Genomic comparison of Escherichia coli K1 strains isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli is a major cause of enteric/diarrheal diseases, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. E. coli K1 is the leading gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis, but the microbial basis of E. coli K1 meningitis is incompletely understood. Here we employed comparative genomic hybridization to investigate 11 strains of E. coli K1 isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with meningitis. These 11 strains cover the majority of common O serotypes in E. coli K1 isolates from CSF. Our data demonstrated that these 11 strains of E. coli K1 can be categorized into two groups based on their profile for putative virulence factors, lipoproteins, proteases, and outer membrane proteins. Of interest, we showed that some open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the type III secretion system apparatus were found in group 2 strains but not in group 1 strains, while ORFs encoding the general secretory pathway are predominant in group 1 strains. These findings suggest that E. coli K1 strains isolated from CSF can be divided into two groups and these two groups of E. coli K1 may utilize different mechanisms to induce meningitis.
Project description:A new Escherichia coli virulent clonal group, O45:K1, belonging to the highly virulent subgroup B2(1) was recently identified in France, where it accounts for one-third of E. coli neonatal meningitis cases. Here we describe the sequence, epidemiology and function of the large plasmid harbored by strain S88, which is representative of the O45:K1 clonal group. Plasmid pS88 is 133,853 bp long and contains 144 protein-coding genes. It harbors three different iron uptake systems (aerobactin, salmochelin, and the sitABCD genes) and other putative virulence genes (iss, etsABC, ompT(P), and hlyF). The pS88 sequence is composed of several gene blocks homologous to avian pathogenic E. coli plasmids pAPEC-O2-ColV and pAPEC-O1-ColBM. PCR amplification of 11 open reading frames scattered throughout the plasmid was used to investigate the distribution of pS88 and showed that a pS88-like plasmid is present in other meningitis clonal groups such as O18:K1, O1:K1, and O83:K1. A pS88-like plasmid was also found in avian pathogenic strains and human urosepsis strains belonging to subgroup B2(1). A variant of S88 cured of its plasmid displayed a marked loss of virulence relative to the wild-type strain in a neonatal rat model, with bacteremia more than 2 log CFU/ml lower. The salmochelin siderophore, a known meningovirulence factor, could not alone explain the plasmid's contribution to virulence, as a salmochelin mutant displayed only a minor fall in bacteremia (0.9 log CFU/ml). Thus, pS88 is a major virulence determinant related to avian pathogenic plasmids that has spread not only through meningitis clonal groups but also human urosepsis and avian pathogenic strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neonatal meningitis caused by Escherichia coli results in high mortality and neurological disabilities, and the concomitant systemic bacteremia confounds its mortality and brain injury. This study developed an experimental model of neonatal ventriculitis without concomitant systemic bacteremia by determining the bacterial inoculum of K1 capsule-negative E. coli by intraventricular injection in newborn rats. METHODS:We carried out intraventricular injections 1 × 102 (low dose), 5 × 102 (medium dose), or 1 × 103 (high dose) colony-forming units (CFU) of K1 (-) E. coli (EC5ME) in Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day (P) 11. Ampicillin was started at P12. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were performed at 6 h, 1 day, and 6 days after inoculation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at P12 and P17. Survival was monitored, and brain tissue was obtained for histological and biochemical analyses at P12 and P17. RESULTS:Survival was inoculum dose-dependent, with the lowest survival in the high-dose group (20%) compared with the medium- (67%) or low- (73%) dose groups. CSF bacterial counts in the low- and medium-dose groups were significantly lower than that in the high-dose group at 6 h, but not at 24 h after inoculation. No bacteria were isolated from the blood throughout the experiment or from the CSF at P17. Brain MRI showed an inoculum dose-dependent increase in the extent of brain injury and inflammatory responses. CONCLUSIONS:We developed a newborn rat model of bacterial ventriculitis without concomitant systemic bacteremia by intraventricular injection of EC5ME.
Project description:The most common cause of Gram-negative bacterial neonatal meningitis is E. coli K1. It has a mortality rate of 10-15 %, and neurological sequelae in 30-50 % of cases. Infections can be attributable to nosocomial sources, however the pre-colonisation of enteral feeding tubes has not been considered as a specific risk factor.Thirty E. coli strains, which had been isolated in an earlier study, from the residual lumen liquid and biofilms of neonatal nasogastric feeding tubes were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 7-loci multilocus sequence typing. Potential pathogenicity and biofilm associated traits were determined using specific PCR probes, genome analysis, and in vitro tissue culture assays.The E. coli strains clustered into five pulsotypes, which were genotyped as sequence types (ST) 95, 73, 127, 394 and 2076 (Achman scheme). The extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) phylogenetic group B2 ST95 serotype O1:K1:NM strains had been isolated over a 2 week period from 11 neonates who were on different feeding regimes. The E. coli K1 ST95 strains encoded for various virulence traits associated with neonatal meningitis and extracellular matrix formation. These strains attached and invaded intestinal, and both human and rat brain cell lines, and persisted for 48 h in U937 macrophages. E. coli STs 73, 394 and 2076 also persisted in macrophages and invaded Caco-2 and human brain cells, but only ST394 invaded rat brain cells. E. coli ST127 was notable as it did not invade any cell lines.Routes by which E. coli K1 can be disseminated within a neonatal intensive care unit are uncertain, however the colonisation of neonatal enteral feeding tubes may be one reservoir source which could constitute a serious health risk to neonates following ingestion.
Project description:Forty Escherichia coli strains isolated primarily from neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections and feces were screened for the presence of virulence genes with a newly developed microarray on the array tube format. A total of 32 gene probes specific for extraintestinal as well as intestinal E. coli pathotypes were included. Eighty-eight percent of the analyzed strains were positive for the K1-specific probe on the microarray and could be confirmed with a specific antiserum against the K1 capsular polysaccharide. The gene for the hemin receptor ChuA was predominantly found in 95% of strains. Other virulence genes associated with K1 and related strains were P, S, and F1C fimbriae specific for extraintestinal E. coli, the genes for aerobactin, the alpha-hemolysin and the cytotoxic necrotizing factor. In two strains, the O157-specific catalase gene and the gene for the low-molecular-weight heat-stable toxin AstA were detected, respectively. A total of 19 different virulence gene patterns were observed. No correlation was observed between specific virulence gene patterns and a clinical outcome. The data indicate that virulence genes typical of extraintestinal E. coli are predominantly present in K1 strains. Nevertheless, some of them can carry virulence genes known to be characteristic of intestinal E. coli. The distribution and combination of virulence genes show that K1 isolates constitute a heterogeneous group of E. coli.
Project description:Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) have been documented in many Gram-negative bacteria, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. We have previously shown the existence of a putative T3SS in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strains, referred to as E. coli type III secretion 2 (ETT2). The sequence of ETT2 in meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain EC10 (O7:K1) revealed that ETT2 comprises the epr, epa and eiv genes, but bears mutations, deletions and insertions. We constructed the EC10 mutants deleted of ETT2 or eivA gene, and their contributions to bacterial pathogenesis were evaluated in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). The deletion mutant of ETT2 exhibited defects in invasion and intracellular survival compared with the parental E. coli K1 strain EC10. The mutant deleted of eivA within ETT2 was also significantly defective in invasion and intracellular survival in HBMECs, and the defects of the eiv mutant were restored to the levels of the parent strain EC10 by transcomplementation. These findings suggest that ETT2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of E. coli K1 infection, including meningitis.
Project description:Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140) with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89). Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12) was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18) strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China) through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.
Project description:Studies have shown that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke can increase the risk of bacterial meningitis, and nicotine is the core component of environmental tobacco smoke. Autophagy is an important way for host cells to eliminate invasive pathogens and resist infection. Escherichia coli K1 strain (E. coli K1) is the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis. The mechanism of nicotine promoting E. coli K1 to invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), the main component of the blood-brain barrier, is not clear yet. Our study found that the increase of HBMEC autophagy level during E. coli K1 infection could decrease the survival of intracellular bacteria, while nicotine exposure could inhibit the HBMEC autophagic response of E. coli K1 infection by activating the NF-kappa B and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We concluded that nicotine could inhibit HBMEC autophagy upon E. coli K1 infection and decrease the scavenging effect on E. coli K1, thus promoting the occurrence and development of neonatal meningitis.
Project description:Pertussis toxin (PTx), the major virulence factor of the whooping cough-causing bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis, permeabilizes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and in vivo. Breaking barriers might promote translocation of meningitis-causing bacteria across the BBB, thereby facilitating infection. PTx activates several host cell signaling pathways exploited by the neonatal meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1-RS218 for invasion and translocation across the BBB. Here, we investigated whether PTx and E. coli K1-RS218 exert similar effects on MAPK p38, NF-?B activation and transcription of downstream targets in human cerebral endothelial TY10 cells using qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in combination with specific inhibitors. PTx and E. coli K1-RS218 activate MAPK p38, but only E. coli K1-RS218 activates the NF-?B pathway. mRNA and protein levels of p38 and NF-?B downstream targets including IL-6, IL-8, CxCL-1, CxCL-2 and ICAM-1 were increased. The p38 specific inhibitor SB203590 blocked PTx-enhanced activity, whereas E. coli K1-RS218's effects were inhibited by the NF-?B inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Further, we found that PTx enhances the adherence of human monocytic THP-1 cells to human cerebral endothelial TY10 cells, thereby contributing to enhanced translocation. These modulations of host cell signaling pathways by PTx and meningitis-causing E. coli support their contributions to pathogen and monocytic THP-1 cells translocation across the BBB.
Project description:Bacterial meningitis is a serious central nervous system infection and Escherichia coli K1 (E. coli K1) is one of the leading etiological agents that cause meningitis in neonates. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli K1 is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of meningitis, and interacts with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to cross the blood-brain barrier. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that two N-glycosylation sites (NG1 and NG2) in the extracellular domain of OmpA receptor, Ecgp96 are critical for bacterial binding to HBMEC. E. coli K1 invasion assays using CHO-Lec1 cells that express truncated N-glycans, and sequential digestion of HBMEC surface N-glycans using specific glycosidases showed that GlcNAc1-4GlcNAc epitopes are sufficient for OmpA interaction with HBMEC. Lack of NG1 and NG2 sites in Ecgp96 inhibits E. coli K1 OmpA induced F-actin polymerization, phosphorylation of protein kinase C-?, and disruption of transendothelial electrical resistance required for efficient invasion of E. coli K1 in HBMEC. Furthermore, the microvessels of cortex and hippocampus of the brain sections of E. coli K1 infected mice showed increased expression of glycosylated Ecgp96. Therefore, the interface of OmpA and GlcNAc1-4GlcNAc epitope interaction would be a target for preventative strategies against E. coli K1 meningitis.
Project description:Escherichia coli K1 is a leading cause of neonatal meningitis in humans. In this study, we sought to determine the pathophysiologic relevance of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) in experimental E. coli K1 meningitis. By using a newborn mouse model of meningitis, we demonstrate that E. coli infection triggered the expression of iNOS in the brains of mice. Additionally, iNOS-/- mice were resistant to E. coli K1 infection, displaying normal brain histology, no bacteremia, no disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and reduced inflammatory response. Treatment with an iNOS specific inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), of wild-type animals before infection prevented the development of bacteremia and the occurrence of meningitis. The infected animals treated with AG after the development of bacteremia also completely cleared the pathogen from circulation and prevented brain damage. Histopathological and micro-CT analysis of brains revealed significant damage in E. coli K1-infected mice, which was completely abrogated by AG administration. Peritoneal macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from iNOS-/- mice or pretreated with AG demonstrated enhanced uptake and killing of the bacteria compared with macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes from wild-type mice in which E. coli K1 survive and multiply. Thus, NO produced by iNOS may be beneficial for E. coli to survive inside the macrophages, and prevention of iNOS could be a therapeutic strategy to treat neonatal E. coli meningitis.