Positive and negative regulation of the innate antiviral response and beta interferon gene expression by deacetylation.
ABSTRACT: Beta interferon (IFN-beta) gene expression in response to virus infection relies on the dynamic assembly of a multiprotein enhanceosome complex that is initiated by the activation of two inducible transcription factors, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-kappaB. Virus or double-stranded RNA-induced activation of IFN-beta gene expression is prevented by the addition of protein deacetylase inhibitors. The isolated IRF-responsive positive regulatory domain was found to require deacetylation for its activity, but IRF3 protein activation leading to its nuclear translocation and DNA binding was not impaired by deacetylase inhibition. In contrast, NF-kappaB activity was not affected by deacetylase inhibitors. RNA interference indicated that several deacetylase enzymes, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), HDAC8, and HDAC6, influence IFN-beta gene expression with opposing effects. While HDAC1 and HDAC8 repress IFN-beta expression, HDAC6 acts as a coactivator essential for enhancer activity. Virus replication is enhanced in HDAC6-depleted cells, demonstrating HDAC6 is an essential component of innate antiviral immunity.
Project description:Recognition of viral RNA by cytoplasmic retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors initiates signals leading to the induction of type I interferon (IFN) transcription via transcription factors such as interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B). Here, we describe a new signalling pathway that involves protein kinase C alpha (PKC?), histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and beta-catenin (?-catenin), which is essential for IFN gene induction following virus infection. Knockdown of PKC? in various human cells, including primary cells, inhibited Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated IFN induction and enhanced virus replication. In the absence of this pathway IRF3 becomes activated, but does not bind to its promoter and is thus unable to support transcription. Mechanistically, SeV infection induced the activation of PKC?, which promoted its interaction with HDAC6 and enhanced its deacetylation activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Further downstream, HDAC6 caused deacetylation of ?-catenin and enhanced its nuclear translocation and promoter binding. In the nucleus, ?-catenin acted as a co-activator for IRF3-mediated transcription. Our findings suggest an important role of a novel signalling pathway mediated by PKC?-HDAC6-?-catenin in controlling IRF3-mediated transcription.
Project description:We previously identified 3-hydroxypyridine-2-thione (3HPT) as a novel zinc binding group for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. Early structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to various small molecules possessing selective inhibitory activity against HDAC6 or HDAC8 but devoid of HDAC1 inhibition. To delineate further the depth of the SAR of 3HPT-derived HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), we have extended the SAR studies to include the linker region and the surface recognition group to optimize the HDAC inhibition. The current efforts resulted in the identification of two lead compounds, 10d and 14e, with potent HDAC6 and HDAC8 activities that are inactive against HDAC1. These new HDACi possess anticancer activities against various cancer cell lines including Jurkat J.?1 for which SAHA and the previously disclosed 3HPT-derived HDACi were inactive.
Project description:We previously reported that human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein constitutively activates transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Here, we established Tax-positive HuT-102 cells stably transfected with a short hairpin RNA vector (HuT-shTAK1 cells) and investigated the physiological function of TAK1. Microarray analysis demonstrated that several interferon (IFN)-inducible genes, including chemokines such as CXCL10 and CCL5, were significantly down-regulated in HuT-shTAK1 cells. In contrast, Tax-mediated constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was intact in HuT-shTAK1 cells. IFN-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a critical transcription factor in innate immunity to viral infection, was constitutively activated in a Tax-dependent manner. Activation of IRF3 and IRF3-dependent gene expressions was dependent on TAK1 and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). On the other hand, IRF4, another member in the IRF family of transcription factors overexpressed in a Tax-independent manner, negatively regulated TAK1-dependent IRF3 transcriptional activity. Together, HTLV-1 manipulates IFN signaling by regulating both positive and negative IRFs.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes govern the post-translational acetylation state of lysine residues on protein substrates, leading to regulatory changes in cell function. Due to their role in cancers, HDAC proteins have emerged as promising targets for cancer treatment. Four HDAC inhibitors have been approved as anti-cancer therapeutics, including SAHA (Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Vorinostat, Zolinza). SAHA is a nonselective HDAC inhibitor that targets most of the eleven HDAC isoforms. The nonselectivity of SAHA might account for its clinical side effects, but certainly limits its use as a chemical tool to study cancer-related HDAC cell biology. Herein, the nonselective HDAC inhibitor SAHA was modified at the C4 position of the linker to explore activity and selectivity. Several C4-modified SAHA analogs exhibited dual HDAC6/8 selectivity. Interestingly, (R)-C4-benzyl SAHA displayed 520- to 1300-fold selectivity for HDAC6 and HDAC8 over HDAC1, 2, and 3, with IC50 values of 48 and 27 nM with HDAC6 and 8, respectively. In cellulo testing of the inhibitors was consistent with the observed in vitro selectivity. Docking studies provided a structural rationale for selectivity. The C4-SAHA analogs represent useful chemical tools to understand the role of HDAC6 and HDAC8 in cancer biology and exciting lead compounds for targeting of both HDAC6 and HDAC8 in various cancers.
Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins are epigenetic regulators that deacetylate protein substrates, leading to subsequent changes in cell function. HDAC proteins are implicated in cancers, and several HDAC inhibitors have been approved by the FDA as anticancer drugs, including SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; Vorinostat and Zolinza). Unfortunately, SAHA inhibits most HDAC isoforms, which limits its use as a pharmacological tool and may lead to side effects in the clinic. In this work SAHA analogues substituted at the C2 position were synthesized and screened for HDAC isoform selectivity in vitro and in cells. The most potent and selective compound, C2-n-hexyl SAHA, displayed submicromolar potency with 49- to 300-fold selectivity for HDAC6 and HDAC8 compared to HDAC1, -2, and -3. Docking studies provided a structural rationale for selectivity. Modification of the nonselective inhibitor SAHA generated HDAC6/HDAC8 dual selective inhibitors, which can be useful lead compounds toward developing pharmacological tools and more effective anticancer drugs.
Project description:The phenothiazine system was identified as a favorable cap group for potent and selective histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitors. Here, we report the preparation and systematic variation of phenothiazines and their analogues containing a benzhydroxamic acid moiety as the zinc-binding group. We evaluated their ability to selectively inhibit HDAC6 by a recombinant HDAC enzyme assay, by determining the protein acetylation levels in cells by western blotting (tubulin vs histone acetylation), and by assessing their effects on various cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that incorporation of a nitrogen atom into the phenothiazine framework results in increased potency and selectivity for HDAC6 (more than 500-fold selectivity relative to the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC4, and HDAC8), as rationalized by molecular modeling and docking studies. The binding mode was confirmed by co-crystallization of the potent azaphenothiazine inhibitor with catalytic domain 2 from Danio rerio HDAC6.
Project description:Histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) is a promising drug target for multiple therapeutic applications. Here, we describe the modeling, design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel series of C1-substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ)-based HDAC8 inhibitors. Minimization of entropic loss upon ligand binding and use of the unique HDAC8 "open" conformation of the binding site yielded a successful strategy for improvement of both HDAC8 potency and selectivity. The TIQ-based 3g and 3n exhibited the highest 82 and 55 nM HDAC8 potency and 330- and 135-fold selectivity over HDAC1, respectively. Selectivity over other class I isoforms was comparable or better, whereas inhibition of HDAC6, a class II HDAC isoform, was below 50% at 10 ?M. The cytotoxicity of 3g and 3n was evaluated in neuroblastoma cell lines, and 3n displayed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity similar to or better than that of PCI-34051. The selectivity of 3g and 3n was confirmed in SH-SY5Y cells as both did not increase the acetylation of histone H3 and ?-tubulin. Discovery of the novel TIQ chemotype paves the way for the development of HDAC8 selective inhibitors for therapeutic applications.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection of swine leads to a serious disease characterized by a delayed and defective adaptive immune response. It is hypothesized that a suboptimal innate immune response is responsible for the disease pathogenesis. In the study presented here we tested this hypothesis and identified several nonstructural proteins (NSPs) with innate immune evasion properties encoded by the PRRS viral genome. Four of the total ten PRRSV NSPs tested were found to have strong to moderate inhibitory effects on beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter activation. The strongest inhibitory effect was exhibited by NSP1 followed by, NSP2, NSP11, and NSP4. We focused on NSP1alpha and NSP1beta (self-cleavage products of NSP1 during virus infection) and NSP11, three NSPs with strong inhibitory activity. All of three proteins, when expressed stably in cell lines, strongly inhibited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) signaling pathways. NSP1beta was found to inhibit both IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)- and NF-kappaB-dependent gene induction by dsRNA and Sendai virus. Mechanistically, the dsRNA-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were strongly inhibited by NSP1beta. Moreover, when tested in a porcine myelomonocytic cell line, NSP1beta inhibited Sendai virus-mediated activation of porcine IFN-beta promoter activity. We propose that this NSP1beta-mediated subversion of the host innate immune response plays an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis.
Project description:Single stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus infection activates the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)- mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) complex, a complex that coordinates the host innate immune response via the NF-kappaB and IRF3 pathways. Recent work has shown that the IkappaB kinase (IKK)gamma scaffolding protein is the final common adapter protein required by RIG-I.MAVS to activate divergent rate-limiting kinases downstream controlling the NF-kappaB and IRF3 pathways. Previously we discovered a ubiquitous IKKgamma splice-variant, IKKgammaDelta, that exhibits distinct signaling properties.We examined the regulation and function of IKKgamma splice forms in response to ssRNA virus infection, a condition that preferentially induces full length IKKgamma-WT mRNA expression. In IKKgammaDelta-expressing cells, we found increased viral translation and cytopathic effect compared to those expressing full length IKKgamma-WT. IKKgammaDelta fails to support viral-induced IRF3 activation in response to ssRNA infections; consequently type I IFN production and the induction of anti-viral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) are significantly attenuated. By contrast, ectopic RIG-I.MAVS or TNFalpha-induced canonical NF-kappaB activation is preserved in IKKgammaDelta expressing cells. Increasing relative levels of IKKgamma-WT to IKKgammaDelta (while keeping total IKKgamma constant) results in increased type I IFN expression. Conversely, overexpressing IKKgammaDelta (in a background of constant IKKgamma-WT expression) shows IKKgammaDelta functions as a dominant-negative IRF3 signaling inhibitor. IKKgammaDelta binds both IKK-alpha and beta, but not TANK and IKKepsilon, indicating that exon 5 encodes an essential TANK binding domain. Finally, IKKgammaDelta displaces IKKgammaWT from MAVS explaining its domainant negative effect.Relative endogenous IKKgammaDelta expression affects cellular selection of inflammatory/anti-viral pathway responses to ssRNA viral infection.
Project description:N-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propylpentanamide (HO-AAVPA) is a VPA derivative designed to be a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. HO-AAVPA has better antiproliferative effect than VPA in cancer cell lines. Therefore, in this work, the inhibitory effect of HO-AAVPA on HDAC1, HDAC6, and HDAC8 was determined by in silico and in vitro enzymatic assay. Furthermore, its antiproliferative effect on the cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) and the translocation of HMGB1 and ROS production were evaluated. The results showed that HO-AAVPA inhibits HDAC1, which could be related with HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm due to HDAC1 being involved in the deacetylation of HMGB1. Furthermore, an increase in ROS production was observed after the treatment with HO-AAVPA, which also could contribute to HMGB1 translocation. Therefore, the results suggest that one of the possible antiproliferative mechanisms of HO-AAVPA is by HDAC1 inhibition which entails HMGB1 translocation and ROS increased levels that could trigger the cell apoptosis.