The molecular architecture of the metalloprotease FtsH.
ABSTRACT: The ATP-dependent integral membrane protease FtsH is universally conserved in bacteria. Orthologs exist in chloroplasts and mitochondria, where in humans the loss of a close FtsH-homolog causes a form of spastic paraplegia. FtsH plays a crucial role in quality control by degrading unneeded or damaged membrane proteins, but it also targets soluble signaling factors like sigma(32) and lambda-CII. We report here the crystal structure of a soluble FtsH construct that is functional in caseinolytic and ATPase assays. The molecular architecture of this hexameric molecule consists of two rings where the protease domains possess an all-helical fold and form a flat hexagon that is covered by a toroid built by the AAA domains. The active site of the protease classifies FtsH as an Asp-zincin, contrary to a previous report. The different symmetries of protease and AAA rings suggest a possible translocation mechanism of the target polypeptide chain into the interior of the molecule where the proteolytic sites are located.
Project description:The two organelles, apicoplast and mitochondrion, of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have unique morphology in liver and blood stages; they undergo complex branching and looping prior to division and segregation into daughter merozoites. Little is known about the molecular processes and proteins involved in organelle biogenesis in the parasite. We report the identification of an AAA+/FtsH protease homolog (PfFtsH1) that exhibits ATP- and Zn(2+)-dependent protease activity. PfFtsH1 undergoes processing, forms oligomeric assemblies, and is associated with the membrane fraction of the parasite cell. Generation of a transfectant parasite line with hemagglutinin-tagged PfFtsH1, and immunofluorescence assay with anti-PfFtsH1 Ab demonstrated that the protein localises to P. falciparum mitochondria. Phylogenetic analysis and the single transmembrane region identifiable in PfFtsH1 suggest that it is an i-AAA like inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Expression of PfFtsH1 in Escherichia coli converted a fraction of bacterial cells into division-defective filamentous forms implying a sequestering effect of the Plasmodium factor on the bacterial homolog, indicative of functional conservation with EcFtsH. These results identify a membrane-associated mitochondrial AAA+/FtsH protease as a candidate regulatory protein for organelle biogenesis in P. falciparum.
Project description:The hexameric membrane-spanning ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsH is universally conserved in eubacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts, where it fulfills key functions in quality control and signaling. As a member of the self-compartmentalizing ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ proteases), FtsH converts the chemical energy stored in ATP via conformational rearrangements into a mechanical force that is used for substrate unfolding and translocation into the proteolytic chamber. The crystal structure of the ADP state of Thermotoga maritima FtsH showed a hexameric assembly consisting of a 6-fold symmetric protease disk and a 2-fold symmetric AAA ring. The 2.6 A resolution structure of the cytosolic region of apo-FtsH presented here reveals a new arrangement where the ATPase ring shows perfect 6-fold symmetry with the crucial pore residues lining an open circular entrance. Triggered by this conformational change, a substrate-binding edge beta strand appears within the proteolytic domain. Comparison of the apo- and ADP-bound structure visualizes an inward movement of the aromatic pore residues and generates a model of substrate translocation by AAA+ proteases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mutation of a conserved glycine in the linker region inactivates FtsH.
Project description:Proteolysis is a universal strategy to rapidly adjust the amount of regulatory and metabolic proteins to cellular demand. FtsH is the only membrane-anchored and essential ATP-dependent protease in Escherichia coli. Among the known functions of FtsH are the control of the heat shock response by proteolysis of the transcription factor RpoH (?(32)) and its essential role in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis by degradation of the two key enzymes LpxC and KdtA. Here, we identified new FtsH substrates by using a proteomic-based substrate trapping approach. An FtsH variant (FtsH(trap)) carrying a single amino acid exchange in the proteolytic center was expressed and purified in E. coli. FtsH(trap) is devoid of its proteolytic activity but fully retains ATPase activity allowing for unfolding and translocation of substrates into the inactivated proteolytic chamber. Proteins associated with FtsH(trap) and wild-type FtsH (FtsH(WT)) were purified, separated by two-dimensional PAGE, and subjected to mass spectrometry. Over-representation of LpxC in the FtsH(trap) preparation validated the trapping strategy. Four novel FtsH substrates were identified. The sulfur delivery protein IscS and the d-amino acid dehydrogenase DadA were degraded under all tested conditions. The formate dehydrogenase subunit FdoH and the yet uncharacterized YfgM protein were subject to growth condition-dependent regulated proteolysis. Several lines of evidence suggest that YfgM serves as negative regulator of the RcsB-dependent stress response pathway, which must be degraded under stress conditions. The proteins captured by FtsH(trap) revealed previously unknown biological functions of the physiologically most important AAA(+) protease in E. coli.
Project description:ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) proteases utilize ATP hydrolysis to actively unfold native or misfolded proteins and translocate them into a protease chamber for degradation. This basic mechanism yields diverse cellular consequences, including the removal of misfolded proteins, control of regulatory circuits, and remodeling of protein conformation. Among various bacterial AAA+ proteases, FtsH is only membrane-integrated and plays a key role in membrane protein quality control. Previously, we have shown that FtsH has substantial unfoldase activity for degrading membrane proteins overcoming a dual energetic burden of substrate unfolding and membrane dislocation. Here, we asked how efficiently FtsH utilizes ATP hydrolysis to degrade membrane proteins. To answer this question, we measured degradation rates of the model membrane substrate GlpG at various ATP hydrolysis rates in the lipid bilayers. We find that the dependence of degradation rates on ATP hydrolysis rates is highly nonlinear: (i) FtsH cannot degrade GlpG until it reaches a threshold ATP hydrolysis rate; (ii) after exceeding the threshold, the degradation rates steeply increase and saturate at the ATP hydrolysis rates far below the maxima. During the steep increase, FtsH efficiently utilizes ATP hydrolysis for degradation, consuming only 40-60% of the total ATP cost measured at the maximal ATP hydrolysis rates. This behavior does not fundamentally change against water-soluble substrates as well as upon addition of the macromolecular crowding agent Ficoll 70. The Hill analysis shows that the nonlinearity stems from coupling of three to five ATP hydrolysis events to degradation, which represents unique cooperativity compared to other AAA+ proteases including ClpXP, HslUV, Lon, and proteasomes.
Project description:ATP-dependent protein degradation mediated by AAA+ proteases is one of the major cellular pathways for protein quality control and regulation of functional networks. While a majority of studies of protein degradation have focused on water-soluble proteins, it is not well understood how membrane proteins with abnormal conformation are selectively degraded. The knowledge gap stems from the lack of an in vitro system in which detailed molecular mechanisms can be studied as well as difficulties in studying membrane protein folding in lipid bilayers. To quantitatively define the folding-degradation relationship of membrane proteins, we reconstituted the degradation using the conserved membrane-integrated AAA+ protease FtsH as a model degradation machine and the stable helical-bundle membrane protein GlpG as a model substrate in the lipid bilayer environment. We demonstrate that FtsH possesses a substantial ability to actively unfold GlpG, and the degradation significantly depends on the stability and hydrophobicity near the degradation marker. We find that FtsH hydrolyzes 380-550 ATP molecules to degrade one copy of GlpG. Remarkably, FtsH overcomes the dual-energetic burden of substrate unfolding and membrane dislocation with the ATP cost comparable to that for water-soluble substrates by robust ClpAP/XP proteases. The physical principles elucidated in this study provide general insights into membrane protein degradation mediated by ATP-dependent proteolytic systems.
Project description:In eubacteria, the tmRNA system frees ribosomes that stall during protein synthesis and adds an ssrA tag to the incompletely translated polypeptide to target it for degradation. The AAA+ ClpXP protease degrades most ssrA-tagged proteins in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and was recently shown to degrade an ssrA-tagged protein in the inner membrane. However, we find that tmRNA-mediated tagging of E. coli ProW1-182, a different inner-membrane protein, results in degradation by the membrane-tethered AAA+ FtsH protease. ClpXP played no role in the degradation of ProW1-182 in vivo. These studies suggest that a complex distribution of proteolytic labor maintains protein quality control in the inner membrane.
Project description:In bacteria, chromosomal DNA resides in the cytoplasm, and most transcription factors are also found in the cytoplasm. However, some transcription factors, called membrane-bound transcription factors (MTFs), reside in the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we report the identification of a new MTF in the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and its regulation by the protease FtsH. The MTF, named MbtS (membrane-bound transcription factor of Staphylococcus aureus), is encoded by SAUSA300_2640 and predicted to have an N-terminal DNA binding domain and three transmembrane helices. The MbtS protein was degraded by membrane vesicles containing FtsH or by the purified FtsH. MbtS bound to an inverted repeat sequence in its promoter region, and the DNA binding was essential for its transcription. Transcriptional comparison between the ftsH deletion mutant and the ftsH mbtS double mutant showed that MbtS could alter the transcription of over 200 genes. Although the MbtS protein was not detected in wild-type (WT) cells grown in a liquid medium, the protein was detected in some isolated colonies on an agar plate. In a murine model of a skin infection, the disruption of mbtS increased the lesion size. Based on these results, we concluded that MbtS is a new S. aureus MTF whose activity is proteolytically regulated by FtsH.IMPORTANCE Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium causing various diseases in humans. In the bacterium, transcription is typically regulated by the transcription factors located in the cytoplasm. In this study, we report an atypical transcription factor identified in S. aureus Unlike most other transcription factors, the newly identified transcription factor is located in the cytoplasmic membrane, and its activity is proteolytically controlled by the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH. The newly identified MTF, named MbtS, has the potential to regulate the transcription of over 200 genes. This study provides a molecular mechanism by which a protease affects bacterial transcription and illustrates the diversity of the bacterial transcriptional regulation.
Project description:In this study, we isolated and sequenced a Helicobacter pylori gene, designated ftsH, coding for a 632-amino-acid protein which displayed striking similarity throughout its full length to FtsH proteins identified in Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, and Bacillus subtilis. H. pylori FtsH also possessed approximately 200-amino-acid region containing a putative ATPase module which is conserved among members of the AAA protein family (AAA, ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities). The H. pylori ftsH product was overexpressed in E. coli and reacted immunologically with an anti-E. coli FtsH serum (T. Tomoyasu, K. Yamanaka, K. Murata, T. Suzaki, P. Bouloc, A. Kato, H. Niki, S. Hiraga, and T. Ogura, J. Bacteriol. 175:1352-1357, 1993). FtsH was also shown to be present in the membrane fraction of H. pylori, suggesting that it is membrane bound. Disruption of the ftsH gene led to the loss of viability of H. pylori, demonstrating that this gene is essential for cell growth. Overproduction of both H. pylori FtsH and E. coli FtsH together tremendously reduced the growth rate of the E. coli host cells, whereas the growth of the E. coli cells carrying the wild-type E. coli ftsH operon on the chromosome was not significantly affected by overproduction of H. pylori FtsH itself. This result suggests that the abnormal growth of cells results from interaction between H. pylori FtsH and E. coli FtsH.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen causing skin infection and many serious diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, and toxic shock syndrome. In the bacterium, the membrane-bound protease FtsH plays important roles in the bacterial resistance to various stresses. This study was initiated to explain the strain-specific aggregation of the ftsH-deletion mutant of the Newman strain. To understand the molecular basis of the phenotype, we identified FtsH substrate proteins by comparing the protein contents of two different strains, Newman and USA300, and found that, in the strain Newman, a single nucleotide change in the sensor histidine kinase saeS gene placed the SaeRS two-component system under the control of FtsH, leading to the strain-specific cell-aggregation phenotype. Not only does our study provide a new methodology for protease-substrate determination but it also demonstrates that even a single nucleotide polymorphism can rewire bacterial regulatory network, resulting in a strain-specific phenotype. Our study shows the pitfall of making sweeping conclusion based on experimental results from a single bacterial strain. Overall design: RNA was prepared from cultures of strains USA300_P23 and USA300_P23_∆ftsH grown late-exponential phage cells in TSB media at 37°C. Three independent biological replicates of RNA were prepared for each strain or condition. cDNA libraries were sequenced and the sequencing results were used as the data base for differential expression analysis.
Project description:The ATP-dependent protease, FtsH, degrades misassembled membrane proteins for quality control like SecY, subunit a of FoF1-ATPase, and YccA, and digests short-lived soluble proteins in order to control their cellular regulation, including sigma32, LpxC and lambdacII. The FtsH protein has an N-terminal transmembrane segment and a large cytosolic region that consists of two domains, an ATPase and a protease domain. To provide a structural basis for the nucleotide-dependent domain motions and a better understanding of substrate translocation, the crystal structures of the Helicobacter pylori (Hp) FtsH ATPase domain in the nucleotide-free state and complexed with ADP, were determined. Two different structures of HpFtsH ATPase were observed, with the nucleotide-free state in an asymmetric unit, and these structures reveal the new forms and show other conformational differences between the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound state compared with previous structures. In particular, one HpFtsH Apo structure has a considerable rotation difference compared with the HpFtsH ADP complex, and this large conformational change reveals that FtsH may have the mechanical force needed for substrate translocation.