Cyclophilin A regulates HIV-1 infectivity, as demonstrated by gene targeting in human T cells.
ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds most members of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Of 15 known human cyclophilins, cyclophilin A (CypA) has been the focus of investigation because it was detected in HIV-1 virions. To determine whether CypA promotes HIV-1 replication, we deleted the gene encoding CypA (PPIA) in human CD4(+) T cells by homologous recombination. HIV-1 replication in PPIA(-/-) cells was decreased and not inhibited further by cyclosporin or gag mutations that disrupt Gag's interaction with cyclophilins, indicating that no other cyclophilin family members promote HIV-1 replication. The defective replication phenotype was specific for wild-type HIV-1 since HIV-2/SIV isolates, as well as HIV-1 bearing a gag mutation that confers cyclosporin resistance, replicated the same in PPIA(+/+) and PPIA(-/-) cells. Stable re-expression of CypA in PPIA(-/-) cells restored HIV-1 replication to an extent that correlated with steady-state levels of CypA. Finally, virions from PPIA(-/-) cells possessed no obvious biochemical abnormalities but were less infectious than virions from wild-type cells. These data formally demonstrate that CypA regulates the infectivity of HIV-1 virions.
Project description:Cyclophilin A acts as protein folding chaperones and intracellular transports in many cellular processes. Previous studies have shown that cyclophilin A can interact with HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) gag protein and enhance viral infectivity. Many cyclophilin A inhibitors such as cyclosporin A can inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, we report a structure-based identification of novel non-peptidic cyclophilin A inhibitors as anti-HIV lead compounds. Following a computer-aided virtual screening and subsequent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, 12 low molecular weight cyclophilin A ligands were selected for further evaluation of their in vitro inhibition of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of cyclophilin A and HIV-1 replication. Five of these compounds (FD5, FD8, FD9, FD10 and FD12) exhibited inhibition against both PPIase activity and HIV-1 infection. These active compounds will be used as leads for structure and activity relationship (SAR) and optimization studies in order to design more effective anti-HIV-1 therapeutics, and as probes for investigating the effect of cyclophilins on HIV-1 replication.
Project description:Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a member of cyclophilins, a family of the highly homologous peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases), which can bind to cyclosporin A (CsA). CypA plays critical roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, assembly, transportation, regulation of neuron growth, and HIV replication. The discovery of CypA inhibitor is now of a great special interest in the treatment of immunological disorders. In this study, a series of novel small molecular CypA inhibitors have been discovered by using structure-based virtual screening in conjunction with chemical synthesis and bioassay. The SPECS_1 database containing 85,000 small molecular compounds was searched by virtual screening against the crystal structure of human CypA. After SPR-based binding affinity assay, 15 compounds were found to show binding affinities to CypA at submicro-molar or micro-molar level (compounds 1-15). Seven compounds were selected as the starting point for the further structure modification in considering binding activity, synthesis difficulty, and structure similarity. We thus synthesized 40 new small molecular compounds (1-6, 15, 16a-q, 17a-d, and 18a-l), and four of which (compounds 16b, 16h, 16k, and 18g) showed high CypA PPIase inhibition activities with IC50s of 2.5-6.2 microM. Pharmacological assay indicated that these four compounds demonstrated somewhat inhibition activities against the proliferation of spleen cells.
Project description:The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef enhances virus infectivity by facilitating an early post-entry step of infection. Nef acts in the virus producer cell, leading to a beneficial modification to HIV-1 particles. Nef itself is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, where it is cleaved by the viral protease during virion maturation. To probe the role of virion-associated Nef in HIV-1 infection, we generated a fusion protein consisting of the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) linked to the amino terminus of Nef. The resulting CypA-Nef protein enhanced the infectivity of Nef-defective HIV-1 particles and was specifically incorporated into the virions via association with Gag during particle assembly. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CypA-Nef binding to Gag prevented incorporation of CypA-Nef into virions and inhibited infectivity enhancement. Our results indicate that infectivity enhancement by Nef requires its association with a component of the assembling HIV-1 particle.
Project description:Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 traverse nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but how they do this is unclear. The cytoplasmic NPC protein Nup358/RanBP2 was identified as an HIV-1 co-factor in previous studies. Here we report that HIV-1 capsid (CA) binds directly to the cyclophilin domain of Nup358/RanBP2. Fusion of the Nup358/RanBP2 cyclophilin (Cyp) domain to the tripartite motif of TRIM5 created a novel inhibitor of HIV-1 replication, consistent with an interaction in vivo. In contrast to CypA binding to HIV-1 CA, Nup358 binding is insensitive to inhibition with cyclosporine, allowing contributions from CypA and Nup358 to be distinguished. Inhibition of CypA reduced dependence on Nup358 and the nuclear basket protein Nup153, suggesting that CypA regulates the choice of the nuclear import machinery that is engaged by the virus. HIV-1 cyclophilin-binding mutants CA G89V and P90A favored integration in genomic regions with a higher density of transcription units and associated features than wild type virus. Integration preference of wild type virus in the presence of cyclosporine was similarly altered to regions of higher transcription density. In contrast, HIV-1 CA alterations in another patch on the capsid surface that render the virus less sensitive to Nup358 or TRN-SR2 depletion (CA N74D, N57A) resulted in integration in genomic regions sparse in transcription units. Both groups of CA mutants are impaired in replication in HeLa cells and human monocyte derived macrophages. Our findings link HIV-1 engagement of cyclophilins with both integration targeting and replication efficiency and provide insight into the conservation of viral cyclophilin recruitment.
Project description:Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a widely used immunosuppressant drug. Its immunosuppressive activity occurs through the inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin via formation of a ternary complex with cyclophilin A (CypA). CsA also inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. This has been thought to occur through calcineurin inhibition as well. However, CsA is also a potent inhibitor of cyclophilins, a class of prolyl isomerases. Because calcineurin inhibition requires binding, and therefore inhibition of CypA, the relative contributions of calcineurin and cyclophilin inhibition in antiangiogenesis have not been addressed. We have taken a chemical biology approach to explore this question by dissociating the two activities of CsA at the molecular level. We have identified a nonimmunosuppressive analog of CsA that does not inhibit calcineurin but maintains inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and in vivo angiogenesis. The same analog also maintains inhibition of all cyclophilin isoforms tested. We also show that a second, structurally distinct, cyclophilin inhibitor is sufficient to block endothelial cell proliferation. These results suggest that the inhibition of cyclophilins may play a larger role in the antiangiogenic activity of CsA than previously believed, and that cyclophilins may be potential antiangiogenic drug targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND: An understanding of host cell factors that affect viral replication contributes to elucidation of the mechanism for determination of viral tropism. Cyclophilin A (CypA), a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), is a host factor essential for efficient replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in human cells. However, the role of cyclophilins in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA), a PPIase inhibitor, on SIV replication. RESULTS: SIV replication in human CEM-SS T cells was not inhibited but rather enhanced by treatment with CsA, which inhibited HIV-1 replication. CsA treatment of target human cells enhanced an early step of SIV replication. CypA overexpression enhanced the early phase of HIV-1 but not SIV replication, while CypA knock-down resulted in suppression of HIV-1 but not SIV replication in CEM-SS cells, partially explaining different sensitivities of HIV-1 and SIV replication to CsA treatment. In contrast, CsA treatment inhibited SIV replication in macaque T cells; CsA treatment of either virus producer or target cells resulted in suppression of SIV replication. SIV infection was enhanced by CypA overexpression in macaque target cells. CONCLUSIONS: CsA treatment enhanced SIV replication in human T cells but abrogated SIV replication in macaque T cells, implying a host cell species-specific effect of CsA on SIV replication. Further analyses indicated a positive effect of CypA on SIV infection into macaque but not into human T cells. These results suggest possible contribution of CypA to the determination of SIV tropism.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds to cyclophilin A and incorporates this cellular peptidyl prolyl-isomerase into virions. Disruption of cyclophilin A incorporation, either by gag mutations or by cyclosporine A, inhibits virion infectivity, indicating that cyclophilin A plays an essential role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Using assays for packaging of cyclophilin A into virions and for viral replication sensitivity to cyclosporine A, as well as information gleaned from the alignment of Gag residues encoded by representative viral isolates, we demonstrate that of the five lineages of primate immunodeficiency viruses, only HIV-1 requires cyclophilin A for replication. Cloned viral isolates from clades A, B, and D of HIV-1 group M, as well as a phylogenetically related isolate from chimpanzee, all require cyclophilin A for replication. In contrast, the replication of two outlier (group O) HIV-1 isolates is unaffected by concentrations of cyclosporine A which disrupt cyclophilin A incorporation into virions, indicating that these viruses are capable of replicating independently of cyclophilin A. These studies identify the first phenotypic difference between HIV-1 group M and group O and are consistent with phylogenetic studies suggesting that the two HIV-1 groups were introduced into human populations via separate zoonotic transmission events.
Project description:Until recently, there were no effective drugs available blocking coronavirus (CoV) infection in humans and animals. We have shown before that CsA and FK506 inhibit coronavirus replication (Carbajo-Lozoya, J., Müller, M.A., Kallies, S., Thiel, V., Drosten, C., von Brunn, A. Replication of human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E is inhibited by the drug FK506. Virus Res. 2012; Pfefferle, S., Schöpf, J., Kögl, M., Friedel, C., Müller, M.A., Stellberger, T., von Dall'Armi, E., Herzog, P., Kallies, S., Niemeyer, D., Ditt, V., Kuri, T., Züst, R., Schwarz, F., Zimmer, R., Steffen, I., Weber, F., Thiel, V., Herrler, G., Thiel, H.-J., Schwegmann-Weßels, C., Pöhlmann, S., Haas, J., Drosten, C. and von Brunn, A. The SARS-Coronavirus-host interactome: identification of cyclophilins as target for pan-Coronavirus inhibitors. PLoS Pathog., 2011). Here we demonstrate that CsD Alisporivir, NIM811 as well as novel non-immunosuppressive derivatives of CsA and FK506 strongly inhibit the growth of human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 at low micromolar, non-cytotoxic concentrations in cell culture. We show by qPCR analysis that virus replication is diminished up to four orders of magnitude to background levels. Knockdown of the cellular Cyclophilin A (CypA/PPIA) gene in Caco-2 cells prevents replication of HCoV-NL63, suggesting that CypA is required for virus replication. Collectively, our results uncover Cyclophilin A as a host target for CoV infection and provide new strategies for urgently needed therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Previous research has shown that host Cyclophilin A (CyPA) can promote dendritic cell maturation and the subsequent innate immune response when incorporated into an HIV-1 Gag protein to circumvent the resistance of dendritic cells to HIV-1 infection. This led us to hypothesize that CyPA may improve HIV-1 Gag-specific vaccine immunogenicity via binding with Gag antigen. The adjuvant effect of CyPA was evaluated using a DNA vaccine with single or dual expression cassettes. Mouse studies indicated that CyPA specifically and markedly promoted HIV-1 Gag-specific cellular immunity but not an HIV-1 Env-specific cellular response. The Gag/CyPA dual expression cassettes stimulated a greater Gag-specific cellular immune response, than Gag immunization alone. Furthermore, CyPA induced a broad Gag-specific T cell response and strong cellular immunity that lasted up to 5 months. In addition, CyPA skewed to cellular rather than humoral immunity. To investigate the mechanisms of the adjuvant effect, site-directed mutagenesis in CyPA, including active site residues H54Q and F60A resulted in mutants that were co-expressed with Gag in dual cassettes. The immune response to this vaccine was analyzed in vivo. Interestingly, the wild type CyPA markedly increased Gag cellular immunity, but the H54Q and F60A mutants drastically reduced CyPA adjuvant activation. Therefore, we suggest that the adjuvant effect of CyPA was based on Gag-CyPA-specific interactions. Herein, we report that Cyclophilin A can augment HIV-1 Gag-specific cellular immunity as a genetic adjuvant in multiplex DNA immunization strategies, and that activity of this adjuvant is specific, broad, long-term, and based on Gag-CyPA interaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human cyclophilin A (CypA) encoded by peptidyl prolyl isomerase A gene (PPIA), enhances HIV-1 replication by aiding capsid uncoating. The association of genetic variation in the PPIA regulatory region with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, disease progression, and gene expression among black South Africans at risk for infection or infected with HIV-1 is unknown. METHODS:We genotyped 539 participants from 2 longitudinal study cohorts of black South Africans at high risk for infection or infected with HIV-1 for PPIA regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS:Minor allele (G) of SNP rs6850 (rs6850 G) significantly associated with higher viral loads (mean 4.85 versus 4.46 log copies/mL, P = 0.0006) and lower CD4 T-cell counts (mean 506 versus 557 cells/?L, P = 0.0256) during the acute phase of infection in the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 002 cohort. Consistently, rs6850 G significantly associated with higher viral loads (mean 4.49 versus 4.01 log copies/mL, P < 0.0001) and lower CD4 T-cell counts (mean 442 versus 494 cells/?L, P = 0.0002) during the early chronic phase of infection in the CAPRISA 002 cohort; rs6850 G further associated significantly with rapid CD4 T-cell decline in the CAPRISA 002 cohort (P = 0.0481) and Sinikithemba chronic infection cohort (P = 0.0156). Interestingly, rs6850 G significantly associated with elevated CypA mRNA levels in HIV-1-positive individuals (P = 0.0061). CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that rs6850 G enhances HIV-1 replication through upregulation of CypA expression following HIV-1 infection. The data support ongoing efforts to develop anti-HIV-1 drugs that block interaction of HIV-1 and cellular proteins.