The ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system regulates biofilm formation of Pseudomonas putida PCL1445 by controlling biosynthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides putisolvins I and II.
ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1445 produces two cyclic lipopeptides, putisolvin I and putisolvin II, which possess surface tension-reducing abilities and are able to inhibit biofilm formation and to break down existing biofilms of several Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeruginosa. Putisolvins are secreted in the culture medium during growth at late exponential phase, indicating that production is possibly regulated by quorum sensing. In the present study, we identified a quorum-sensing system in PCL1445 that is composed of ppuI, rsaL, and ppuR and shows very high similarity with gene clusters of P. putida strains IsoF and WCS358. Strains with mutations in ppuI and ppuR showed a severe reduction of putisolvin production. Expression analysis of the putisolvin biosynthetic gene in a ppuI background showed decreased expression, which could be complemented by the addition of synthetic 3-oxo-C(10)-N-acyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(10)-AHL) or 3-oxo-C(12)-AHL to the medium. An rsaL mutant overproduces AHLs, and production of putisolvins is induced early during growth. Analysis of biofilm formation on polyvinylchloride showed that ppuI and ppuR mutants produce a denser biofilm than PCL1445, which correlates with decreased production of putisolvins, whereas an rsaL mutant shows a delay in biofilm production, which correlates with early production of putisolvins. The results demonstrate that quorum-sensing signals induce the production of cyclic lipopeptides putisolvin I and II and consequently control biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida.
Project description:Quorum sensing is a cell population-density dependent regulatory system which in gram-negative bacteria often involves the production and detection of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Some Pseudomonas putida strains have been reported to produce AHLs, and one quorum-sensing locus has been identified. However, it appears that the majority of strains do not produce AHLs. In this study we report the identification and regulation of the AHL-dependent system of rhizosphere P. putida WCS358. This system is identical to the recently identified system of P. putida strain IsoF and very similar to the las system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is composed of three genes, the luxI family member ppuI, the putative repressor rsaL, and the luxR family member ppuR. A genomic ppuR::Tn5 mutant of strain WCS358 was identified by its inability to produce AHLs when it was cross-streaked in close proximity to an AHL biosensor, whereas an rsaL::Tn5 genomic mutant was identified by its ability to overproduce AHL molecules. Using transcriptional promoter fusions, we studied expression profiles of the rsaL, ppuI, and ppuR promoters in various genetic backgrounds. At the onset of the stationary phase, the autoinducer synthase ppuI gene expression is under positive regulation by PpuR-AHL and under negative regulation by RsaL, indicating that the molecules could be in competition for binding at the ppuI promoter. In genomic rsaL::Tn5 mutants ppuI expression and production of AHL levels increased dramatically; however, both processes were still under growth phase regulation, indicating that RsaL is not involved in repressing AHL production at low cell densities. The roles of the global response regulator GacA and the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS in the regulation of the AHL system at the onset of the stationary phase were also investigated. The P. putida WCS358 gacA gene was cloned and inactivated in the genome. It was determined that the three global regulatory systems are closely linked, with quorum sensing and RpoS regulating each other and GacA positively regulating ppuI expression. Studies of the regulation of AHL quorum-sensing systems have lagged behind other studies and are important for understanding how these systems are integrated into the overall growth phase and metabolic status of the cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In Pseudomonas putida and Pseduomonas aeruginosa, the similar PpuR/RsaL/PpuI and LasR/RsaL/LasI acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) quorum sensing (QS) systems have been shown to be under considerable regulation by other global regulators. A major regulator is the RsaL protein which strongly directly represses the transcription of the P. putida ppuI and P. aeruginosa lasI AHL synthases. In this study we screened a transposon mutant bank of P. putida in order to identify if any other regulators were involved in negative regulation of AHL QS. RESULTS: In our screen we identified three Tn5 mutants which displayed overproduction of AHLs in P. putida strain WCS358. Two of the mutants had a Tn5 located in the rsaL gene, whereas in one mutant the transposon was located in the lon protease gene. Lon proteases play important roles in protein quality control via degradation of misfolded proteins. It was determined that in the P. putida lon mutant, AHL levels, PpuR levels and ppuI promoter activity all increased significantly; we therefore postulated that PpuR is a target for Lon. The Lon protease had no effect on AHL production in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: The Lon protease is a negative regulator of AHL production in P. putida WCS358. The Lon protease has also been shown by others to influence AHL QS in Vibrio fischeri and Agrobacterium tumefaciens and can thus become an important regulator of AHL QS timing and regulation in bacteria.
Project description:Recent reports have shown that several strains of Pseudomonas putida produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). These signal molecules enable bacteria to coordinately express certain phenotypic traits in a density-dependent manner in a process referred to as quorum sensing. In this study we have cloned a genomic region of the plant growth-promoting P. putida strain IsoF that, when present in trans, provoked induction of a bioluminescent AHL reporter plasmid. Sequence analysis identified a gene cluster consisting of four genes: ppuI and ppuR, whose predicted amino acid sequences are highly similar to proteins of the LuxI-LuxR family, an open reading frame (ORF) located in the intergenic region between ppuI and ppuR with significant homology to rsaL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a gene, designated ppuA, present upstream of ppuR, the deduced amino acid sequence of which shows similarity to long-chain fatty acid coenzyme A ligases from various organisms. Using a transcriptional ppuA::luxAB fusion we demonstrate that expression of ppuA is AHL dependent. Furthermore, transcription of the AHL synthase ppuI is shown to be subject to quorum-sensing regulation, creating a positive feedback loop. Sequencing of the DNA regions flanking the ppu gene cluster indicated that the four genes form an island in the suhB-PA3819 intergenic region of the currently sequenced P. putida strain KT2440. Moreover, we provide evidence that the ppu genes are not present in other AHL-producing P. putida strains, indicating that this gene cluster is so far unique for strain IsoF. While the wild-type strain formed very homogenous biofilms, both a ppuI and a ppuA mutant formed structured biofilms with characteristic microcolonies and water-filled channels. These results suggest that the quorum-sensing system influences biofilm structural development.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Only a small number of Pseudomonas putida strains possess the typical N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing system (AHL QS) that consists of a modular LuxR family protein and its cognate LuxI homolog that produces the AHL signal. Moreover, AHL QS systems in P. putida strains are diverse in the type of AHLs they produce and the phenotypes that they regulate. RESULTS: We identified an unpaired LuxR solo (QS luxR homolog that occurs without the corresponding luxI homolog), which is highly conserved in both the AHL producing and non-AHL producing P. putida strains that we analyzed. In this study we report the cloning and functional characterization of this unpaired LuxR homolog designated PpoR. An AHL binding assay showed that PpoR protein binds to 3-oxo-C6-HSL. Studies using a ppoR promoter-lacZ reporter fusion revealed that it exhibits stringent growth phase dependent expression. Functional interaction of PpoR with the endogenous complete AHL QS systems of P. putida WCS358 (PpuI/R system) and PpoR was also investigated. Microarray analysis of P. putida WCS358 wild type and a PpoR over-expressing strain revealed several putative target genes that may be directly or indirectly regulated by PpoR. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PpoR in P. putida strains may have a conserved role in detecting an AHL signal, either self or foreign, and regulating specific target genes.
Project description:Pseudomonas putida PCL1445 produces two cyclic lipopeptides, putisolvins I and II, which possess surfactant activity and play an important role in biofilm formation and degradation. In order to identify genes and traits that are involved in the regulation of putisolvin production of PCL1445, a Tn5luxAB library was generated and mutants were selected for the lack of biosurfactant production using a drop-collapsing assay. Sequence analysis of the Tn5luxAB flanking region of one biosurfactant mutant, strain PCL1627, showed that the transposon had inserted in a dnaK homologue which is located downstream of grpE and upstream of dnaJ. Analysis of putisolvin production and expression studies indicate that dnaK, together with the dnaJ and grpE heat shock genes, takes part in the positive regulation (directly or indirectly) of putisolvin biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. Growth of PCL1445 at low temperature resulted in an increased level of putisolvins, and mutant analyses showed that this requires dnaK and dnaJ but not grpE. In addition, putisolvin biosynthesis of PCL1445 was found to be dependent on the GacA/GacS two-component signaling system. Expression analysis indicated that dnaK is positively regulated by GacA/GacS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) systems have been described in many plant-associated Gram-negative bacteria to control certain beneficial phenotypic traits, such as production of biocontrol factors and plant growth promotion. However, the role of AHL-mediated signalling in the endophytic strains of plant-associated Serratia is still poorly understood. An endophytic Serratia sp. G3 with biocontrol potential and high levels of AHL signal production was isolated from the stems of wheat and the role of QS in this isolate was determined. RESULTS: Strain G3 classified as Serratia plymuthica based on 16S rRNA was subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Using primers to conserved sequences of luxIR homologues from the Serratia genus, splIR and spsIR from the chromosome of strain G3 were cloned and sequenced. AHL profiles from strain G3 and Escherichia coli DH5? expressing splI or spsI from recombinant plasmids were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This revealed that the most abundant AHL signals produced by SplI in E. coli were N-3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), N-3-oxo-heptanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C7-HSL), N-3-hydroxy-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL), N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL), and N-heptanoyl homoserine lactone (C7-HSL); whereas SpsI was primarily responsible for the synthesis of N-butyrylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-pentanoylhomoserine lactone (C5-HSL). Furthermore, a quorum quenching analysis by heterologous expression of the Bacillus A24 AiiA lactonase in strain G3 enabled the identification of the AHL-regulated biocontrol-related traits. Depletion of AHLs with this lactonase resulted in altered adhesion and biofilm formation using a microtiter plate assay and flow cells coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy respectively. This was different from the closely related S. plymuthica strains HRO-C48 and RVH1, where biofilm formation for both strains is AHL-independent. In addition, QS in G3 positively regulated antifungal activity, production of exoenzymes, but negatively regulated production of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is in agreement with previous reports in strain HRO-C48. However, in contrast to HRO-C48, swimming motility was not controlled by AHL-mediated QS. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of the characterisation of two AHL-based quorum sensing systems in the same isolate of the genus Serratia. Our results show that the QS network is involved in the global regulation of biocontrol-related traits in the endophytic strain G3. However, although free-living and endophytic S. plymuthica share some conservation on QS phenotypic regulation, the control of motility and biofilm formation seems to be strain-specific and possible linked to the life-style of this organism.
Project description:Many bacteria produce and use extracellular signaling molecules such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) to communicate and coordinate behavior in a cell-density dependent manner, via a communication system called quorum sensing (QS). This system regulates behaviors including but not limited to virulence and biofilm formation. We focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a human opportunistic pathogen that is involved in acute and chronic lung infections and which disproportionately affects people with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa infections are becoming increasingly challenging to treat with the spread of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, QS disruption approaches, known as quorum quenching, are appealing due to their potential to control the virulence of resistant strains. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa is known to simultaneously utilize two main QS circuits, one based on C4-AHL, the other with 3-oxo-C12-AHL. Here, we evaluated the effects of signal disruption on 39 cystic fibrosis clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, including drug resistant strains. We used two enzymes capable of degrading AHLs, known as lactonases, with distinct substrate preference: one degrading 3-oxo-C12-AHL, the other degrading both C4-AHL and 3-oxo-C12-AHL. Two lactonases were used to determine the effects of signal disruption on the clinical isolates, and to evaluate the importance of the QS circuits by measuring effects on virulence factors (elastase, protease, and pyocyanin) and biofilm formation. Signal disruption results in at least one of these factors being inhibited for most isolates (92%). Virulence factor activity or production were inhibited by up to 100% and biofilm was inhibited by an average of 2.3 fold. Remarkably, the treatments led to distinct inhibition profiles of the isolates; the treatment with the lactonase degrading both signaling molecules resulted in a higher fraction of inhibited isolates (77% vs. 67%), and the simultaneous inhibition of more virulence factors per strain (2 vs. 1.5). This finding suggests that the lactonase AHL preference is key to its inhibitory spectrum and is an essential parameter to improve quorum quenching strategies.
Project description:The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system based on the exchange of small intercellular signal molecules, such as N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which act as cell-density mediators of QS gene expression, and are highly variable both in types and amounts in most Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Understanding the regulation of AHLs may contribute to the elucidation of cell density-dependent phenomena, such as biofilm formation. Vibrio alginolyticus is among the most frequently observed marine opportunistic Vibrio pathogens. However, AHL production of this species and its effects on biofilm formation remain to be understood. Here, our study reported the diverse AHL profiles of 47 marine-isolated V. alginolyticus strains and the effects of exogenous 3-oxo-C10-HSL on biofilm formation under different temperature conditions (16°C and 28°C). A total of 11 detected AHLs were produced by the isolates, of which 3-OH-C4-HSL, 3-oxo-C10-HSL and 3-oxo-C14-HSL comprised the largest proportions. We also observed that moderate levels of exogenous 3-oxo-C10-HSL (10 and 20 ?M) could induce or enhance biofilm formation and alter its structure, while high levels (40 and 100 ?M) did not significantly improve and even inhibited biofilm formation in V. alginolyticus. Further, regulation by exogenous 3-oxo-C10-HSL was both concentration- and temperature-dependent in V. alginolyticus.
Project description:In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the expression of a number of virulence factors, as well as biofilm formation, are controlled by quorum sensing (QS). N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are an important class of signaling molecules involved in bacterial QS and in many pathogenic bacteria infection and host colonization are AHL-dependent. The AHL signaling molecules are subject to inactivation mainly by hydrolases (Enzyme Commission class number EC 3) (i.e. N-acyl-homoserine lactonases and N-acyl-homoserine-lactone acylases). Only little is known on quorum quenching mechanisms of oxidoreductases (EC 1). Here we report on the identification and structural characterization of the first NADP-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) involved in inactivation of N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(12)-HSL) and derived from a metagenome library. The corresponding gene was isolated from a soil metagenome and designated bpiB09. Heterologous expression and crystallographic studies established BpiB09 as an NADP-dependent reductase. Although AHLs are probably not the native substrate of this metagenome-derived enzyme, its expression in P. aeruginosa PAO1 resulted in significantly reduced pyocyanin production, decreased motility, poor biofilm formation and absent paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, a genome-wide transcriptome study suggested that the level of lasI and rhlI transcription together with 36 well known QS regulated genes was significantly (?10-fold) affected in P. aeruginosa strains expressing the bpiB09 gene in pBBR1MCS-5. Thus AHL oxidoreductases could be considered as potent tools for the development of quorum quenching strategies.