Biochemical and molecular characterization of three new variants of AmpC beta-lactamases from Morganella morganii.
ABSTRACT: Morganella morganii produces an inducible, chromosomally encoded AmpC beta-lactamase. We describe in this study three new variants of AmpC within this species with apparent pIs of 6.6 (M19 from M. morganii strain PP19), 7.4 (M29 from M. morganii strain PP29), and 7.8 (M37 from M. morganii strain PP37). After gene sequencing, deduced amino acid sequences displayed one to six substitutions when compared to the available Morganella AmpC sequences. An AmpR-encoding gene was also found upstream of ampC, including the LysR regulators' helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and the putative T-N11-A-protected region in the ampR-ampC intercistronic sequence. All three AmpC variants were purified from in vitro-generated derepressed mutants and showed overall similar kinetic parameters. None of the observed amino acid changes, occurring at the surface of the protein, appear to have a major influence in their catalytic properties. Morganella AmpCs exhibit the highest catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) on classical penicillins, cefoxitin, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, and cefotaxime. Cefotaxime was more effectively hydrolyzed than other oxyimino-cephalosporins, whereas cefepime was 3 log-fold less efficiently hydrolyzed than other cephalosporins such as cephalothin. Several differences with other AmpC beta-lactamases were found. Ampicillin was more efficiently hydrolyzed than benzylpenicillin. High k(cat)/K(m) values were observed for oxacillin and piperacillin, which are usually poor substrates for AmpC. A fairly efficient hydrolysis of imipenem was detected as well. Aztreonam, carbenicillin, and tazobactam were effective transient inactivators of these variants.
Project description:DHA-1, a plasmid-mediated cephalosporinase from a single clinical Salmonella enteritidis isolate, conferred resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins (cefotaxime and ceftazidime) and cephamycins (cefoxitin and moxalactam), and this resistance was transferable to Escherichia coli HB101. An antagonism was observed between cefoxitin and aztreonam by the diffusion method. Transformation of the transconjugant E. coli strain with plasmid pNH5 carrying the ampD gene (whose product decreases the level of expression of ampC) resulted in an eightfold decrease in the MIC of cefoxitin. A clone with the same AmpC susceptibility pattern with antagonism was obtained, clone E. coli JM101(pSAL2-ind), and its nucleotide sequence was determined. It contained an open reading frame with 98. 7% DNA sequence identity with the ampC gene of Morganella morganii. DNA sequence analysis also identified a gene upstream of ampC whose sequence was 97% identical to the partial sequence of the ampR gene (435 bp) from M. morganii. The gene encoded a protein with an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain typical of transcriptional activators of the LysR family. Moreover, the intercistronic region between the ampC and ampR genes was 98% identical to the corresponding region from M. morganii DNA. AmpR was shown to be functional by enzyme induction and a gel mobility-shift assay. An ampG gene was also detected in a Southern blot of DNA from the S. enteritidis isolate. These findings suggest that this inducible plasmid-mediated AmpC type beta-lactamase, DHA-1, probably originated from M. morganii.
Project description:Shotgun cloning experiments with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA from Morganella morganii 1, which expresses high levels of cephalosporinase, into the pBKCMV cloning vector gave a recombinant plasmid, pPON-1, which encoded four entire genes: ampC, ampR, an hybF family gene, and orf-1 of unknown function. The deduced AmpC beta-lactamase of pI 7.6 shared structural and functional homologies with AmpC from Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens. The overlapping promoter organization of ampC and ampR, although much shorter in M. morganii than in the other enterobacterial species, suggested similar AmpR regulatory properties. The MICs of beta-lactams for E. coli MC4100 (ampC mutant) harboring recombinant plasmid pACYC184 containing either ampC and ampR (pAC-1) or ampC (pAC-2) and induction experiments showed that the ampC gene of M. morganii 1 was repressed in the presence of ampR and was activated when a beta-lactam inducer was added. Moreover, transformation of M. morganii 1 or of E. coli JRG582 (delta ampDE) harboring ampC and ampR with a recombinant plasmid containing ampD from E. cloacae resulted in a decrease in the beta-lactam MICs and an inducible phenotype for M. morganii 1, thus underlining the role of an AmpD-like protein in the regulation of the M. morganii cephalosporinase. Fifteen other M. morganii clinical isolates with phenotypes of either low-level inducible cephalosporinase expression or high-level constitutive cephalosporinase expression harbored the same ampC-ampR organization, with the hybF and orf-1 genes surrounding them; the organization of these genes thus differed from those of ampC-ampR genes in C. freundii and E. cloacae, which are located downstream from the fumarate operon. Finally, an identical AmpC beta-lactamase (DHA-1) was recently identified as being plasmid encoded in Salmonella enteritidis, and this is confirmatory evidence of a chromosomal origin of the plasmid-mediated cephalosporinases.
Project description:A naturally occurring AmpC beta-lactamase (cephalosporinase) gene was cloned from the Hafnia alvei 1 clinical isolate and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced AmpC beta-lactamase (ACC-2) had a pI of 8 and a relative molecular mass of 37 kDa and showed 50 and 47% amino acid identity with the chromosome-encoded AmpCs from Serratia marcescens and Providentia stuartii, respectively. It had 94% amino acid identity with the recently described plasmid-borne cephalosporinase ACC-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae, suggesting the chromosomal origin of ACC-1. The hydrolysis constants (k(cat) and K(m)) showed that ACC-2 was a peculiar cephalosporinase, since it significantly hydrolyzed cefpirome. Once its gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli (pDEL-1), ACC-2 conferred resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime but also an uncommon reduced susceptibility to cefpirome. A divergently transcribed ampR gene with an overlapping promoter compared with ampC (bla(ACC-2)) was identified in H. alvei 1, encoding an AmpR protein that shared 64% amino acid identity with the closest AmpR protein from P. stuartii. beta-Lactamase induction experiments showed that the ampC gene was repressed in the absence of ampR and was activated when cefoxitin or imipenem was added as an inducer. From H. alvei 1 cultures that expressed an inducible-cephalosporinase phenotype, several ceftazidime- and cefpirome-cross-resistant H. alvei 1 mutants were obtained upon selection on cefpirome- or ceftazidime-containing plates, and H. alvei 1 DER, a ceftazidime-resistant mutant, stably overproduced cephalosporinase. Transformation of H. alvei 1 DER or E. coli JRG582 (ampDE mutant) harboring ampC and ampR from H. alvei 1 with a recombinant plasmid containing ampD from E. coli resulted in a decrease in the MIC of beta-lactam and recovery of an inducible phenotype for H. alvei 1 DER. Thus, AmpR and AmpD proteins may regulate biosynthesis of the H. alvei cephalosporinase similarly to other enterobacterial cephalosporinases.
Project description:CFE-1 is a unique plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamase with the regulator gene ampR. It imparts high resistance to most cephalosporins with constitutive high-level β-lactamase activity. Here, the β-lactamase activities and expression levels of ampC with or without ampR were investigated. Results suggested that the resistance of CFE-1 to cephalosporins is caused by a substitution in AmpR, in which the Asp at position 135 is modified to Ala to allow the constitutive high-level expression (derepression) of ampC.
Project description:A serious concern is arising on the coexistence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) producing bacteria in animal husbandry, which could be transferred to humans, especially in strains that may not be routinely screened for resistance. This study therefore tested the prevalence of ESBL and PMQR genes in selected bacteria isolated from poultry faeces. Faecal droppings of birds were collected from 11 farms in five states in South Western Nigeria. Bacteria were isolated from the samples on cefotaxime supplemented plates and identified with MALDI-TOF. The MIC was determined using VITEK system and resistance genes were detected with PCR. A total of 350 strains were isolated from different samples and selected strains were identified as 23 Klebsiella pneumonia, 12 Morganella morganii, seven Leclercia adecarboxylata and one Citrobacter freundii. All the species were resistant to gentamycin, trimethoprim/sulphamethaxole, tobramycin, piperacillin, cefotaxime and aztreonam (except Morganella morganii strains which were mostly susceptible to aztreonam). All the tested strains were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin. All Leclercia adecarboxylata strains were resistant to ceftazidime, cefepime and fosfomycin while all Morganella morganii strains were resistant to fosfomycin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin. All tested species were generally sensitive to ciprofloxacin except Morganella morganii strains which were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, tigercylin, colistin and fosfomycin were 65%, 40%, 23%,, 7%, 33%, 48% respectively while the prevalence of SHV, TEM and CTX genes were 42%, 63%, 35% respectively. 9.3% of the isolates had the three ESBL genes, 2.33% had qnrA gene, 4.65% had qnr B gene while none had qnrS gene. The most prevalent PMQR gene is Oqxb (25.58%) while 6.98% had the qep gene. Klebsiella pneumoniae generally had both ESBL and PMQR genes. The high prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase genes in the studied strains calls for caution in the use of beta lactam antibiotics in poultry feeds. This is the first report of the occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes in Morganella morganii and Leclercia adecarboxylata strains isolated from poultry faeces.
Project description:A multiresistant Serratia marcescens strain, HD, isolated from a patient with a urinary tract infection, was resistant to amino-, carboxy-, and ureidopenicillins, ceftazidime, and cefepime and was susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, according to the guidelines of the NCCLS. No synergy was found between expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and clavulanic acid, according to the double-disk synergy test. The bla(AmpC) gene of the strain was amplified by PCR and cloned into Escherichia coli DH10B, giving rise to high-level resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. Sequencing analysis revealed that the bla(AmpC) gene from S. marcescens HD had a 12-nucleotide deletion compared to the bla(AmpC) gene from reference strain S. marcescens S3, leading to a 4-amino-acid deletion located in the H-10 helix of the beta-lactamase. Kinetic analysis showed that this enzyme significantly hydrolyzed ceftazidime, cefepime, and cefpirome. This work underlined that resistance to the latest expanded-spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by structurally modified AmpC-type beta-lactamases.
Project description:Ochrobactrum anthropi, formerly known as CDC group Vd, is an oxidase-producing, gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-lactose-fermenting bacillus of low virulence that occasionally causes human infections. It is highly resistant to all beta-lactams except imipenem. A clinical isolate, SLO74, and six reference strains were tested. MICs of penicillins, aztreonam, and most cephalosporins tested, including cefotaxime and ceftazidime, were >128 microg/ml and of cefepime were 64 to >128 microg/ml. Clavulanic acid was ineffective and tazobactam had a weak effect in association with piperacillin. Two genes, ampR and ampC, were cloned by inserting restriction fragments of genomic DNA from the clinical strain O. anthropi SLO74 into pBK-CMV to give the recombinant plasmid pBK-OA1. The pattern of resistance to beta-lactams of this clone was similar to that of the parental strain, except for its resistance to cefepime (MIC, 0.5 ,micro/ml). The deduced amino acid sequence of the AmpC beta-lactamase (pI, 8.9) was only 41 to 52% identical to the sequence of other chromosomally encoded and plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamases. The kinetic properties of this beta-lactamase were typical for this class of beta-lactamases. Upstream from the ampC gene, the ampR gene encodes a protein with a sequence that is 46 to 62% identical to those of other AmpR proteins and with an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain typical of transcriptional activators of the Lys-R family. The deduced amino acid sequences of the ampC genes of the six reference strains were 96 to 99% identical to the sequence of the clinical strain. The beta-lactamase characterized from strain SLO74 was named OCH-1 (gene, bla(OCH-I)).
Project description:A clinical isolate of Morganella morganii, with reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, was found to produce an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase with a pI of 6.4. The nucleotide sequence of the encoding gene was that of the gene encoding TEM-21. This is the first molecular characterization of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in M. morganii.
Project description:The genetic organization of the gene coding for DHA-1 and the corresponding ampR gene was determined by PCR mapping. These genes have been mobilized from the Morganella morganii chromosome and inserted into a complex sulI-type integron, similar to In6 and In7. However, they are not themselves mobile cassettes. This integron probably includes a specific site for recombination allowing the mobilization of diverse resistance genes, as observed for bla(CMY-1) and bla(MOX-1).
Project description:A clinical isolate of Escherichia coli from a patient in Japan, isolate KU6400, was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase that conferred resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and cephamycins. Resistance arising from production of a beta-lactamase could be transferred by either conjugation or transformation with plasmid pKU601 into E. coli ML4947. The substrate and inhibition profiles of this enzyme resembled those of the AmpC beta-lactamase. The resistance gene of pKU601, which was cloned and expressed in E. coli, proved to contain an open reading frame showing 99.8% DNA sequence identity with the ampC gene of Citrobacter freundii GC3. DNA sequence analysis also identified a gene upstream of ampC whose sequence was 99.0% identical to the ampR gene from C. freundii GC3. In addition, a fumarate operon (frdABCD) and an outer membrane lipoprotein (blc) surrounding the ampR-ampC genes in C. freundii were identified, and insertion sequence (IS26) elements were observed on both sides of the sequences identified (forming an IS26 composite transposon); these results confirm the evidence of the translocation of a beta-lactamase-associated gene region from the chromosome to a plasmid. Finally, we describe a novel plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase, CFE-1, with an ampR gene derived from C. freundii.