activation in the fetus. We next analyzed the fetal hematopoietic progenitor cells for changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, hematopoietic progenitors from fetuses exposed transplacentally to TCDD were mixed 1:1 with cells from congenic controls and used to reconstitute lethally irradiated recipients for analysis of long-term self-renewal potential.Our findings suggested that the effects of TCDD on the developing hematopoietic system were mediated by direct AHR activation in the fetus. Furthermore, developmental AHR activation by TCDD increased ROS in the fetal hematopoietic stem cells, and the elevated ROS was associated with a reduced capacity of the TCDD-exposed fetal cells to compete with control cells in a mixed competitive irradiation/reconstitution assay.Our findings indicate that AHR activation by TCDD in the fetus during pregnancy leads to impairment of long-term self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells.Laiosa MD, Tate ER, Ahrenhoerster LS, Chen Y, Wang D. 2016. Effects of developmental activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on long-term self-renewal of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Environ Health Perspect 124:957-965; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509820.
Project description:Antigen-specific stem-like memory CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells (Tscm) have a series of stem cell characteristics, including long-term survival, self-renewal, anti-apoptosis and persistent differentiation into cytotoxic T cells. The effective induction of tumor-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> Tscm could persistently eradicate tumor in pro-tumor hostile microenvironment. This study was to investigate the role of CD40 in HPV16-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> Tscm induction and its anti-tumor function. We found that CD40 activation accelerated vaccine-induced HPV16 E7-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> Tscm formation. Comparing to other HPV-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells, CD8<sup>+</sup> Tscm were found to be stronger and long-term anti-tumor function, <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i>, even in the adoptive cellular transferring model. Furthermore, high frequencies of Tscm might prevent the HPV infection to move on to the development of cancer. And the CD40 effect on Tscm involved Wnt/?-catenin activation. Our study suggest that CD40 activation supports the generation of tumor-specific CD8<sup>+</sup> Tscm, thus providing new insight into cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:The hematopoietic system is an invaluable model both for understanding basic developmental biology and for developing clinically relevant cell therapies. Using highly purified cells and rigorous microarray analysis we have compared the expression pattern of three of the most primitive hematopoietic subpopulations in adult mouse bone marrow: long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), short-term HSC, and multipotent progenitors. All three populations are capable of differentiating into a spectrum of mature blood cells, but differ in their self-renewal and proliferative capacity. We identified numerous novel potential regulators of HSC self-renewal and proliferation that were differentially expressed between these closely related cell populations. Many of the differentially expressed transcripts fit into pathways and protein complexes not previously identified in HSC, providing evidence for new HSC regulatory units. Extending these observations to the protein level, we demonstrate expression of several of the corresponding proteins, which provide novel surface markers for HSC. We discuss the implications of our findings for HSC biology. In particular, our data suggest that cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are major regulators of long-term HSC, and that HSC themselves play important roles in regulating their immediate microenvironment.
Project description:An early-differentiated CD8+ memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties (TSCM) can be identified within the naïve-like T cell population by the expression of CD95/Fas. Based on experiments including exon- and gene-level expression analysis, we provide evidence that this subset of antigen-specific cells represents an early precursor of conventional central (TCM) and effector (TEM) memory CD8+ T cells with enhanced self-renewal capacity and proliferative potential. We identified 900 genes differentially expressed between major T cell subsets defined along with memory T cell commitment. Based on the analysis of these genes, CD95+ naïve T cells (TSCM) cluster closer to the CD8+ T memory compartment than to classical (CD95-) naïve T (TN) cells, and display an intermittent phenotype between classical TN and TCM cells in terms of all major T cell differentiation markers analyzed. Three healthy human blood donors provided lymphocyte-enriched apheresis blood for this study after informed consent. From all samples, total RNA was isolated using an RNEasy Micro kit (Qiagen), processed by Ambion’s WT expression kit, fragmented and labeled with a WT Terminal Labeling Kit (Affymetrix), hybridized to WT Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays (Affymetrix) and stained on a Genechip Fluidics Station 450 (Affymetrix), all according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Samples represent "exon-level" and "gene-level" analyses.
Project description:Human T memory stem (TSCM ) cells with superior persistence capacity and effector functions are emerging as important players in the maintenance of long-lived T-cell memory and are thus considered an attractive population to be used in adoptive transfer-based immunotherapy of cancer. However, the molecular signals regulating their generation remain poorly defined. Here we show that curtailed T-cell receptor stimulation curbs human effector CD8+ T-cell differentiation and allows the generation of CD45RO- CD45RA+ CCR7+ CD27+ CD95+ -phenotype cells from highly purified naïve T-cell precursors, resembling naturally-occurring human TSCM . These cells proliferate extensively in vitro and in vivo, express low amounts of effector-associated genes and transcription factors and undergo considerable self-renewal in response to IL-15 while retaining effector differentiation potential. Such a phenotype is associated with a lower number of mitochondria compared to highly-activated effector T cells committed to terminal differentiation. These results shed light on the molecular signals that are required to generate long-lived memory T cells with potential application in adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy.