Ontogeny of postsynaptic density proteins at glutamatergic synapses.
ABSTRACT: In glutamatergic synapses, glutamate receptors (GluRs) associate with many other proteins involved in scaffolding and signal transduction. The ontogeny of these postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins involves changes in their composition during development, paralleling changes in GluR type and function. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, at postnatal day 2 (P2), many synapses already have a distinct PSD. We used immunoblot analysis, subcellular fractionation, and quantitative immunogold electron microscopy to examine the distribution of PSD proteins during development of the hippocampus. Synapses at P2 contained substantial levels of NR1 and NR2B and most GluR-associated proteins, including SAP102, SynGAP, the chain of proteins from GluRs/SAP102 through GKAP/Shank/Homer and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and the adhesion factors, cadherin, catenin, neuroligin, and Nr-CAM. Development was marked by substantial decreases in NR2B and SAP102 and increases in NR2A, PSD-95, AMPA receptors, and CaMKII. Other components showed more moderate changes.
Project description:The development of glutamatergic synapses involves changes in the number and type of receptors present at the postsynaptic density. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, we combine in utero electroporation of constructs that alter the molecular composition of developing synapses with dual whole-cell electrophysiology to examine synaptic transmission during two distinct developmental stages. We find that SAP102 mediates synaptic trafficking of AMPA and NMDA receptors during synaptogenesis. Surprisingly, after synaptogenesis, PSD-95 assumes the functions of SAP102 and is necessary for two aspects of synapse maturation: the developmental increase in AMPA receptor transmission and replacement of NR2B-NMDARs with NR2A-NMDARs. In PSD-95/PSD-93 double-KO mice, the maturational replacement of NR2B- with NR2A-NMDARs fails to occur, and PSD-95 expression fully rescues this deficit. This study demonstrates that SAP102 and PSD-95 regulate the synaptic trafficking of distinct glutamate receptor subtypes at different developmental stages, thereby playing necessary roles in excitatory synapse development.
Project description:Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), which are essential proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD), cluster and anchor glutamate receptors and other proteins at synapses. The MAGUK family includes PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP102, and SAP97. Individual family members can compensate for one another in their ability to recruit and retain receptors at the postsynaptic membrane as shown through deletion and knock-down studies. SAP102 is highly expressed in both young and mature neurons; however, little is known about its localization and mobility at synapses. Here, we compared the distribution, mobility, and turnover times of SAP102 to the well studied MAGUK PSD-95. Using light and electron microscopy, we found that SAP102 shows a broader distribution as well as peak localization further away from the postsynaptic membrane than PSD-95. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we found that 80% of SAP102 and 36% of PSD-95 are mobile in spines. Previous studies showed that PSD-95 was stabilized at the PSD by N-terminal palmitoylation. We found that stabilization of SAP102 at the PSD was dependent on its SH3/GK domains but not its PDZ interactions. Furthermore, we showed that stabilizing actin or blocking NMDA/AMPA receptors reduced the mobile pool of SAP102 but did not affect the mobile pool of PSD-95. Our results show significant differences in the localization, binding mechanism, and mobility of SAP102 and PSD-95. These differences and the compensatory properties of the MAGUKs point out an unrecognized versatility of the MAGUKs in their function in synaptic organization and plasticity.
Project description:In neuronal synapses, PDZ domains [postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/Discs large/zona occludens-1] of PSD-95 proteins interact with C termini of NMDA receptor [NMDAR (NR)] subunits, linking them to downstream neurotoxic signaling molecules. Perturbing NMDAR/PSD-95 interactions with a Tat peptide comprising the nine C-terminal residues of the NR2B subunit (Tat-NR2B9c) reduces neurons' vulnerability to excitotoxicity and ischemia. However, NR subunit C termini may bind many of >240 cellular PDZs, any of which could mediate neurotoxic signaling independently of PSD-95. Here, we performed a proteomic and biochemical analysis of the interactions of all known human PDZs with synaptic signaling proteins including NR1, NR2A-NR2D, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tat-NR2B9c, whose interactions define PDZs involved in neurotoxic signaling, was also used. NR2A-NR2D subunits and Tat-NR2B9c had similar, highly specific, PDZ protein interactions, of which the strongest were with the PSD-95 family members (PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP97, and SAP102) and Tax interaction protein 1 (TIP1). The PSD-95 PDZ2 domain bound NR2A-NR2C subunits most strongly (EC50, approximately 1 microM), and fusing the NR2B C terminus to Tat enhanced its affinity for PSD-95 PDZ2 by >100-fold (EC50, approximately 7 nM). IC50 values for Tat-NR2B9c inhibiting NR2A-NR2C/PSD-95 interactions (approximately 1-10 microM) and nNOS/PSD-95 interactions (200 nM) confirmed the feasibility of such inhibition. To determine which of the PDZ interactions of Tat-NR2B9c mediate neuroprotection, one of PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP97, SAP102, TIP1, or nNOS expression was inhibited in cortical neurons exposed to NMDA toxicity. Only neurons lacking PSD-95 or nNOS but not PSD-93, SAP97, SAP102, or TIP1 exhibited reduced excitotoxic vulnerability. Thus, despite the ubiquitousness of PDZ domain-containing proteins, PSD-95 and nNOS above any other PDZ proteins are keys in effecting NMDAR-dependent excitotoxicity. Consequently, PSD-95 inhibition may constitute a highly specific strategy for treating excitotoxic disorders.
Project description:NMDA receptor NR2A/B subunits have PDZ-binding domains on their extreme C-termini that are known to interact with the PSD-95 family and other PDZ proteins. We explore the interactions between PSD-95 family proteins and the NR2A/B cytoplasmic tails, and the consequences of these interactions, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through delivery to the synapse in primary rat hippocampal and cortical cultured neurons. We find that the NR2A/B cytoplasmic tails cluster very early in the secretory pathway and interact serially with SAP102 beginning at the intermediate compartment, and then PSD-95. We further establish that colocalization of the distal C-terminus of NR2B and PSD-95 begins at the trans-Golgi Network (TGN). Formation of NR2B/PSD-95/SAP102 complexes is dependent on the PDZ binding domain of NR2B subunits, but association with SAP102 and PSD-95 plays no distinguishable role in cluster pre-formation or initial targeting to the vicinity of the synapse. Instead the PDZ binding domain plays a role in restricting cell-surface clusters to postsynaptic targets.
Project description:The balance among different subtypes of glutamate receptors (GluRs) is crucial for synaptic function and plasticity at excitatory synapses. However, the mechanisms balancing synaptic GluR subtypes remain unclear. Herein, we show that the two subtypes of GluRs (A and B) expressed at <i>Drosophila</i> neuromuscular junction synapses mutually antagonize each other in terms of their relative synaptic levels and affect subsynaptic localization of each other, as shown by super-resolution microscopy. Upon temperature shift-induced neuromuscular junction plasticity, GluR subtype A increased but subtype B decreased with a timecourse of hours. Inhibition of the activity of GluR subtype A led to imbalance of GluR subtypes towards more GluRIIA. To gain a better understanding of the signalling pathways underlying the balance of GluR subtypes, we performed an RNA interference screen of candidate genes and found that postsynaptic-specific knockdown of <i>dunce</i>, which encodes cAMP phosphodiesterase, increased levels of GluR subtype A but decreased subtype B. Furthermore, bidirectional alterations of postsynaptic cAMP signalling resulted in the same antagonistic regulation of the two GluR subtypes. Our findings thus identify a direct role of postsynaptic cAMP signalling in control of the plasticity-related balance of GluRs.
Project description:The postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein-rich network important for the localization of postsynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs) and for signaling downstream of these receptors. Although hundreds of PSD proteins have been identified, many are functionally uncharacterized. We conducted a reverse genetic screen for mutations that affected GluR localization using Drosophila genes that encode homologs of mammalian PSD proteins. 42.8% of the mutants analyzed exhibited a significant change in GluR localization at the third instar larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a model synapse that expresses homologs of AMPA receptors. We identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Mib1, which promotes Notch signaling, as a regulator of synaptic GluR localization. Mib1 positively regulates the localization of the GluR subunits GluRIIA, GluRIIB, and GluRIIC. Mutations in mib1 and ubiquitous expression of Mib1 that lacks its ubiquitin ligase activity result in the loss of synaptic GluRIIA-containing receptors. In contrast, overexpression of Mib1 in all tissues increases postsynaptic levels of GluRIIA. Cellular levels of Mib1 are also important for the structure of the presynaptic motor neuron. While deficient Mib1 signaling leads to overgrowth of the NMJ, ubiquitous overexpression of Mib1 results in a reduction in the number of presynaptic motor neuron boutons and branches. These synaptic changes may be secondary to attenuated glutamate release from the presynaptic motor neuron in mib1 mutants as mib1 mutants exhibit significant reductions in the vesicle-associated protein cysteine string protein and in the frequency of spontaneous neurotransmission.
Project description:The mechanisms controlling synapse growth and maintenance are of critical importance for learning and memory. The MAGUK family of synaptic scaffolding proteins is abundantly expressed at glutamatergic central synapses, but their importance in controlling the synaptic content of glutamate receptors is poorly understood. Here, we use a chained RNAi-mediated knockdown approach to simultaneously remove PSD-93, PSD-95, and SAP102, the MAGUKs previously shown to be responsible for synaptic localization of glutamate receptors. We find that MAGUKs are specifically responsible for creating functional synapses after initial spine formation by filling functionally silent spines with glutamate receptors. Removal of the MAGUKs causes a transient reduction in AMPA receptor quantal size followed by synaptic consolidation resulting in a normalization of quantal size at the few remaining functional synapses. Consolidation requires signaling through L-type calcium channels, CaM kinase kinase, and the GluA2 AMPA receptor subunit, akin to a homeostatic process.
Project description:Synapse development is coordinated by a number of transmembrane and secreted proteins that come together to form synaptic organizing complexes. Whereas a variety of synaptogenic proteins have been characterized, much less is understood about the molecular networks that support the maintenance and functional maturation of nascent synapses. Here, we demonstrate that leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1), a secreted protein previously shown to modulate synaptic AMPA receptors, is a paracrine signal released from pre- and postsynaptic neurons that acts specifically through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase protein 22 (ADAM22) to set postsynaptic strength. We go on to describe a novel role for ADAM22 in maintaining excitatory synapses through PSD-95/Dlg1/zo-1 (PDZ) domain interactions. Finally, we show that in the absence of LGI1, the mature synapse scaffolding protein PSD-95, but not the immature synapse scaffolding protein SAP102, is unable to modulate synaptic transmission. These results indicate that LGI1 and ADAM22 form an essential synaptic organizing complex that coordinates the maturation of excitatory synapses by regulating the functional incorporation of PSD-95.
Project description:Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are major components of the postsynaptic density and play important roles in synaptic organization and plasticity. Most excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines, which are dynamic structures that undergo morphological changes during synapse formation and plasticity. Synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) is a MAGUK that is highly expressed early in development and mediates receptor trafficking during synaptogenesis. Mutations in human SAP102 cause mental retardation, which is often accompanied with abnormalities in dendritic spines. However, little is known about the role of SAP102 in regulating synapse formation or spine morphology. We now find that SAP102 contains a novel NMDA receptor binding site in the N-terminal domain, which is specific for the NR2B subunit. The interaction between SAP102 and NR2B is PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain independent and is regulated by alternative splicing of SAP102. We show that SAP102 that possesses an N-terminal insert is developmentally regulated at both mRNA and protein levels. In addition, expression of SAP102 increases synapse formation. Furthermore, the alternative splicing of SAP102 regulates dendritic spine morphology. SAP102 containing the N-terminal insert promotes lengthening of dendritic spines and preferentially promotes the formation of synapses at long spines, whereas a short hairpin RNA knockdown of the same SAP102 splice variant causes spine shrinkage. Finally, blocking NMDA receptor activity prevents the spine lengthening induced by the N-terminal splice variant of SAP102. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that SAP102 links NMDA receptor activation to alterations in spine morphology.
Project description:Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are the major family of scaffolding proteins at the postsynaptic density. The PSD-MAGUK subfamily, which includes PSD-95, PSD-93, SAP97, and SAP102, is well accepted to be primarily involved in the synaptic anchoring of numerous proteins, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Notably, the synaptic targeting of NMDARs depends on the binding of the PDZ ligand on the GluN2B subunit to MAGUK PDZ domains, as disruption of this interaction dramatically decreases NMDAR surface and synaptic expression. We recently reported a secondary interaction between SAP102 and GluN2B, in addition to the PDZ interaction. Here, we identify two critical residues on GluN2B responsible for the non-PDZ binding to SAP102. Strikingly, either mutation of these critical residues or knockdown of endogenous SAP102 can rescue the defective surface expression and synaptic localization of PDZ binding-deficient GluN2B. These data reveal an unexpected, nonscaffolding role for SAP102 in the synaptic clearance of GluN2B-containing NMDARs.