Genetic polymorphisms in arginase I and II and childhood asthma and atopy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A recent microarray study implicated arginase I (ARG1) and arginase II (ARG2) in mouse allergic asthma models and human asthma. OBJECTIVES:To examine the association between genetic variation in ARG1 and ARG2 and childhood asthma and atopy risk. METHODS:We enrolled 433 case-parent triads, consisting of patients with asthma 4 to 17 years old and their biologic parents, from the allergy clinic of a public hospital in Mexico City between 1998 and 2003. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ARG1 and 4 SNPs of ARG2 with minor allele frequencies higher than 10% by using the TaqMan assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, Calif). RESULTS:ARG1 SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with asthma, but all 4 ARG1 SNPs were associated with the number of positive skin tests (P = .007-.018). Carrying 2 copies of minor alleles for either of 2 highly associated ARG2 SNPs was associated with a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR) of asthma (1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1 for arg2s1; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3 for arg2s2). The association was slightly stronger among children with a smoking parent (arg2s1 RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2 - 3.9 with a smoking parent; RR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 without; interaction P = .025). Haplotype analyses reduced the sample size but supported the single SNP results. One ARG2 SNP was related to the number of positive skin tests (P = .027). CONCLUSION:Variation in arginase genes may contribute to asthma and atopy in children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Arginases (encoded by ARG1 and ARG2 genes) might play an important role in asthma pathogenesis through effects on nitrosative stress. Arginase expression is upregulated in asthma and varies with T(H)2 cytokine levels and oxidative stress.<h4>Objective</h4>We aimed to examine whether variants in these genes are associated with asthma and whether atopy and exposures to smoking and air pollution influence the associations.<h4>Methods</h4>Among non-Hispanic and Hispanic white participants of the Children's Health Study (n = 2946), we characterized variation in each locus (including promoter region) with 6 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms for ARG1 and 10 for ARG2. Asthma was defined by parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma at study entry.<h4>Results</h4>Both ARG1 and ARG2 genetic loci were significantly associated with asthma (global locus level P = .02 and .04, respectively). Compared with the most common haplotype within each locus, 1 ARG1 haplotype was associated with reduced risk (odds ratio [OR] per haplotype copy, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84), and 1 ARG2 haplotype was associated with increased risk (OR per haplotype copy, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76) of asthma. The effect of the ARG1 haplotype that was significantly associated with asthma varied by the child's history of atopy and ambient ozone (P(interaction) = .04 and .02, respectively). Among atopic children living in high-ozone communities, those carrying the ARG1 haplotype had reduced asthma risk (OR per haplotype copy, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.43; P(heterogeneity) across atopy/ozone categories = .008).<h4>Conclusions</h4>ARG1 and ARG2 loci are associated with childhood asthma. The association between ARG1 variation and asthma might depend on atopy and ambient ozone levels.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) may influence asthma by modulating allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGFB1 in asthma remains inconclusive. We examined TGFB1 SNPs in relation to asthma risk and degree of atopy among 546 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics aged 4-17 years and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped five TGFB1 SNPs, including two known functional SNPs [C-509T (rs1800469), T869C (rs1982073)] and three others (rs7258445, rs1800472, rs8179181), using TaqMan and Masscode assays. We analyzed the data using log-linear and polytomous logistic methods. Three associated SNPs, including the two known functional SNPs, were statistically significantly related to asthma risk. Individuals carrying the T allele of C-509T had an increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR)=1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-1.87 for one copy; RR (95%CI)=1.95 (1.36-2.78) for two copies]. For T869C, the RRs (95%CI) were 1.47 (1.09-1.98) for one and 2.00 (1.38-2.90) for two copies of the C allele. Similar results were found for rs7258445. The haplotype containing all three risk alleles conferred an increased risk of asthma (RR=1.48, 95% CI=1.11-1.95 for one copy; RR=1.77, 95% CI=1.22-2.57 for two copies). These three SNPs were also related to the degree of atopy. This largest study to date of genetic variation in TGFB1 and asthma and atopy adds to increasing evidence for a role in these disorders.
Project description:Genetic variation in arginase (ARG) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been associated with exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels in children. Little is known about whether epigenetic variation in these genes modulates FeNO.To evaluate whether DNA methylation in ARG and NOS genes is associated with FeNO.A subset of 940 participants in the Children's Health Study were selected for this study. Children were eligible if they had FeNO measurements and buccal cells collected on the same day. CpG loci located in the promoter regions of NOS1, NOS2A, NOS3, ARG1, and ARG2 genes were analyzed. Multiple loci in each gene were evaluated individually and averaged together. DNA methylation was measured using a bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing assay. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between DNA methylation and FeNO and whether associations differed by asthma status.DNA methylation in ARG2 was significantly associated with FeNO. A 1% increase in average DNA methylation of ARG2 was associated with a 2.3% decrease in FeNO (95% confidence interval, -4 to -0.6). This association was significantly larger in children with asthma (%diff = -8.7%) than in children with no asthma (%diff = -1.6%; p(int) = 0.01). Differences in FeNO by asthma status were also observed for ARG1 (%diff(asthma) = -4.4%; %diff(non-asthma) = 0.3%; p(int) = 0.02). DNA methylation in NOS genes was not associated with FeNO.DNA methylation in ARG1 and ARG2 is associated with FeNO in children with asthma and suggests a possible role for epigenetic regulation of nitric oxide production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA, also called TNF-beta) have been associated with asthma and atopy in some studies. Parental smoking is a consistent risk factor for childhood asthma. Secondhand smoke and ozone both stimulate TNF production. OBJECTIVES:Our goal was to investigate whether genetic variation in TNF and LTA is associated with asthma and atopy and whether the association is modified by parental smoking in a Mexican population with high ozone exposure. METHODS:We genotyped six tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF and LTA, including functional variants, in 596 nuclear families consisting of asthmatics 4-17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests. RESULTS:The A allele of the TNF-308 SNP was associated with increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.28], especially among children of non-smoking parents (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.19-3.55; p for interaction = 0.09). Similarly, the A allele of the TNF-238 SNP was associated with increased asthma risk among children of nonsmoking parents (RR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.14-4.30; p for interaction = 0.01). LTA SNPs were not associated with asthma. Haplotype analyses reflected the single SNP findings in magnitude and direction. TNF and LTA SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that genetic variation in TNF may contribute to childhood asthma and that associations may be modified by parental smoking.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in North American men. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) accentuates the infiltration of immune cells within the prostate. However, the immunosuppressive pathways regulated by androgens in PCa are not well characterized. Arginase 2 (ARG2) expression by PCa cells leads to a reduced activation of tumor-specific T cells. Our hypothesis was that androgens could regulate the expression of ARG2 by PCa cells.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>In this report, we demonstrate that both ARG1 and ARG2 are expressed by hormone-sensitive (HS) and hormone-refractory (HR) PCa cell lines, with the LNCaP cells having the highest arginase activity. In prostate tissue samples, ARG2 was more expressed in normal and non-malignant prostatic tissues compared to tumor tissues. Following androgen stimulation of LNCaP cells with 10 nM R1881, both ARG1 and ARG2 were overexpressed. The regulation of arginase expression following androgen stimulation was dependent on the androgen receptor (AR), as a siRNA treatment targeting the AR inhibited both ARG1 and ARG2 overexpression. This observation was correlated in vivo in patients by immunohistochemistry. Patients treated by ADT prior to surgery had lower ARG2 expression in both non-malignant and malignant tissues. Furthermore, ARG1 and ARG2 were enzymatically active and their decreased expression by siRNA resulted in reduced overall arginase activity and l-arginine metabolism. The decreased ARG1 and ARG2 expression also translated with diminished LNCaP cells cell growth and increased PBMC activation following exposure to LNCaP cells conditioned media. Finally, we found that interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also upregulated following androgen stimulation and that it directly increased the expression of ARG1 and ARG2 in the absence of androgens.<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Our data provides the first detailed in vitro and in vivo account of an androgen-regulated immunosuppressive pathway in human PCa through the expression of ARG1, ARG2 and IL-8.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A genome-wide association study identified ORM1-like 3 (orosomucoid 1-like 3, ORMDL3) as an asthma candidate gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region including ORMDL3 on chromosome 17q21 were related to childhood asthma risk and ORMDL3 expression levels in Europeans. OBJECTIVE:We examined whether polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent gasdermin-like (GSDML) gene associated with asthma in the genome-wide association study are related to childhood asthma and atopy in a Mexico City population. METHODS:We genotyped rs4378650 in ORMDL3 and rs7216389 in GSDML in 615 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4-17 years and their parents. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens. RESULTS:Individuals carrying the C allele of rs4378650 or the T allele of rs7216389 had increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.53, P = 0.003 for one or two copies of rs4378650 C, and RR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.38, P = 0.009 for one or two copies of rs7216389 T). Linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs was high (r(2) = 0.92). Neither of the SNPs was associated with the degree of atopy. A meta-analysis of five published studies on rs7216389 in nine populations gave an odds ratio for asthma of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.35-1.54, P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Our results and the meta-analysis provide evidence to confirm the finding from a recent genome-wide association study that polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent GSDML may contribute to childhood asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>S-nitrosothiols are potent endogenous bronchodilators depleted in asthmatic airway lining fluid. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR; also known as alcohol dehydrogenase 5 or formaldehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and controls intracellular levels of S-nitrosothiols. GSNOR knockout mice have increased lung S-nitrosothiol levels and are therefore protected from airway hyperresponsiveness after methacholine or allergen challenge.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to investigate whether genetic variation in GSNOR is associated with childhood asthma and atopy.<h4>Methods</h4>We genotyped 5 tagging and 2 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSNOR in 532 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4 to 17 years and both parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by means of skin prick testing.<h4>Results</h4>Carrying 1 or 2 copies of the minor allele of SNP rs1,154,404 was associated with decreased risk of asthma (relative risk [RR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97; P = .028 for 1 copy and RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99; P = .046 for 2 copies). Homozygosity for the minor allele of SNP rs28,730,619 was associated with increased risk of asthma (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.13-2.26; P = .0077). Haplotype analyses supported the single SNP findings. GSNOR SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This is the first study of genetic polymorphisms in GSNOR and asthma. These data suggest that genetic variation in GSNOR might play a role in asthma susceptibility.<h4>Clinical implications</h4>The association of GSNOR polymorphisms with asthma suggests a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Background & objectives:High expression of arginase gene and its elevated level in serum and bronchial lavage reported in animal models indicated an association with the pathogenesis of asthma. This study was undertaken to assess the serum arginase activity in symptomatic asthma patients and healthy controls and to correlate it with cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13] and arginase I (ARG1) gene polymorphism. Methods:Asthma was confirmed by lung function test according to the GINA guidelines in patients attending Allergy and Pulmonology Clinic, Bhagwan Mahavir Hospital and Research Centre, Hyderabad, India, a tertiary care centre, during 2013-2015. Serum arginase was analyzed using a biochemical assay, total IgE and cytokine levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and genotyping of ARG1 for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2781666 and rs60389358 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results:There was a significant two-fold elevation in the arginase activity in asthmatics as compared to healthy controls which correlated with disease severity. Non-atopic asthmatics showed elevated activity of arginase compared to atopics, indicating its possible role in intrinsic asthma. Levels of serum IL-13 and IL-4 were significantly high in asthma group which correlated with disease severity that was assessed by spirometry. A positive correlation was observed between arginase activity and IL-13 concentration. Genetic analysis of ARG1 SNPs revealed that rs2781666 G/T genotype, T allele and C-T haplotype (rs60389358 and rs2781666) were associated with susceptibility to asthma. Interpretation & conclusions:This study indicated that high arginase activity and IL-13 concentration in the serum and ARG1 rs2781666 G/T genotype might increase the risk of asthma in susceptible population. Further studies need to be done with a large sample to confirm these findings.
Project description:As sufficient extracellular arginine is crucial for T cell function, depletion of extracellular arginine by elevated arginase 1 (Arg1) activity has emerged as a hallmark immunosuppressive mechanism. However, the potential cell-autonomous roles of arginases in T cells have remained unexplored. Here, we show that the arginase isoform expressed by T cells, the mitochondrial Arg2, is a cell-intrinsic regulator of CD8+ T cell activity. Both germline Arg2 deletion and adoptive transfer of Arg2-/- CD8+ T cells significantly reduced tumor growth in preclinical cancer models by enhancing CD8+ T cell activation, effector function, and persistence. Transcriptomic, proteomic, and high-dimensional flow cytometry characterization revealed a CD8+ T cell-intrinsic role of Arg2 in modulating T cell activation, antitumor cytoxicity, and memory formation, independently of extracellular arginine availability. Furthermore, specific deletion of Arg2 in CD8+ T cells strongly synergized with PD-1 blockade for the control of tumor growth and animal survival. These observations, coupled with the finding that pharmacologic arginase inhibition accelerates activation of ex vivo human T cells, unveil Arg2 as a potentially new therapeutic target for T cell-based cancer immunotherapies.
Project description:G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility (GPRA or GPR154) was identified as an asthma and atopy candidate gene by positional cloning. Some subsequent studies suggest associations of GPRA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes with asthma or atopy susceptibility. However, the associated SNPs or haplotypes vary among studies. The role of GPRA genetic variation in asthma and atopy remains unsolved. Published data on GRPA variants and asthma come exclusively from Caucasian and Asian populations. We examined whether GPRA SNPs and haplotypes are associated with asthma and atopy in a Mexican population. We genotyped and analyzed 27 GPRA SNPs in 589 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4-17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens. The 27 SNPs examined provided excellent coverage of the GPRA gene. GPRA SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with childhood asthma and the degree of atopy to aeroallergens in a Mexican population. Our review of studies of GPRA variants in relation to asthma phenotypes shows considerable heterogeneity. Accordingly, our results suggest that GPRA variants are not an important contributor to childhood asthma and atopy susceptibility in a Mexican population.