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ATM and ATR promote Mre11 dependent restart of collapsed replication forks and prevent accumulation of DNA breaks.

ABSTRACT: Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia Rad3-related (ATR) and the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex ensure genome stability in response to DNA damage. However, their essential role in DNA metabolism remains unknown. Here we show that ATM and ATR prevent accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during chromosomal replication. Replicating chromosomes accumulate DSBs in Xenopus laevis egg extracts depleted of ATM and ATR. Addition of ATM and ATR proteins to depleted extracts prevents DSB accumulation by promoting restart of collapsed replication forks that arise during DNA replication. We show that collapsed forks maintain MCM complex but lose Pol epsilon, and that Pol epsilon reloading requires ATM and ATR. Replication fork restart is abolished in Mre11 depleted extracts and is restored by supplementation with recombinant human Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex. Using a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based technique, we demonstrate that ATM and ATR induce Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex redistribution to restarting forks. This study provides direct biochemical evidence that ATM and ATR prevent accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities by promoting Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 dependent recovery of collapsed replication forks.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1440833 | BioStudies | 2006-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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